Subject: Studies in the News 07-15 (April 5, 2007)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

April 1857 - "Los Angeles Water Works created under the direction of William Dryden.... In 1857, the Los Angeles City Council granted to Judge William G. Dryden the right to convey the water from his springs, located on low ground, ... over, under and through the streets, lanes, alleys and roads of the city, and distribute it for domestic purposes. Dryden raised the water by means of a pump propelled by a current wheel placed in the Zanja Madre into a reservoir, from whence it was distributed by pipes to the houses in the neighborhood. "  http://www.lanopalera.net/LAHistory/GuinnsPlaza.ht  

1857 - "In 1857, the Sisters of Charity, who founded the Los Angeles Infirmary, used a portion of the Aguilars adobe as the first hospital of the city. The Aguilars were a prominent ranchero family who lived in a spacious adobe on North Main Street. In 1866, José Cristóbal Aguilar was elected to his first term as Mayor.... In 1867 he was also elected to the office of City Zanjero (City Water Overseer) in charge of the municipal water resources and operation of the Zanja Madre and Zanja water system, which delivered water to the pueblo and surrounding farmlands."  http://www.cityprojectca.org/blog/archives/117  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Fiscal impact of mental health court
   Collaboration between corrections and mental health organizations
   SJPD more likely to use force against Blacks, Latinos
   Prison death rate
   Corrections workers' prison reform plan
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Cultural vitality in communities
   Quality of life in Los Angeles
   The sexualization of girls
ECONOMY
   Analysis of state economies
   Investment in low-income communities
   Cluster strategies and state economies
   Media facing "epochal" change
   Losing the edge in science and technology
EDUCATION
   Community colleges' performance
   Making community colleges more affordable
   School districts entitled to reimbursement for state mandates
EMPLOYMENT
   CA ratio of government employees to population is low
ENERGY
   Coal must bury CO2
   LNG facility may be risky
   Commission reports on LNG terminal
   Sales soar at green-tech companies
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   FDA offers guidelines to fresh food industry
   Investigation of E. coli in spinach
   California being warmed by urbanization
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Religious schools may use tax-free bonds
   States' pension shortfalls widen
   Many see bleak future for state
HEALTH
   Few minorities use hospice care
   Federal tax incentives for health insurance
   Health care "underinsurance" leaves many in debt
   Hospital-physician relations
HUMAN SERVICES
   Kinship care is good for kids
   National survey of homelessness
TRANSPORTATION
   Alternate financing for airports
STUDIES TO COME
   California prisons
   Oil adventures
   The Central Valley's future
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

MENTAL ILLNESS

Justice, Treatment, and Cost: An Evaluation of the Fiscal Impact of Allegheny County Mental Health Court. By M. Susan Ridgely and others, RAND. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2007.

["A mental health court (MHC) is a special docket of a criminal court designed to divert mentally ill offenders out of the criminal justice system and into the mental health treatment system while at the same time ensuring public safety. This report presents findings from a fiscal impact study of the Allegheny County Mental Health Court Program.... The results indicate that the MHC program is diverting mentally ill offenders into treatment. In the first year, decreased jail expenditures approximately offset increased costs of treatment. The findings also suggest that, over a longer time frame, the MHC program may result in a net savings to taxpayers."]

Report. 66 p.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR439.pdf

Summary. 6 p.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR439.sum.pdf

[Request #S71501]

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Increasing Collaboration between Corrections and Mental Health Organizations: Kansas Case Study. AND: Orange County [Florida] Case Study. By the Council of State Governments Justice Center and the National Institute of Corrections. (Criminal Justice Mental Health Consensus Project, New York, New York) February 2007.

[“In Kansas people with mental illnesses were 67 percent more likely than others to be reincarcerated within six months of their release. The Kansas case study describes how corrections and social and rehabilitation services collaborated to jointly fund a specialized transition planning program, improve data sharing between agencies, and develop and manage specialized mental health parole caseloads.... The Orange County case study describes the formation of a central receiving center for individuals with mental illnesses and/or substance use (disorders who would normally be taken to jail or local emergency rooms); specialized law enforcement response teams; a pre-trial services program; and a post-booking treatment diversion program.”]

Kansas Case Study. 16 p.
http://dev.consensusproject.org/downloads/kansas-case-study.pdf

Orange County Case Study. 20 p.
http://dev.consensusproject.org/downloads/orange-county-case-study.pdf

[Request #S71502]

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POLICE

Force Response Report, January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. By the San Jose Police Department. (The Department, San Jose, California) March 15, 2007. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.sjpd.org/Force%20Response%20Report%20%20Jan%2006%20-%20Dec%2006%20REVISED%203-5-07.pdf

[“San Jose police are more likely to use force against blacks and Latinos than against criminal suspects from other ethnic groups. Overall, the first-of-a-kind report says less than 5 percent of the 34,000 arrests last year involved officers using some kind of force - a definition that includes the use of hands and feet, pepper spray, batons, Tasers and guns. The statistics on arrested minorities drew sharp questions from civil rights groups, the independent police auditor and criminal justice experts.” San Jose Mercury News (March 21, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71503]

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PRISONERS

Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004. By Christopher Mumola, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Department, Washington, DC) January 2007. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/mcdsp04.pdf

[“State prison inmates have a 19 percent lower death rate than the U.S. population. In addition, the mortality rate was 57 percent lower for black inmates than the national mortality rate. Cancer and heart disease were the two leading causes of death for all inmates.“ Tri-Valley Herald (January 26, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71504]

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PRISONS

CDCR Reforms for Safer Communities. By SEIU Local 1000. (SEIU, Sacramento, California) March 2007. 40 p.

Full Text at: seiu1000.org/docUploads/Corrections%20Reform%20Recommendations%20and%20Appendicies.pdf

[“California's second largest correctional workers union issued a report criticizing Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's $10.9 billion prison and jail construction plan, saying the administration is going too heavy on new buildings while falling short on new rehabilitation programs. The union offered a counterstrategy that focuses more on academic and vocational programs for inmates and parolees, as well as changes in the state's parole and sentencing structure.” Sacramento Bee (March 8, 2007) A4.]

[Request #S71505]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

CULTURAL POLICY

Cultural Vitality in Communities: Interpretation and Indicators. By Maria Rosario Jackson and others, the Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) December 2006. 104 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311392_Cultural_Vitality.pdf

["This report introduces a definition of cultural vitality that includes the range of cultural activity people around the country find significant. We use this definition as a lens to clarify our understanding of data necessary, as well as the more limited data currently available, to document arts and culture in communities in a consistent, recurrent and reliable manner. We develop and recommend an initial set of arts and culture indicators derived from nationally available data, and compare selected metropolitan areas based on these measures. Policy and planning implications for use of the cultural vitality definition and related measures are discussed."]

[Request #S71506]

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LOS ANGELES

Quality of Life in Los Angeles County, 2007: State of the County Report . By United Way of Greater Los Angeles. (United Way, Los Angeles, California) March 2007. 152 p.

Full Text at: www.unitedwayla.org/getinformed/rr/socialreports/Documents/2007%20LA%20Quality%20of%20Life%20Full%20Report%20Complete.pdf

["The benchmark study is the first for the region and compared local, state and national indicators in education, the economy, health and public safety over the past five years. With a score of 10 signifying a good quality of life, Los Angeles County got a rating of just 7.32. California overall scored 8.08. 'Although a region of great wealth and roughly one-third of the population of California, Los Angeles County is behind the state in every part of the index,' the report said." Los Angeles Daily News (March 21, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71507]

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WOMEN

Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. By the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls.(The Association, Washington, DC) 2007. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualizationrep.pdf

[“From advertisements to magazine covers, the image of the promiscuous girl is being celebrated. In the report, six female psychologists and educators argue that these images are damaging to girls' self-image and mental health, teaching them to objectify themselves. The report links sexualization with three of the most common mental health problems of girls and women: eating disorders, low self-esteem and depression. Some of the negative consequences include: constant comparison between one's own body and cultural standards, leading to feelings of inadequacy and shame; and a tendency to focus more on a partner's judgments of one's appearance than on one's own desires, safety and pleasure.” Sacramento Bee (March 1, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71508]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The 2007 State New Economy Index: Benchmarking Economic Transformation in the States. By Robert D. Atkinson and Daniel K. Correa, The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) February 2007. 92 p.

Full Text at: www.kauffman.org/pdf/2007_State_Index.pdf

["The 2007 State New Economy Index is a state-by-state analysis of how state economies are transforming from an old industrial economic model based on 'smokestack chasing' in which economic development success is measured by the number of big company relocations rather than in the creation and retention of high value-added, high-wage jobs."]

[Request #S71509]

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Tax Policy: New Markets Tax Credit Appears to Increase Investment by Investors in Low-Income Communities, but Opportunities Exist to Better Monitor Compliance. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-07-296. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2007. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d07296.pdf

["The results of GAO’s survey and statistical analysis indicate that the New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) may be increasing investment in low-income communities by participating investors. Investors indicated that they have increased their investment budgets in low-income communities as a result of the credit, and GAO’s analysis indicates that businesses may be shifting investment funds from other types of assets to invest in the NMTC, while individual investors may be using at least some new funds to invest in the NMTC."]

[Request #S71510]

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Cluster-Based Strategies for Growing State Economies. By the National Governors Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) February 24, 2007. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/Files/pdf/0702INNOVATIONCLUSTERS.PDF

["A cluster is a group of firms, related economic actors, and institutions that are located near one another and that draw productive advantage from their mutual proximity and connections.... Cluster strategies have the potential to accelerate regional economic growth, but only if they are properly understood and applied. This Governor’s Guide examines the changing economic environment in which clusters function, summarizes the lessons learned from recent experience, and offers practical recommendations for cluster initiatives that governors can take to strengthen their states’ economies."]

[Request #S71511]

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MEDIA INDUSTRY

The State of the News Media 2007: An Annual Report on American Journalism. By the Project for Excellence in Journalism. (The Project, Washington, DC) March 2007.

[“The journalism business is entering a new phase in 2007 -- one of 'more limited ambition,' according to an annual pulse-taking. In nearly every sector except ethnic news, audiences are splintering off to many other media options. The transformation facing journalism is 'epochal,' the report said, ‘as momentous as the invention of television or the telegraph, perhaps on the order of the printing press itself. No clear models of how to do journalism online really exist yet, and some qualities are still only marginally explored.’” San Francisco Chronicle (March 12, 2007) 1.]

Report. Various pagings.
http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2007/

Summary. 38 p.
http://www.journalism.org/summary.pdf

[Request #S71512]

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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

We are Still Losing the Competitive Advantage: Now is the Time to Act. By Matthew F. Kazmierczak and Josh James, American Electronics Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) March 2007. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.aeanet.org/Publications/AeA_Competitiveness_2007.asp

["Two years ago, AeA released a report that focused on the analysis of a growing problem: that although the United States still led the world in science, technology, and innovation, it was at risk of squandering this preeminence as countries across the globe became more competitive and as we ignored the factors that got us here in the first place. We now release a new and expanded edition of that report, shifting emphasis more towards recommendations for action, with updated data and analysis providing the context. Over the last two years so much has changed. But on the other hand, unfortunately, so little has changed.]

[Request #S71513]

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EDUCATION

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Focusing On Results: Accountability Reporting for the California Community Colleges. A Report to the Legislature, Pursuant to AB 1417. By the California Community Colleges Systems Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) March 19, 2007. 767 p.

Full Text at: www.cccco.edu/divisions/tris/rp/ab_1417/ARCC_Report_2007.pdf

[“California community college students who earned degrees or vocational certificates increased their income by more than 85 percent within three years.... Key findings in the new report include: more than 45 percent of graduates from the University of California and California State University systems transferred from a community college; and more than 70 percent of all California's college students attend a community college, including more than one-third of the state's 18- and 19-year-olds.” Sacramento Bee (March 20, 2007) A4.]

[Request #S71514]

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California Community Colleges: Making Them Stronger and More Affordable. By William Zumeta and Deborah Frankle, National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (The Center, San Jose, California) March 2007. 88 p.

Full Text at: www.highereducation.org/reports/calcc/calcc.pdf

["College affordability in the state is threatened by the rising costs of housing, food, health care, child care, transportation, textbooks, and supplies. Tuition now accounts for only 5 percent of the costs of most community-college students in the state. To help students cope with living costs, policy makers should focus on increasing state grants for nontuition expenses rather than keeping tuition abnormally low." Chronicle of Higher Education (March 7, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71515]

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EDUCATION FINANCE

California School Boards Association, et al., v. State of California, et al. Sacramento County Superior Court. 06CS01335. March 13, 2007. 9 p.

[“School districts and local governments are entitled to be repaid for the cost of running programs the state Legislature requires them to operate. The judge said the state cannot avoid paying for the oversight of state-mandated programs by declaring them as necessary to implement a voter-approved ballot measure. School districts said the legislation, which was attached to a budget trailer bill, could cost them as much as $300 million in administration costs for functions such as overseeing charter schools or compiling annual school accountability reports.” Associated Press (March 19, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71516]

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EMPLOYMENT

PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

State and Local Government Employees: Where Does California Rank? By the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. (The Center, Palo Alto, California) March 2007. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ccsce.com/pdf/Numbers-mar07-govt-employees.pdf

[“A Silicon Valley think tank has issued a report, that shows that in 2006 California continued to have the 3rd lowest number of state employees per population of any state. Among the major findings: California had 105 state employees for every 10,000 residents, the U.S. average was 142 state employees; and when state and local government employees (including education) are added together, California has the 6th lowest ratio of employees to population.” California Progress Report (March 9, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71517]

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ENERGY

COAL

The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World. By John Deutch and others, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (The Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts) March 2007.

["The US government should help fund up to five demonstration projects that entomb emissions of the main gas scientists link to global warming.... It said the sequestration projects would cost less than US$1 billion total.... There are about 150 coal plants planned in the United States but not one of them would be able to capture and bury CO2. The United States, which has enormous reserves of cheap coal and gets 50 percent of its power from the fuel, has not agreed to regulate emissions of heat-trapping gases -- unlike all other developed countries save Australia." Reuters (March 15, 2007) 1.]

Study. 192 p.
http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf

Summary Report. 21 p.
http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal_Summary_Report.pdf

[Request #S71518]

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LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS

Cabrillo Port Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port. Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report, Volume I, Executive Summary. By the U.S. Coast Guard, the Maritime Administration, and the California State Lands Commission. (The Cabrillo Port, Ventura County, California) 2007. 106 p.

Full Text at: www.cabrilloport.ene.com/final/Volume%20I/04_Executive%20Summary.pdf

[“A study released on a natural gas processing plant that would be built in the ocean about 20 miles from Malibu concludes that the project poses substantial environmental and safety concerns for the California coast. The terminal would significantly affect air quality, ocean views and marine life. An accident could affect ships heading to or departing from the nation's busiest port complex, at Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors. The terminal and its ships would emit about 219 tons of ozone-forming emissions and 35 tons of smoke and soot daily -- ranking it as one of the biggest air pollution sources for Ventura County.” Los Angeles Times (March 10, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71519]

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Staff Report and Recommendation: Consistency Certification: Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal. By the Staff of the California Coastal Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco, California) February 2007. AND: Consider Certification of a Final EIR and the Issuance of A General Lease - Right of Way: Construction, Operation, Use and Maintenance of Two 24-inch Diameter Pipelines for the Transport of Natural Gas. By the Staff of the California State Lands Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) 2007.

["One California regulatory agency advocates approval of an $800-million liquefied natural gas terminal off the Ventura County coast, and another says that the project would be harmful to the coastal environment.... It is a duality that has dogged the Australian energy company for four years as it has sought to build the first gas-processing plant on the West Coast. The outcome of the project could be decided in the next 10 days in a series of public hearings.... All the regulatory bodies must approve the project before it can be built at a site 14 miles offshore, roughly midway between Port Hueneme and Malibu." Los Angeles Times (April 3, 2007) 1.]

Coastal Commission report. 186 p.
http://documents.coastal.ca.gov/reports/2007/4/Th7a-4-2007.pdf

State Lands Commission report. 61 p.
http://www.slc.ca.gov/Meeting_Summaries/LNG/ITEMS_AND_EXHIBITS/O2.pdf

[Request #S71520]

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

Clean Energy Trends 2007. By Joel Makower and others, Clean Edge. (Clean Edge, Portland, Oregon) March 2007. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.cleanedge.com/reports/Trends2007.pdf

[“Businesses that specialize in renewable energy saw their revenue grow at a torrid pace of nearly 39 percent in 2006 to $55.4 billion worldwide. The report also predicted that the global market for renewable-energy products could climb to $226.5 billion by 2016 as the world turns to biofuels, solar cells and wind turbines to supply more of its power.... The report counted $2.4 billion in venture capital flowing to U.S. alternative energy companies last year.” San Francisco Chronicle (March 7, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71522]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT

Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables. By the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (The Center, College Park, Maryland) March 2007. 41 p

Full Text at: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodgui3.html

[“New, nonbinding guidelines to food processors try to reduce the risk of food poisoning in fresh-cut produce like bagged spinach leaves, sliced tomatoes and imported melons, but the FDA acknowledged that it could not say with certainty what caused the recent outbreaks connected to E. coli and salmonella, or how to stop them. The FDA is suggesting that the fresh-cut produce industry constantly monitor and control vulnerable places in the production cycle where the bacteria are likely to form. The guidelines also call for record keeping for recalls and covers personal health and hygiene of workers and sanitation operations.” New York Times (March 13, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71523]

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Investigation of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with Consumption of Dole Brand Pre-packaged Baby Spinach: Redacted. By the California Food Emergency Response Team. AND: Recommendations in Follow Up to the Investigation of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with Dole Pre-Packaged Spinach. By the California Department of Health Services. (The Department, Sacramento, California) March 2007.

["The report confirmed suspicions that genetic matches of the outbreak strain of E. coli 0157:H7 were found in samples of water and animal feces taken from as close as one mile from a spinach field on land owned by Paicines Ranch in San Benito County.... The investigation did not determine how the E. coli made contact with the spinach. 'We found a number of areas that could have contributed to the contamination,' said Kevin Reilly, deputy director of prevention services for the Department of Health Services. But without a smoking-gun link, Reilly said, it's not possible even to say that the Paicines Ranch field was the source of the outbreak." Sacramento Bee (March 24, 2007) A3.]

Report. 50 p.
http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/fdb/local/PDF/2006%20Spinach%20Report%20Final%20redacted%20no%20photosfigures.PDF

Recommendations. 2 p.
http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/fdb/local/PDF/Spinach%20Recommendations%203-2007.pdf

[Request #S71524]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

"Recent California Climate Variability: Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Temperature Trends." By Steve LaDouchy and others. IN: Climate Research, vol. 33, no. 2 (February 2007) pp. 159-169.

["Average temperatures across California rose slightly from 1950 to 2000, with the greatest warming coming in the state's big cities and mostly caused by urbanization -- not greenhouse gases -- authors of a study said. "Everybody's talking about the carbon coming out of the SUV exhaust or the coal plant, but in the past 50 years in California the bigger impact has been urbanization and suburbanization," said one of the study's authors. 'This warming has already had a huge impact on the state of California. It's changed the way we do agriculture; it's changed the energy and water demands; and it's changed the number of days we've had frost or extreme heat.'" Reuters (March 30, 2007) 1.]

Article. 1 p.
http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v33/n2/p159-169/

Press release. 1 p.
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2007-035

[Request #S71525]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

BONDS

California Statewide Communities Development Authority, et al. v. All Persons Interested in the Matter of the Validity of a Purchase Agreement. California Supreme Court. S124195. March 5, 2007. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S124195.PDF

[“A government agency may issue tax-exempt government bonds to help religious schools pay for improvements, even if the schools are ‘pervasively sectarian.’ The court majority said judges who consider the constitutionality of such borrowing should focus on the ‘substance of the education provided’ and not merely on the schools' ‘religious character.’ The bonds can be used only to build facilities where secular subjects will be taught in a way that is similar to teaching in nonreligious schools. The ruling opens the door for private religious schools to save millions of dollars in building new facilities. Until this ruling, financing was not provided to California schools that used religion to determine enrollment and faculty and required all students to participate in religious activities.” Los Angeles Times (March 6, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71526]

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PENSION FUNDS

Improved U.S. Pension Funding Levels Could Be on the Horizon. By Parry Young, Standard & Poor’s. (Standard & Poor’s, New York, New York) February 27, 2007. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.nasra.org/resources/S&Pstatefundinglevels0702.pdf

[“State governments' unfunded pension liabilities continue to increase despite a recent rise in tax receipts, in a continuation of a spiral that began in the late 1990s. The report says states collectively had about $330 billion in unfunded pension obligations in fiscal 2005, the last period for which complete data are available. Pension shortfalls have been building and could increase borrowing costs for some states, but the ratings firm said it expects the ratio to improve slightly in the next few years as states begin recording improved investment gains in fiscal 2006 and perhaps 2007. Better investment gains mean states can make smaller cash contributions to pension funds, which frees up money for other government obligations.” Wall Street Journal (February 28, 2007) A2.]

[Request #S71527]

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PUBLIC OPINION

PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and Their Government. By Mark Baldassare and others, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) March 2007. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/survey/S_307MBS.pdf

[“Californians see tougher economic times ahead and are losing confidence in the ability of their political leaders to deal with the state and nation's growing problems, according to a poll. The poll found that half of all adults and nearly as many likely voters now believe bad economic times are ahead for California in the next year, up from 39 percent just two months ago. The overall direction of the state is also a growing concern, with 47 percent of Californians now convinced the state is moving in the wrong direction, up from 37 percent in January.” San Francisco Chronicle (March 29, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71528]

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HEALTH

DYING

Racial, Cultural and Ethnic Factors Affecting the Quality of End-of-Life Care in California: Findings and Recommendations. By LaVera Crawley, Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics, and Marjorie Kagawa Singer, UCLA School of Public Health and Asian American Studies Center. (California Healthcare Foundation, Oakland, California) March 2007.

[“Far fewer Asian Americans, African Americans and Latinos than whites use hospice care for terminal illnesses. Whites made up 74% of hospice deaths; Latinos, 15%; African Americans, 6%; and Asian Americans, 4%. Cultural and individual preferences influence the decision to give up high-tech interventions and potentially life-saving technologies. Talking about death is uncomfortable to many and is taboo in some cultures. Recommendations include improving bereavement services in emergency rooms and adding courses on ethnic and cultural aspects of pain management to medical education to better treat minorities.” Los Angeles Times (March 16, 2007) 1.]

Study. 53 p.
http://www.chcf.org/documents/chronicdisease/CulturalFactorsEOL.pdf

Supplementary Materials. 24 p.
http://www.chcf.org/documents/chronicdisease/CulturalFactorsEOLSupplement.pdf

[Request #S71530]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Federal Tax Incentives for Health Insurance. By Allegra N. Kim, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB-07-002. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) March 2007. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/07/02/07-002.pdf

["The federal government encourages health insurance coverage mainly through incentives in the Internal Revenue Code. These federal tax incentives for individuals and employers have played an important role in determining who has health insurance and characteristics of that insurance. As policymakers seek to reduce the number of uninsured, it is necessary to understand federal tax incentives and their effects on health insurance coverage. This report briefly describes federal tax incentives for health insurance and their combined implications for costs and coverage."]

[Request #S71531]

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INSURANCE

The Illusion of Coverage: How Health Insurance Fails People When They Get Sick. By Carol Pryor, The Access Project, and others. (The Project, Boston, Massachusetts) March 2007. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.accessproject.org/adobe/the_illusion_of_coverage.pdf

[“An increasing number of Americans are finding themselves deep in debt because their health insurance didn't fully cover their care. They find themselves in such a predicament because they didn't understand complex cost-sharing arrangements, whether specific services were covered or how to navigate billing systems. [The report] identifies several factors that contribute to medical debt, including annual or lifetime caps for coverage, and confusion over which doctors and hospitals are included in the insurer's provider network. These problems caused people to delay or forgo care, take on loans and debt, and experience increased stress.” San Francisco Chronicle (March 23, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S71532]

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PHYSICIANS

Hospital-Physician Relations: Cooperation, Competition or Separation? By Robert A. Berenson, and others. IN: Health Affairs. vol. 26, no. 1 (2007) pp. 31-43.

Full Text at: content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/26/1/w31

[“Because many services performed in hospitals can safely and conveniently be performed in ambulatory settings, physicians have become owners of entities directly competing with hospitals for patients in a new medical arms race. Although there are increasing expectations that health system challenges will lead hospitals and physicians to collaborate, in many markets the willingness and ability for hospitals and physicians to work together is actually eroding.”]

[Request #S71533]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Is Kinship Care Good for Kids? By Tiffany Conway and Rutledge Q. Hutson, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2007. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/is_kinship_care_good.pdf

["More than 2.5 million children are being raised by grandparents and other relatives because their parents are unable -— for a variety of reasons -— to care for them. A number of states have utilized subsidized guardianship programs as a way of supporting such families, often called 'kinship families'.... There is considerable evidence of the value of subsidized guardianship programs. Still, some wonder whether kinship care is a good thing -— and how we know this. This fact sheet addresses these often unasked but crucial questions.... Research tells us that many children who cannot live with their parents benefit from living with grandparents and other family members."]

[Request #S71534]

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HOMELESS

Hunger and Homelessness Survey: 2006: A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities. By the U.S. Conference of Mayors. (The Conference, Washington, DC) December 2006. 97 p.

Full Text at: usmayors.org/uscm/hungersurvey/2006/report06.pdf

["The survey sought information and estimates from 23 cities on 1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; 2) the causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the populations experiencing these problems; 3) exemplary programs or efforts in the cities to respond to hunger and homelessness; 4) the availability of affordable housing for low income people; and 5) the outlook for the future and the impact of the economy on hunger and homelessness."]

[Request #S71535]

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TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports: A Synthesis of Airport Practice. By Cindy Nichol, Jacobs Consultancy. Prepared for the Airport Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board. (The Board, Washington, DC) 2007. 51 p.

Full Text at: onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_001.pdf

["Airport capital needs are estimated to exceed $70 billion in 2009, or approximately $14.3 billion per year. Although the Airport Improvement Program administered by FAA is at historically high levels, it totaled just over $3.5 billion in 2006, leaving a gap of $10.8 billion to be funded with local sources. With costs of construction increasing, airlines filing for bankruptcy, and periodic economic downturns affecting the industry, airport operators find themselves continually looking for additional revenue sources to fund capital projects and sustain operations."]

[Request #S71537]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

PRISONS

Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis and Opposition in Globalizing California. By Ruth Wilson Gilmore. (University of California Press, Berkeley, California) 2007. 412 p.

Full Text at: www.akpress.org/2006/items/goldengulag

["Detailing crises that hit California's economy with particular ferocity, the author argues that defeats of radical struggles, weakening of labor, and shifting patterns of capital investment have been key conditions for prison growth. The results -- a vast and expensive prison system, a huge number of incarcerated young people of color, and the increase in punitive justice such as the 'three strikes' law -- pose profound and troubling questions for the future of California, the United States, and the world." Publishers announcement] NOTE: Golden Gulag will be available for a three day loan.

[Request #S71538]

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ENERGY

PETROLEUM

Oil on the Brain: Adventures from the Pump to the Pipeline. By Lisa Margonelli. (Random House, New York, New York) 2007. 336 p.

["The specialized knowledge of those who deal with oil is mainly what Margonelli sets out to channel in these pages. She traces the chain backward, from a San Francisco gas station near her home to the trucks of a jobber, or oil wholesaler, to a refinery south of Los Angeles, and then to a drilling rig in East Texas.... Margonelli has a facility with numbers and an easy way with questions of policy, and the narrative passages here, lightly first-person and often funny, help make accessible the facts of our dependence on oil." New York Times (March 11, 2007) 1.] Note: Oil on the Brain will be available for a three day loan.

[Request #S71536]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CALIFORNIA

Our Valley, Our Choice: Building a Livable Future for the San Joaquin Valley. By the Great Valley Center. (The Center, Modesto, California) 2007. 112 p.

Full Text at: www.greatvalley.org/purchase_book.aspx

["With the world's richest agricultural land and an increasingly diverse and rapidly expanding population, California's San Joaquin Valley is undergoing dramatic changes. Will these changes lead inevitably to environmental degradation and social alienation? Our Valley, Our Choice presents another possibility -- that out of the fertile soil and social wealth of the Valley, we can forge a culturally and ecologically sustainable and fulfilling world." Publishers announcement] NOTE: Our Valley, Our Choice will be available for a three day loan.

[Request #S71539]

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