Subject: Studies in the News 06-16 (April 21, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

April 1856 - "San Francisco City and County were consolidated by an act passed by the Legislature and signed by the Governor on April 19, 1856. San Mateo County was created from the southern part of San Francisco County. The Consolidation Act of 1856 went into effect July 1, 1856. In 1856 San Francisco had a population of 30,000. "  www.sfheart.com/SF_History.html  

April 1856 - "The custom of selecting names of men prominent in local politics was followed in the case of Buchanan Street, which first appeared on a map on April 19, 1856 in a report by a (San Francisco) commission . For many years it was accepted that Buchanan Street was named for President James Buchanan, but the evidence points to John C. Buchanan, the pioneer.. . Buchanan was a member of Frémont’s Battalion, and was also owner of many town lots. In 1848 he was a partner in the firm of McDonald & Buchanan, auctioneers and commission merchants. At this time James Buchanan was U.S. Secretary of State and was not elected president until November 1857. "  www.sfmuseum.org/street/stnames3.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Proposition 36 brings taxpayer savings
   New goals for drug offender programs
   Proposals for transforming juvenile justice system
   Employment program for returning prisoners
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Immigrant worker centers
ECONOMY
   State bioscience initiatives
   The vanishing middle class
EDUCATION
   Immigrant children and early education
   Dropouts seek credentials and degrees
   Educating Latino students
   Efforts to finance prekindergarten
   The unraveling of No Child Left Behind
EMPLOYMENT
   Improper activities by state employees
ENERGY
   Vulnerabilities of the natural gas market
   Supporting residential solar energy
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   The price of smog
   Report to Governor on climate change
   Cost to save endangered species
   Salmon season restricted
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Evaluation of voter databases
   Status of election reform
   Additional revenues improve budget picture
   Internet access tax moratorium
   Who pays taxes in California
HEALTH
   Economics of employer mandated health care
   Flaws in health savings accounts
   Holding health plans accountable
HOUSING
   The future of infill housing
   Rental housing affordability
HUMAN SERVICES
   Conference on poverty
   Child care subsidies and TANF
TRANSPORTATION
   Transportation program in shambles
   Radiation detection equipment at ports
STUDIES TO COME
   Preventive health care for children
   College freshman interested in community service
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRUG TREATMENT

Evaluation of the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act: Cost Analysis Report. By Douglas Longshore, and others, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles. Prepared for the Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, California Health and Human Services Agency. (The Agency, Sacramento, California) April 6, 2006. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.adp.cahwnet.gov/pdf/SACPA_COSTANALYSIS_FINAL_04_05_06.pdf

["California taxpayers saved nearly $2.50 for every dollar spent sending nonviolent drug offenders to treatment centers rather than jail under the state's Proposition 36, a UCLA study says.... Researchers are concerned that only about one-third of those who enter the program complete treatment. 'There is where further improvements should be focused,' said Darren Urada, program director . 'This is a tough population'" Los Angeles Daily News (April 6, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61601]

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Proposition 36: Five Years Later. By Scott Ehlers and Jason Ziedenberg, Justice Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2006. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.justicepolicy.org/downloads/JPI007_Prop_36_LoRes.pdf

["The state's 6-year-old program that mandates treatment instead of prison sentences for drug offenders is dramatically decreasing California's jail population and saving taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars." Los Angeles Times (April 13, 2006) B6.]

[Request #S61602]

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JUVENILE JUSTICE

Safety and Welfare Plan: Implementing Reform in California. By Christopher Murray and others, Safety and Welfare Planning Team. Prepared for the Division of Juvenile Justice, California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. (The Department, Sacramento, California) March 31, 2006. 90 p.

Full Text at: www.corr.ca.gov/Communications/docs/DJJ_Safety_%20and_Welfare%20Plan.pdf

["The report addresses long-term plans that transform the eight youth prisons into places that rehabilitate juvenile offenders.... The proposals borrow heavily from Washington's system, which emphasizes housing wards in small living units, separating the most violent from the others and training staff at all levels in behavioral treatment methods." Stockton Record (April 4, 2006) A1.]

[Request #S61603]

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PRISONERS & PAROLEES

The Power of Work: The Center for Employment Opportunities Comprehensive Prisoner Reentry Program. By The Center for Employment Opportunities and MDRC. (MDRC, New York, New York) March 2006. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/publications/426/full.pdf

["High rates of unemployment and recidivism among former prisoners have devastating effects on families, communities, and public budgets. The New York City-based Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) serves nearly 2,000 reentering prisoners a year with a structured program of pre-employment training, immediate short-term transitional work, and job placement services. This report describes how the CEO program operates." Publisher's Announcement (April 7, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61604]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRANTS

Worker Centers: Organizing Communities at the Edge of the Dream. By Janice Fine, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC.) 2006.

Full Text at: www.epi.org/content.cfm/books_worker_centers

["Day labor centers have emerged in the last decade as institutions that organize immigrant workers to 'create economic justice' and give them political voice.... These new associations of workers are addressing new ranges of issues: employment, incorporation of immigrants, health care, etc." Monterey Herald (February 20, 2006) 1.] Note: Worker Centers ... will be available for loan.

[Request #S61341]

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ECONOMY

BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY

Growing the Nation's Biotech Sector: State Bioscience Initiatives: 2006. By Battelle Technology Partnership Practice and SSTI. Prepared for the Biotechnology Industry Organization. (The Organization, Washington, DC) April 2006.

["While San Diego, the Bay Area and the Boston area remain the country's dominant centers of biotechnology, other regions have popped onto the industry's map in the last four years.... The regions with clusters of biotechnology companies attract other high-wage professionals in support roles, including attorneys, architects, engineers, real estate firms and big pharmaceutical companies." San Diego Union-Tribune (April 11, 2006) 1.]

Report. 515 p.
http://www.bio.org/local/battelle2006/battelle2006.pdf

Executive Summary. 16 p.
http://www.bio.org/local/battelle2006/executive_summary.pdf

California Appendix. 9 p.
http://www.bio.org/local/battelle2006/California.pdf

[Request #S61605]

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LOS ANGELES

Poverty, Inequality and Justice: A Vanishing Middle Class in Southern California. By the Pat Brown Institute. (The Economic Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) 2006. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.economicrt.org/pub/poverty-ineq-n-justice/Poverty_Inequality_and_Justice.pdf

["This report examines the LA economy by looking at: who is poor, who is homeless, and who is employed.... How can LA improve its economy? By using the modest tools of local government to consistently nudge the economy in the right direction."]

[Request #S61606]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Reaching All Children? Understanding Early Care and Education: Participation Among Immigrant Families. By Hannah Matthews and Danielle Ewen, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2006. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/child_care_immigrant.pdf

["Early education programs can improve language development and academic achievement for immigrant children. This report investigates why immigrant children are less likely to participate in these programs and suggests ways to increase their participation." The Learning Curve, Foundation for Child Development (March 7, 2006).]

[Request #S61607]

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EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Making Good on a Promise: What Policymakers Can Do to Support the Educational Persistence of Dropouts. By Cheryl Almeida, and others, Jobs for the Future. (Jobs for the Future, Boston, Massachusetts) April 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.jff.org/download.php/MkingGoodProm.pdf?file=MkingGoodProm.pdf&KC_PubID=277

["Most dropouts are remarkably persistent in their drive to complete their education. Nearly 60 percent of dropouts eventually earn a high school credential and almost half of those that earn secondary credentials later enroll in two- or four-year colleges. Yet for all their effort, less than 10 percent of those dropouts who enroll in postsecondary education earn a degree." US Newswire (April 11, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61608]

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LATINOS

Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds and Others Don't. By Mary Jo Waits, Center for the Future of Arizona, and others. (Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Tempe, Arizona) March 2006. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.asu.edu/copp/morrison/LatinEd.pdf

["The successes researchers identified provide clear evidence that some schools understand the strategies necessary to help Latino students excel. Rather than present these as perfect models, researchers teased out the characteristics of success and presented them in an elastic and adaptable set of guidelines other schools can emulate." Arizona Republic (April 9, 2006) 4V.]

[Request #S61609]

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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

New Efforts to Finance Prekindergarten. By Steffanie Clothier, National Conference of State Legislatures. Vol. 14 No. 16 (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 2006. 2 p.

["Legislative momentum for prekindergarten has been dramatic because states that are considering how to make effective investments with limited state dollars are choosing to invest in prekindergarten. In 2005, 26 states expanded state funding for prekindergarten, totaling more than $600 million."]

[Request #S61610]

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SCHOOL REFORM

The Unraveling of No Child Left Behind: How Negotiated Changes Transform the Law. By Gail L. Sunderman, Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. (The Project, Cambridge, Massachusetts) February 2006. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu/research/esea/NCLB_Unravel.pdf

["Researchers say No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has in some cases benefited white middle-class children over blacks and other minorities in poorer regions. Instead of uniform performance standards that NCLB promoted, the law has allowed various states to negotiate treaties and bargains to reduce the number of schools and districts identified as failing. Nearly every state has taken some action to amend the law or been granted waivers." Houston Chronicle (February 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61611]

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EMPLOYMENT

PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Investigations of Improper Activities by State Employees: July 2005 Through December 2005. By the California Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) March 2006. 78 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/I2006-1.pdf

["This report details the results of the six investigations that substantiated complaints of improper activities. The investigations were completed by the bureau or jointly with other state agencies between July and December 2005. The report also summarizes actions that state entities took as a result of investigations presented here or reported previously by the bureau."]

[Request #S61612]

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ENERGY

ENERGY

Role of Supply, Demand and Financial Commodity Markets in the Natural Gas Price Spiral. By Mark N. Cooper. Prepared for the Midwest Attorneys General Natural Gas Working Group. (Iowa Attorney General, Des Moines, Iowa) March 2006. 115 p.

Full Text at: www.state.ia.us/government/ag/latest_news/releases/mar_2006/Natural%20Gas%20REPORT%203-7-06%20Final.pdf

["The widespread reliance on natural gas commodity markets to set the price paid by consumers is an extremely recent phenomenon, just over 15 years old.... Natural gas has supply and demand characteristics that make it vulnerable to abuse and volatility, yet the markets in which wholesale natural gas prices are set are less regulated than many other commodity markets.... Policy makers have failed to take the steps necessary to protect the public."]

[Request #S61613]

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SOLAR POWER

Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential New Construction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and Lessons Learned. By Galen Barbose, and others, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (The Laboratory, Berkeley, California) February, 2006. 30 p.

Full Text at: eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/59299.pdf

["States are using a variety of innovative approaches to support the market for solar energy in new homes.... To date, the greatest number of PV installations on new homes are in California. The study also finds that solar deployment may be most successful if builders commit to installing PV as a standard feature throughout new subdivisions." Renewable Energy Access (March 1, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61614]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

The Health and Related Economic Benefits of Attaining Healthful Air in the San Joaquin Valley. By Jane V. Hall, Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies, California State University, Fullerton, and others. (The Institute, Fullerton, California) March 2006. 85 p.

Full Text at: business.fullerton.edu/centers/iees/reports/SJVFinalReport.pdf

["San Joaquin Valley residents effectively are paying an average of $1,000 a year just to breathe. That's the cost of shortened life spans, hospitalizations, job absences and other economic and health effects of the region's chronically poor air quality, according to a study.... The agricultural valley hosts some of the most persistently dirty air in the country, rivaling Los Angeles and Houston. Dairies, cattle ranches and farms ... rank as major polluters." Sacramento Bee (March 30, 2006) A3.]

[Request #S61619]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate Action Team Report to Governor Schwarzenegger and the Legislature. By Alan C. Lloyd, California Environmental Protection Agency, and others. (The Agency, Sacramento, California) March 2006.

["In a report on how to combat global warming, Governor Schwarzenegger's top environmental advisors recommend that the state require power plant operators and other heavy industries to report the amount of greenhouse gas they emit.... Environmentalists were heartened by the report. Business groups, however, expressed concern that limits on greenhouse gas emissions could destroy jobs in California by driving manufacturers to other states and countries." Los Angeles Times (April 3, 2006) 1.]

Report. 107 p.
http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate_action_team/reports/2006-04-03_FINAL_CAT_REPORT.PDF

Executive Summary. 16 p.
http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate_action_team/reports/2006-04-03_FINAL_CAT_REPORT_EXECSUMMARY.PDF

[Request #S61615]

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ENDANGERED SPECIES

Endangered Species: Time and Costs Required to Recover Species Are Largely Unknown. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-06-463R (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2006. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d06463r.pdf

["Estimates of the total costs to recover a species would be necessary to evaluate whether sufficient resources have been devoted to recovery efforts.... Information on when, if at all, a species can be expected to fully recover and be removed from the list would provide needed context for a fair evaluation of the act’s performance."]

[Request #S61616]

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SALMON

Pacific Fishery Management Council Votes to Allow Lowest Ever 2006 Salmon Fisheries Off California and Oregon. By the Pacific Fishery Management Council. (The Council, Portland, Oregon) April 7, 2006.

["A federal advisory panel recommended a dramatic cutback in the West Coast's commercial salmon season, stopping just short of an unprecedented ban that threatened to swamp the beleaguered fishing industry.... Under the restrictions, commercial fleets would be forced to limp along with far fewer days than last year, which fishermen considered among the most restrictive in memory." Los Angeles Times (April 7, 2006) 1.]

Press Release. 3 p.
http://www.pcouncil.org/newsreleases/pr040706_sal.pdf

Klamath Salmon Issues. 5 p.
http://www.pcouncil.org/newsreleases/salmon_packet/2006_backgrounder.pdf

[Request #S61617]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ELECTION REFORM

Statewide Databases of Registered Voters: Study of Accuracy, Privacy, Usability, Security, and Reliability Issues. By the U.S. Public Policy Committee of the Association for Computing Machinery. (The Association, Washington, DC) February 2006. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.acm.org/usacm/PDF/VRD_report.pdf

["The report recounts security and usability techniques known to computer scientists for decades, but often not well-understood by state election officials and bureaucrats who have been tasked with designing massive databases of millions of registered voters."]

[Request #S61618]

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Election Reform: What's Changed, What Hasn't and Why: 2002-2006. By Doug Chapin and others, Electionline.org. (Electionline.org, Washington, DC,) February 2006. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.electionline.org/Portals/1/Publications/Final.2006.Annual.report.pdf

["The beginning of 2006 marked the deadline for states to comply with the Help America Vote Act (HAVA).... As January 1 approached, changes were not as comprehensive as HAVA’s authors had envisioned four years earlier.... This report identifies areas of concern in HAVA and election administration and where states stand, now that the deadline for compliance has elapsed."]

[Request #S61620]

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STATE BUDGET

Additional Revenues Improve 2006-07 Budget Picture, State Still Faces Long-Term Problems. By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) March 2006. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2006/0603_bwatch.pdf

["Substantially higher than anticipated revenues have significantly improved the state's 2006-07 fiscal picture. The Governor's Proposed Budget uses the additional revenues to increase spending for education and transportation and to pre-pay a portion of the state's outstanding debt. The Governor's proposal also outlines an ambitious public works plan and reduces spending for programs for low-income and other vulnerable Californians."]

[Request #S61621]

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TAXES

Internet Access Tax Moratorium: Revenue Impacts Will Vary by States. By the Government Accountability Office. GAO-06-273 (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2006. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d06273.pdf

["In 1998, Congress imposed a moratorium temporarily preventing state and local governments from imposing new taxes on Internet access....This report focuses on the moratorium’s impact on state and local government revenues.... This report does not focus on taxing the sale of items over the Internet."]

[Request #S61622]

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Who Pays Taxes in California? By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) April 2006. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2006/0604_pp_whopaystaxes.pdf

["The latest 'Who Pays Taxes' shows that higher-income California families pay a greater share of their income in income taxes. But lower- and middle-income California families pay a greater percentage of their income on property, sales and excise taxes. So, in the end, the higher you move on the income scale, the less share of income you pay in California taxes." Sacramento Bee (April 15, 2006) B6.]

[Request #S61633]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE

Employer Mandates and the Health Care Crisis: Economic Impacts in California and the Bay Area. By Sean Randolph and others, Bay Area Economic Forum. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) January 2006. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/HealthCareEmployerMandatesJan25.pdf

["Enacting health insurance mandate within a single jurisdiction, such as a city or county, may cause some companies to relocate.... Most mandates would not include the large numbers of Californians who are self-employed, undocumented immigrants, or who are temporary, part-time, or seasonal workers.... Because government mandates can negatively impact city business climates, alternative local approaches for expanding health coverage are needed."]

[Request #S61623]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

A Brief Overview of the Major Flaws With Health Savings Accounts. By the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 5, 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/hsa-overview.pdf

["The Center has analyzed the Administration’s proposals for Health Savings Accounts tax subsidies and finds several serious problems -- including worsening health care for less healthy people and weakening the existing insurance system, potentially increasing the number of uninsured in America." Connect for Kids (April 10, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61624]

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MANAGED HEALTH CARE

Holding Health Plans Accountable. By the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network. (The Network, Oakland, California) March 2006. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cpehn.org/pdfs/HoldingHealthPA.pdf

["The community needs greater assurances that health plans are providing culturally and linguistically appropriate services to enrollees in the Healthy Families Program.... By collaborating, government agencies can ensure that health plan enrollees and participants in the Healthy Families Program are receiving all the services [to which they are entitled."]

[Request #S61625]

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HOUSING

COMMUNITY PLANNNING

The Future of Infill Housing in California: Opportunities, Potential, Feasibility and Demand. By John D. Landis and Heather Hood, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkeley. Prepared for the California Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency. (The University, Berkeley, California) September 2005.

["The first-of-its-kind analysis estimates that California can meet at least one-fourth of its housing needs in the next 20 years by adding 1.5 million new homes to older existing neighborhoods. Nearly 550,000 homes could be built within one-third mile of a light-rail station, helping to curb traffic." Sacramento Bee (March 30, 2006) D1.]

Volume One: Study Overview. 64 p.
http://infill.gisc.berkeley.edu/report_vol-1.pdf

Volume Two: Full Study. 337 p.
http://infill.gisc.berkeley.edu/report_vol-2.pdf

[Request #S61626]

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RENTAL HOUSING

The Rental Housing Affordability Gap: Comparison of 2001 and 2003 American Housing Surveys. By Danilo Pelletiere, National Low Income Housing Coalition. (The Coalition, Washington, DC) 2006. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.nlihc.org/research/rentalgap.pdf

["This report examines the gap between supply and demand of affordable rental housing in 2001 and 2003. Information includes the number of housing units needed by: income level, region (West, Northeast, Midwest, South) and the US as a whole. Also included is a definition of the U.S. housing shortage and trends over time between 2001 and 2003."]

[Request #S61627]

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HUMAN SERVICES

POVERTY

Conference on Poverty Papers. By Barbara Baran, California Budget Project, and others. Presented to the Conference on Poverty. (Daughters of Charity Health System, Los Angeles, California) February 2, 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.dchsconferenceonpoverty.org/action_agenda.html

[Includes: "Investing in California's Future: Rethinking Workforce Development in the Golden State;" "Poverty Alleviation Through Early Childhood Education;" "Making the Most of Proposition 49 After-School Funds;" "Are Employer Health Insurance Mandates a Viable Policy Option?;" "America's Uninsured and the Expansion of Coverage: What Future Will We Choose?;" "Sargent Shriver and the War on Poverty: Method in Social Policy;" and others.]

[Request #S61628]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Child Care Subsidies and TANF: A Synthesis of Three Studies on Systems, Policies, and Parents. By Pamela Holcomb and others, the Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311302_synthesis.pdf

["Although the connection between child care as a work support and the TANF program’s mandate to help welfare recipients obtain employment is conceptually simple, the actual processes and policies used by states and localities to ensure child care assistance are far more complicated.... This document highlights overarching issues and themes, including those facing administrators and agencies working to provide these services to parents, and the implications of these issues for TANF clients and their children."]

[Request #S61629]

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TRANSPORTATION

CALIFORNIA

2005 Annual Report to the California Legislature. By the California Transportation Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) 2006. 167 p.

Full Text at: www.catc.ca.gov/2005%20CTC%20Annual%20Rpt.pdf

["The state transportation program is in shambles. With nearly $8 billion in transportation funds diverted to shore up the deficit-ridden state budget in this decade and with road maintenance now soaking up all state gas tax revenues, there's no money left in the pot for major construction, even with federal funds available.... The report said borrowing is not a substitute for new revenues, forcefully arguing that California's much-used but much-neglected system needs a stable flow of revenues, most plausibly from an increase in state fuel taxes." Sacramento Bee (January 20, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61630]

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PORTS & SHIPPING

Combating Nuclear Smuggling: DHS Has Made Progress Deploying Radiation Detection Equipment at U.S. Ports-of-Entry, but Concerns Remain. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-06-389. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2006. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d06389.pdf

["This report examines the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) efforts associated with the deployment of radiation detection equipment at U.S. ports-of-entry. The report includes recommendations that DHS should develop ways to effectively screen rail containers and revise its procedures for container inspection." TRB Newsletter (April 4, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61631]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Preventive Care for Children in the United States: Quality and Barriers." By Paul J. Chung, and others. IN: Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 27 (April 2006) pp. 491-515.

["In this study, researchers examine the academic literature covering quality of childhood preventive care and identify barriers that contribute to poor or disparate quality.... Major barriers include lack of insurance, lack of continuity with a clinician or place of care, lack of privacy for adolescents, lack of clinician awareness or skill, racial/ethnic barriers, language-related barriers, clinician and patient gender-related barriers, and lack of time." RAND Child Policy Update (March 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61632]

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HUMAN SERVICES

YOUTH

The American Freshman: National Norms for 2005. By the UCLA Higher Education Research Institute. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) January 2006. 186 p.

["The annual 'The American Freshman' survey reported that first-year undergraduates' interest in performing community service and assisting the needy has surged.... The survey found that 66.3% believe it is very important or essential to help others in difficulty. That figure, up from 62.4% in 2004, is the highest percentage in 25 years." Los Angeles Times (January 26, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61634]

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