Subject: Studies in the News 06-49 (December 1, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1856 - "Faced with the San Francisco cholera epidemic, the state legislature devolved the responsibility for caring for the indigent sick to the counties, setting the precedent for California's system of county hospitals for the poor.... The serious cholera epidemic broke out after a ship bearing refugees from an ongoing cholera epidemic in the far east docked in San Francisco in 1855.... Ephraim Willard Burr, a businessman who served as mayor of San Francisco from 1856 to 1859, had previously petitioned the Common Council (of San Francisco) to curb open-stream pollution caused by local slaugherhouses. Burr stated that the pollution caused cholera to enter the streams, causing deaths -- including that of his son. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_San_Francisco,_California"    

1856 - "San Francisco Mayor Ephraim Willard Burr took office on November 15, 1856. As a young man, he worked for a whaling company which sent him west. After losing his crew while docked in San Francisco -- many sailors were lured away by the prospect of finding gold during the Gold Rush -- Burr stayed put and opened a grocery store. The venture proved so successful that he opened California's first savings union, the San Francisco Accumulating Fund Association.... Burr entered office under a new city charter that significantly weakened his powers; however, this did not stop him from cutting city spending (including spending from the formerly separate county government). Nor did this loss of authority stop Burr from reforming the office of city treasurer (he changed the salary from a percentage of the city receipts to a fixed wage to stop grafting). He also proposed a plan to make the city Board of Supervisors overlords of the city debt, and to make the city attorney the overseer of the city's legal matters, which were previously handled by outside attornies. Heintz, William F., San Francisco's Mayors: 1850-1880. From the Gold Rush to the Silver Bonanza "  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephraim_Willard_Burr  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Execution team called incompetent
   Limit use of jailhouse informants
   Connecting juvenile justice and workforce systems
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Massive scale of RFID data sharing
   Future of the internet
ECONOMY
   Bay Area and China's economic ties
   California economic growth
   Government intervention in the market
   Middle-class net worth increases
EDUCATION
   Community college retention
   Predictors of student success at UC
   Rapid growth in hispanic enrollment
   Reforming teacher education
EMPLOYMENT
   Day laborers win discrimination case
ENERGY
   Coal-fired power plants return
   Renewable path to energy security
   San Diego's smart electric grid
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   The cost of freight transport
   Air pollution from film industry
   Economics of climate change
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   California budget will come up short
   Trends in financing infrastructure
   Who votes, who doesn't and why
   Youth survey on politics
HEALTH
   Health care access for Hispanic immigrants
   Creative health coverage expansions
   One in five Californians uninsured
   Covering California's uninsured
   California's uninsured work for small employers
HUMAN SERVICES
   Faults with federal housing programs
   Homeless plan for Alameda County
   Importing poverty
   Welfare reform and state expenditure patterns
TRANSPORTATION
   Highway safety plan
   Need for increased port security
STUDIES TO COME
   Vulnerabilities in the global economy
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Michael Angelo Morales v. James Tilton, Acting Secretary of the California Department of Corrections, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. C-06-0219, C-06-926. Plaintiffs Brief. November 28, 2006. 274 p.

["California's procedures for executing prisoners by lethal injection fall short of standards set by the veterinary profession for animal euthanasia and were formulated with less care than methods in China, the world leader in capital punishment, according to a brief by attorneys for a death row inmate.... One of the key arguments in the Morales case is that the anesthetic had not been properly administered, with the result that the inmate experiences excruciating pain but cannot express it because he is paralyzed.... [The judge] asked the lawyers how the procedure could be improved. But Morales' lawyers said that they were ethically constrained in their answers, saying they could not 'be put in the position of designing for the state its execution procedure.'" Los Angeles Times (November 29, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64901]

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EVIDENCE

Report and Recommendations Regarding Informant Testimony. By the California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice. (The Commission, Santa Clara, California) November 2006. 9 p.

["The state Legislature should limit the use of testimony by jailhouse informants in criminal trials, according to the latest report issued by a blue ribbon commission examining problems of wrongful convictions in California.... Jailhouse informants have been implicated in a number of wrongful convictions, including 46% of those reviewed in a study by professors at Northwestern University Law School, the report noted. Critics say it is all too easy for informants to gather information about their fellow inmates' charges and fabricate testimony to persuade prosecutors to offer them leniency on their cases." Los Angeles Times (November 22, 2006) 1.]

Commission Report. 9 p.
http://www.ccfaj.org/documents/reports/jailhouse/official/Official%20Report.pdf

Northwestern University Report. 16 p.
http://www.law.northwestern.edu/wrongfulconvictions/documents/SnitchSystemBooklet.pdf

[Request #S64902]

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JUVENILE JUSTICE

Making the Juvenile Justice-Workforce System Connection for Re-Entering Young Offenders. By Linda Harris, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) November 2006. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/making_connection.pdf

["This guidebook is designed to provide advice from the field to communities who are interested in pursuing more formal connections -— or strengthening existing connections —- between the workforce and justice systems. It draws on experiences in eight communities and focuses on on-the-ground challenges and solutions related to blending the cultures, adapting programming, engaging employers, and meeting performance."]

[Request #S64934]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

PRIVACY

RFID Security and Privacy: A Research Survey. By Ari Juels, RSA Laboratories. (The Laboratories, Bedford, Massachusetts) September 28, 2005. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/staff/bios/ajuels/publications/pdfs/rfid_survey_28_09_05.pdf

[“The majority of the articles treated in this survey explore security and privacy as a matter between RFID tags and readers. Of course, tags and readers lie at the fringes of a full-blown RFID system. At the heart will reside a massive infrastructure of servers and software. Many of the attendant data-security problems –- like that of authenticating readers to servers –- involve already familiar data-security protocols. But the very massive scale of RFID-related data flows and cross-organizational information sharing will introduce new data-security problems.“]

[Request #S64903]

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The Future of the Internet II. By Janna Quitney Anderson, Elon University, and Lee Rainie, Pew Institute and American Life Project. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 24, 2006. 115 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Future_of_Internet_2006.pdf

["A survey of internet leaders, activists, and analysts shows that a majority agree with predictions that by 2020: 1) A low-cost global network will be thriving and creating new opportunities in a 'flattening' world; 2) Virtual reality will be compelling enough to enhance worker productivity and also spawn new addiction problems; 3) People will wittingly and unwittingly disclose more about themselves, gaining some benefits in the process even as they lose some privacy; 4 ) English will be a universal language of global communications, but other languages will not be displaced. Indeed, many felt other languages such as Mandarin, would grow in prominence." Pew Press Release (September 24, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64935]

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ECONOMY

ASIA

Ties That Bind: The San Francisco Bay Area’s Economic Links to Greater China. By Sean Randolph, Bay Area Economic Forum, and Niels Erich. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) November 2006. 172 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/TiesThatBindFinalWeb.pdf

["Due to the depth and breadth of its connections, the Bay Area has emerged as a major portal for U.S.-China business as well as non-economic exchange. The depth and breadth of market intelligence on China and the technological and financial resources that can be found here, make the Bay Area a location of choice for businesses seeking to participate in the China market. The challenge before us is to develop a strategy to leverage these assets to advantage. Success in doing so will position the Bay Area, even more so than today, as a global business, education, and cultural center in the 21st century."]

[Request #S64904]

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BUSINESS FORECASTS

Opportunities and Challenges for the California Economy, Chapter 2: California Economic Growth. By Center for the Continuing Study of the California Economy. (The Center, Palo Alto, California) 2006. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.ccsce.com/pdf/CEG_2006_Ch2.pdf

[“California's job market is expected to expand faster than the rest of the country, a new report says, and analysts believe the East Bay and the rest of the Bay Area could nestle into the vanguard of that growth. Much of the expansion will occur in industries that require a ‘knowledge-based’ work force. ‘Exciting new possibilities exist in areas such as stem cell research, alternative energy technologies, and Internet applications.’ Officials with work force agencies in the East Bay point to the tech sector generally, as well as biotechnology and nanotechnology sectors as further sources of economic and job growth.” Oakland Tribune (November 15, 2006) 1.]

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FEDERAL / BUSINESS RELATIONS

Government Failure Versus Market Failure: Microeconomics Policy Research and Government Performance. By Clifford Winston, AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2006. 146 p.

Full Text at: www.aei-brookings.org/admin/authorpdfs/page.php?id=1329&PHPSESSID=7dc1b639c430fa12f7a623aa1968132f

["When should government intervene in market activity? When is it best to let market forces simply take their natural course? How does existing empirical evidence about government performance inform those decisions? The author uses these questions to frame an empirical assessment of government economic intervention."]

[Request #S64906]

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INCOME

How Did Income and Wealth Change for Middle-Income Families Over the Last Two Decades? By Robert I. Lerman and Henry Chen, the Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2006. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/901008_OppOwnFacts1_Oct.pdf

["Over the last two decades, American households have generated healthy increases in wealth, but only modest increases in income....The net worth of middle-income households -- the value of what they own minus the value of what they owe -- jumped by over 100 percent between 1983 and 2004, or 3.35 percent per year. These families' debt rose by $40,000 (over 200 percent), but it was overshadowed by a $140,000 increase in assets.... Nearly 40 percent of this increased net worth came from the housing market."]

[Request #S64907]

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EDUCATION

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

California’s Community College Students. By Ria Sengupta and Christopher Jepsen, Public Policy Institute of California. California Counts: Population Trends and Profiles. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) November 2006. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/cacounts/CC_1106RSCC.pdf

[“California's large community college system is failing in its role of graduating two-year students and as a feeder system for the state's four-year colleges and universities. The report found that only about one-quarter of students who concentrate on transfer courses eventually move on to four-year institutions. In addition, only one-tenth of community college students who concentrate on associate's degree courses eventually earn those degrees. An ill-prepared student population, and scarce student counseling and support services, have left the community colleges unable to help many students successfully navigate the system to attain degrees or transfer to a four-year institutions. Said co-author Ria Sengupta, ‘Maybe the policy agenda needs to move beyond just access to college but also retention and success.’" San Francisco Chronicle (November 16, 2006) B3.]

[Request #S64908]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

California at the Crossroads: Confronting the Looming Threat to Achievement, Access and Equity at the University of California and Beyond. By Michael Brown, University of California, Santa Barbara, and others. (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California) October 27, 2006. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.berkeley.edu/news/berkeleyan/2006/11/images/Brown_Edley.pdf

[“The University of California disproportionately serves the state's highest-income, best-educated families, and UC needs to look beyond test scores so high-school graduates from all backgrounds get a fair chance of being admitted, says a faculty report. Comprehensive review of a broader applicant pool would point up such qualities as leadership and 'spark,' -- such factors are better predictors than SAT scores of a student's success at UC. ‘The status quo encourages students to treat college preparation as an arms race, to focus only on amassing grade and test score points.’" San Francisco Chronicle (October 28, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64909]

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PUBLIC EDUCATION

The Changing Landscape of American Public Education: New Students, New Schools. By Richard Fry, Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 5, 2006. 87 p.

Full Text at: pewhispanic.org/files/reports/72.pdf

["Since the mid-1990s, two trends have transformed the landscape of American public education: Enrollment has increased because of the growth of the Hispanic population, and the number of schools has also increased.... A relatively small number of schools absorbed most of the increase in Hispanic enrollment and those schools differ in important ways from schools less affected by Hispanic population growth. The schools that experienced the largest growth in Hispanic enrollment were generally larger, had more students on federal subsidies and also had greater teacher-student ratios -- the latter an important indicator that has improved across the nation but not as significantly in Hispanic-impacted schools."]

[Request #S64910]

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TEACHERS

Reforming Teacher Education: Something Old/ Something New. By Sheila Nataraj Kirby, RAND Corporation, and others. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2006. 198 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2006/RAND_MG506.pdf

[“One of the latest efforts aimed at teacher education reform was boldly titled Teachers for a New Era (TNE).... Thus far, the actual changes in the teacher education programs at the TNE sites appear to be small and incremental. This is not surprising, given that these institutions were selected because they were among the best in their 'class' of institutions. However, the process by which these incremental changes to a program will result in highly qualified, competent teachers who will be markedly 'better' than the graduates before them is not well defined."]

[Request #S64911]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISCRIMINATION

John Doe, et al. v. Village of Mamaroneck, Phillip Trifiletti, Mayor of the Village of Mamaroneck, et al. U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York. 06-CV-3243. November 20, 2006. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.prldef.org/Civil/mamaroneck.pdf

[“A judge ruled that officials in Mamaroneck discriminated against Hispanic day laborers when they stepped up police patrols, closed a hiring site and aggressively fined contractors who approached the laborers on the streets as they searched for work.... The judge wrote that 'the fact that the day laborers were Latinos, and not whites, was, at least in part, a motivating factor in the defendants' actions.' The judge said the police often ignored infractions by other drivers, including those who blocked traffic while picking up children in school, but adopted a 'virtual zero-tolerance policy' toward contractors in a concerted effort to drive them away, making it harder for the day laborers to find work. The ruling drew national interest as it sought to establish how far communities can go to rein in day laborers without violating their rights." The New York Times (November 21, 2006) 1 .]

[Request #S64912]

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ENERGY

COAL

Coal's Resurgence in Electric Power Generation. By Scott Klara and Erik Schuster, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. (The Laboratory, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) September 29, 2006. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.netl.doe.gov/coal/refshelf/ncp.pdf

["Utilities are proposing to build 154 coal-fired power plants in the next 25 years. Most of those new plants would use conventional coal-burning technology, which would increase carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. coal plants by more than 50 percent by 2030.... Operators of 66 of the proposed coal-fired plants plan to adopt more efficient, advanced technologies -- such as turning coal into a gas before burning it -- that produce less CO2 and other pollutants. But the rest would continue to use a 50-year-old technology that burns pulverized coal to create steam. The exhaust going up the stack contains 12 percent to 18 percent carbon dioxide." Sacramento Bee (October 22, 2006) A21.]

[Request #S64913]

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

American Energy: The Renewable Path to Energy Security. By Christopher Flavin, Worldwatch Institute, and others. (Center for American Progress, Washington, DC) September 2006. 40 p.

Full Text at: images1.americanprogress.org/il80web20037/americanenergynow/AmericanEnergy.pdf

["Renewable resources currently provide just over 6 percent of total U.S. energy, but that figure could increase rapidly in the years ahead.... Many of the new technologies that harness renewables are, or soon will be, economically competitive with fossil fuels.... With oil prices soaring, the security risks of petroleum dependence growing, and the environmental costs of today's fuels becoming more apparent, the country faces compelling reasons to put these technologies to use."]

[Request #S64914]

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UTILITIES

San Diego Smart Grid Study: Final Report. By Steven Pullins, Science Applications International Corporation, and others. Prepared for the Energy Policy Initiatives Center, University of San Diego School of Law. (The Center, San Diego, California) October 2006. 194 p.

Full Text at: www.sandiego.edu/epic/publications/documents/061017_SDSmartGridStudyFINAL.pdf

[“Utility customers and San Diego Gas & Electric could reap billions of dollars in benefits over the next two decades by modernizing the regional electricity grid, a study has concluded. The benefits would include reduced costs, greater security, environmental gains and a reduction in the likelihood of blackouts. Regulatory and business trends in the region will create a favorable climate for upgrading the grid. Those trends include more stringent environmental regulations favoring greater use of renewable energy and increased emphasis on conservation.” San Diego Union (October 19, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64915]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Paying With Our Health: The Real Cost of Freight Transport in California. By Meena Palaniappan, Pacific Institute, and others. (The Institute, Oakland, California) November 2006.

["Diesel pollution creates health problems and causes premature death in California as industries transport $400 billion of freight to the rest of the country... The diesel exhaust annually triggers heart and lung problems requiring $19 billion of medical attention and causing 2,400 deaths, state figures show. Minority-dominated communities and neighborhoods near transportation or distribution hubs suffer the most.... Truck, locomotive and marine engines have long lifetimes. It can take many years for companies to scrap their old equipment and buy new, clean-running diesels." Fresno Bee (November 15, 2006) 1.]

Report. 46 p.
http://www.pacinst.org/reports/freight_transport/PayingWithOurHealth_Web.pdf

Executive Summary. 2 p.
http://www.pacinst.org/reports/freight_transport/pwoh_executive_summary.pdf

[Request #S64916]

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CALIFORNIA

Southern California Environmental Report Card: 2006. By the UCLA Institute of the Environment (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) November 2006. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.ioe.ucla.edu/RC06.pdf

["The report found that the film and television industry emits a whopping 140,000 tons a year of ozone and diesel particulate pollutant emissions from trucks, generators, special effects earthquakes and fires, demolition of sets with dynamite and other sources....The industry tops hotels, aerospace, and apparel and semiconductor manufacturing in traditional air pollutant emissions in Southern California, according to the study, and is probably second only to petroleum refineries, for which comparable data were not available." Los Angeles Times (November 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64917]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change. By Nicholas Stern, Government Economics Service, HM Treasury. Prepared for the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. (The Treasury, London, United Kingdom) October 2006.

["A major study concludes that without rapid and substantial spending, global warming will reduce worldwide productivity on the scale of the Great Depression, devastate food sources, cause widespread deaths and create hundreds of millions of refugees. The report commissioned by the British government, which officials called the most comprehensive review of the economics of climate change, warns that failure to act could cost up to 20% a year in lost income worldwide. Acting now, however, could bring about meaningful control of greenhouse gases at an annual cost of 1% of global gross domestic product. The findings appear to counter the long-standing argument of the Bush administration that controlling greenhouse gases is costly and possibly ineffective. However, the savings would occur only with the kind of rapid and comprehensive international cooperation on the issue that so far has proved elusive." Los Angeles Times (October 31, 2006) A4.]

Executive Summary. 27 p.
http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/8AC/F7/Executive_Summary.pdf

Report. Various pagings.
http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/Independent_Reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm

[Request #S64918]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

BUDGET PROJECTIONS

California’s Fiscal Outlook: LAO Projections 2006-07 Through 2011-2012. By Elizabeth G. Hill, Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office, Sacramento, California) November 2006. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/fiscal_outlook/fiscal_outlook_06.pdf

[“With a decline in home sales driving a slowdown in California's recent economic boom, lawmakers will find it ‘much tougher’ to balance the state budget next year than they did this year. The state will still take in about $5 billion less than it spends for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2007. Lawmakers will have to find a way to cut about $2 billion out of the budget for the 2007-2008 fiscal year even without increasing spending on current programs or creating new ones. Though the legislative analyst urged caution in budgeting, the report was guardedly optimistic about the state's economy. It predicted that the state's finances would rebound slightly next year and experience ‘moderate growth’ in 2008.” Sacramento Bee (November 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64919]

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PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING

Financing Infrastructure. By the Public Policy Institute of California. Just the Facts. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) September 2006. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/jtf/JTF_FinancingInfrastructureJTF.pdf

[“On a real per capita basis, state and local government expenditures on capital outlays declined sharply in the 1970s in California and the nation. Spending picked up again beginning in the early 1980s and increased especially quickly between 1997 and 2002. In 2002, California spent $931 per person on capital outlays, compared to $917 in the nation as a whole. In real dollars, this is one-quarter more than California spent per person in 1967 – the former high point in infrastructure spending.”]

[Request #S64920]

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VOTERS & VOTING

Who Votes, Who Doesn't and Why: Regular Voters, Intermittent Voters, and Those Who Don’t. By the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 18, 2006. 13 p.

Full Text at: people-press.org/reports/pdf/292.pdf

["They vote -– but not always.... They are the intermittent voters: Americans who are registered to vote but do not always make it to the polls. They differ significantly from those who vote regularly. For one thing, they’re less likely to be married than are regular voters. Intermittent voters also are more mistrustful of people compared with those who vote regularly. They also are less angry with government."]

[Request #S64921]

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The 11th Biannual Youth Survey on Politics and Public Service. By the Institute of Politics, Harvard University. (The Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts) November 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.iop.harvard.edu/pdfs/survey/fall_2006_execsumm.pdf

["In an online survey of more than 2,500 people the institute found that nearly one-third of 18- to 24-year-olds 'definitely' will vote. That's higher than the past record in 1982, when 26.6 percent in that age group punched or filled in ballots. It's a U-turn from Generation X -- born in the late 1960s and most of the 1970s -- and known for apathetic voting habits and general disillusionment with the political system and their role in it." Sacramento Bee (November 3, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64922]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE

Mexican and Central American Immigrants in the United States: Health Care Access. By Elena Zuniga, Xochitl Castaneda, California-Mexico Health Initiative, University of California, and others. (The Initiative, Berkeley, California) 2006. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cmhi/documents/hlthcareaccess2006_eng.pdf

["The U.S. health care system has been most successful at covering the health care needs of the youngest immigrants and women, who, in many cases are eligible for and beneficiaries of the public insurance programs. The working-age immigrant population, particularly men, is the least protected. Designing new, financially sustainable medical insurance models for immigrants constitutes an enormous challenge."]

[Request #S64923]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

From New England to the Golden Gate Bridge: A Look at Creative Coverage Expansions at the State and Local Levels. By Cristy Gallagher, New America Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington DC) November 2006. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.newamerica.net/files/HPStatePaper_0.pdf

["One trend is for states to find ways to expand coverage by providing subsidies to enable small employers to offer insurance to their workers and their families.... Both Maine and Vermont have creatively reshaped the insurance market for those lacking employer coverage, offering subsidies for those who can not afford to purchase coverage.... Some states have set up programs specifically for individuals lacking access to employer based insurance. These include Utah, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.... Illinois, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania are implementing programs to enable all children to have health insurance."]

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UNINSURED

One in Five Californians Were Uninsured in 2005 Despite Modest Gains in Coverage. By Jean Yoon and others, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) October 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu/pubs/files/CAs_Uninsured_PB.100406.pdf

["Six and one-half million Californians were uninsured for all of some of 2005, a number that is as large as the combined populations of nine other states. The number of uninsured represents one in five children and nonelderly adults.... With one in five nonelderly Californians experiencing uninsurance during the year, the need for reforms of the health insurance system continues unabated."]

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Covering California's Uninsured: Three Practical Options. By Rick Curtis and Ed Neuschler, Institute for Health Policy Solutions. Prepared for the California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) October 2006. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/topics/download.cfm?pg=insurance&fn=CoveringCaliforniasUninsuredFull%20Report%2Epdf&pid=479606&itemid=125690

["Momentum is growing in California -— in both the public and private sectors -— to make health coverage affordable and available for all, or nearly all.... The key purpose of the analysis was to estimate the respective costs under each model to the government, individuals, and employers. The resulting reports are intended to inform policymakers in their development of proposals and to identify workable designs."]

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Snapshot: California’s Uninsured. By Paul Fronstin, Employee Benefit Research Institute. (California Healthcare Foundation, Oakland, California) 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/insurance/CAUninsured06.pdf

[“This annual report examines health coverage through the lens of various factors including: coverage sources and trends; employer size and type; likelihood of coverage by ethnicity, age, and income; and uninsured rates for noncitizens. Among the findings: California has a higher proportion of uninsured residents and lower rates of employer-based coverage than the nation; almost 40% of California’s uninsured work for small employers with fewer than 25 workers; seventy-one percent of the state’s uninsured children are in families where the head of household works full time, all year; nearly 1 in 3 uninsured have family incomes of $50,000; and Latinos, which represent more than half of California’s uninsured residents, are much more likely to be uninsured than any other ethnic group.”]

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HUMAN SERVICES

HOMELESS

Without Housing: Decades of Federal Housing Cutbacks, Massive Homelessness and Policy Failures. By the Western Regional Advocacy Project. (The Project, San Francisco, California) 2006. 88 p.

Full Text at: www.wraphome.org/wh_press_kit/Without_Housing_20061114.pdf

["The nation's homeless epidemic won't be cured without a significant federal investment in affordable housing, advocates charged in a report.... The federal government made massive cuts to housing programs in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and a homeless epidemic soon followed.... But instead of solving the problems by building housing, the federal government helped to set up shelters and other temporary solutions that didn't solve the problem." The Oakland Tribune (November 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64928]

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Everyone Home: Ending Homeless in Alameda County: The Alameda County-Wide Homeless and Special Needs Housing Plan. By Alameda County Housing and Community Development Department. (The Department, Hayward, California). 2006. 2 p.

[“Alameda County supervisors are set to decide on an ambitious plan to end chronic homelessness in the county. The plan calls for pulling together both existing and new housing for 15,000 of the county's extremely poor and homeless, at an estimated cost of $2.1 billion. The plan's first focus will be on housing people with AIDS and mental illnesses. By 2020, it aims to help veterans, domestic violence victims, substance abusers and people who could be in danger of losing their housing, such as the developmentally disabled. Other counties, including Contra Costa and San Francisco, have put together similar plans. But Alameda's is unique in part because it also includes strategies for housing families.” Oakland Tribune (November 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64929]

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POVERTY

Importing Poverty: Immigration and Poverty in the United States. By Robert Rector, The Heritage Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) October 25, 2006. 31 p

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/research/immigration/upload/SR_9.pdf

[“The current mass influx of low-skill immigration stems from two factors. The first is a legal immigration system that emphasizes kinship ties over immigrant skills and education. The second is the failure to enforce existing laws against hiring illegal immigrants and lax border enforcement, which together have encouraged massive illegal low-skilled immigration over the U.S.-Mexican border. Of the 10.5 million immigrants lacking a high school education in the U.S., roughly half have entered the country illegally. Poorly educated immigrants impose large costs on U.S. taxpayers. Any taxes they pay are greatly outweighed by the costs of the government benefits they consume."]

[Request #S64930]

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WELFARE REFORM

Has Welfare Reform Changed State Expenditure Patterns? By Therese J. McGuire, Kellogg School of Management, and David F. Merriman, Loyola University. National Poverty Center Policy Brief. (The Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan) November 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.npc.umich.edu/publications/policy_briefs/brief7/brief07.pdf

["That state spending on cash assistance remained counter-cyclical after welfare reform and was even more responsive to economic distress than before welfare reform may be a consequence of the diversification of the safety net. The EITC, Food Stamps and SSI, among other federally-funded programs, have become much more important components of the social safety net than cash welfare. These programs now play a much larger relative role in securing the well-being of low-income families and individuals. The explosion in Medicaid spending and the large numbers of low-income and disabled people that depend on this program have become a major concern for states and will continue to be a budget problem even if state revenues stabilize."]

[Request #S64931]

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TRANSPORTATION

HIGHWAY SAFETY

Highway Safety Plan: Federal Fiscal Year 2007. By the California Office of Traffic Safety. (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2006. 142 p.

Full Text at: www.ots.ca.gov/Publications/hsp07/2007%20HSP.pdf

[“The plan calls for exploring ways of making intersections safer, improving rural roads, improving bike and pedestrian safety and getting ambulances to crash scenes faster. Much of the focus, however, will be on finding ways to improve driver skills, behavior and attitudes. The report indicates state officials should work to improve driver education for teenagers, strengthen the initial licensing process, push for fewer depictions of bad driving in movies and on TV and find better ways of keeping people with revoked and suspended licenses from driving illegally.” Sacramento Bee (October 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64932]

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PORTS & SHIPPING

Port Security: California's Exposed Container Ports: The Case for More Post-9/11 Protection. By Max Vanzi, California Senate Office of Research. (The Office, Sacramento, California) November 1, 2006. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/sor/reports/REPORTS_BY_SUBJ/PUBLIC_SAFETY_JUDICIARY/PORTSECURITY.pdf

["This report examines perceived weak links in port security defenses, focusing in particular on how they’re configured to prevent a terrorist attack at the Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland ports. A fundamental unfairness persists -— and an acute threat festers around the nation -—as long as financial resources don’t match the requirements needed to make security, while never perfect, at least as good as it can be at the state’s large container ports. And the experts agree that the Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland ports still present opportunities for terrorists who see the container cargo chain as a way to penetrate defenses standing in the way of reaching their next target."]

[Request #S64933]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

ECONOMIC POLICY

End of the Line: The Rise and Coming Fall of the Global Corporation. By Barry C. Lynn. (Doubleday, New York, New York) 2005. 312 p.

{"Global corporations rely too much on single-source suppliers and run inventories too lean to be prepared for supplier interruptions. It is this very interdependence, once heralded by the drafters of free trade deals as peace-inspiring and stabilizing, that threatens the current economic system. Lynn, a fellow at the New American Foundation, attempts to unravel this history and the risk of disruption and to caution us of future catastrophe if we do not heed the warning signs." USA Today (August 29, 2005) 4B. NOTE: End of the Line.... is available for loan]

[Request #S64936]

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