Subject: Studies in the News 05-40 (November 3, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Education Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Preparing and training professionals
   Plan for more science and math teachers
   Career development for urban teachers
   Pre-service urban educators
   Reforming teacher education
   Math and science teachers
   Measuring teacher effectiveness
   Teacher licensure improvements
   Cost of teacher attrition
   Individuals attracted to urban teaching
   Teacher's working with ESL students
   California’s hidden teacher shortage gap
   Recruiting and retaining effective new teachers
   Value of teachers and student achievement
   California’s teaching force
   Who teaches and why
   Alternative teacher compensation
   Public school teachers
   Impact of retirement on the teaching profession
   State incentive to recruite and retain new teachers
   Teachers' views on unions and merit pay
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Retention of quality teachers
   Status of the teaching profession
   Teacher turnover and school climate
   Reforming teacher education
   Chronic teacher turnover in urban elementary schools
   Qualified teachers.
   Public school teachers and tenure
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EDUCATION

TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

Preparing and Training Professionals: Comparing Education to Six Other Fields. By Katherine S. Neville and others. Financing Project. (Financing Project, Washington, DC) 2005. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.financeprojectinfo.org/publications/preparingprofessionals.pdf

["A new report by The Finance Project compares professional education and training in six fields -- law, accounting, architecture, nursing, firefighting and law enforcement -- with the approaches used to educate and train teachers."]

[Request #S54001]

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One Thousand Teachers, One Million Minds. By the University of California. (The University, Oakland, California) May 2005.

["Within the next decade, nearly one-third of our teaching workforce will retire. Furthermore, data indicates that the proportion of retirees among those teaching secondary science and mathematics is even higher.... In addition, many of California’s secondary teachers in science and mathematics either teach without any credential, or in areas outside their credential. Beginning in 2006, these teachers will not be considered 'highly qualified' by federal 'No Child Left Behind' definitions, and accordingly, districts employing them will be penalized."]

Program Proposal. 16 p.:
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/academics/1000teachers/proposal.pdf

Initiative Details. Various pagings:
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/academics/1000teachers/

[Request #S54002]

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The Fragility of Urban Teaching: A Longitudinal Study of Career Development and Activism. Karen Hunter Quartz and others. Prepared by Institute for Democracy, Education and Access. (University of California, Los Angeles, California) October 2003. 41 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=idea

[“This paper describes the creation and development of UCLA’s Urban Teacher Education Program. Specifically, it focuses on efforts to partner with local communities to create alternative sites of learning for novice teachers. The paper includes the story of graduates working in one Los Angeles elementary school in order to set the stage for the research question: under what conditions do highly-qualified urban teachers remain committed to a career as a social justice educator? The paper reports preliminary retention data from a longitudinal study of graduates and explores the issue of how professional learning communities emerge in urban schools.”]

[Request #S54003]

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Specialized Recruitment: An Examination of the Motivations and Expectations of Pre-service Urban Educators. By Kimberly Barraza Lyons, Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access. University of California, Los Angeles, California) April 2004. 41 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1019&context=idea

[“This paper reports on a ... survey... of pre-service teachers enrolled in a specialized teacher education program [to prepare] teachers for high-poverty urban schools. Initial analyses indicate that the background characteristics of individuals attracted to the specialized program and their reasons for entering the profession differ from those of pre-service teachers in the population at large. Program entrants tend to be motivated by activist ideals, expressing high levels of initial commitment to teaching and to furthering social justice through education.”]

[Request #S54004]

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Reforming Teacher Education: A First-Year Progress Report on a New Initiative Research Brief. By RAND Education. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9063/RAND_RB9063.pdf

[“Teachers for a New Era is an ambitious attempt to reform teacher education in selected institutions across the nation by providing them with substantial funding and technical assistance. The grantees are expected to reform their teacher preparation programs to align with several design principles."]

[Request #S54005]

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"Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills Are Key To Improving Student Achievement in Science, Math." By Education Commission of the States.” IN: The Progress of Education Reform 2004 Science and Mathematics Education, vol. 6, no. 1 (December 2004) pp. 1-6.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/56/65/5665.pdf

["This issue of the Progress of Education Reform focuses on what is more and more seen as a major stumbling block to change and improvement: the education, training and classroom practices of the nation’s K-12 science and math teachers. It summarizes recent research on the dimensions, causes and already emerging consequences of the problem, and looks at efforts under way at the national and state levels to address it."]

[Request #S54006]

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The Promise and Peril of Using Value-added Modeling to Measure Teacher Effectiveness: Research Brief. By RAND Education. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 5 pages.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9050/RAND_RB9050.pdf

[“Value-added modeling offers the possibility of estimating the effects of teachers and schools on student performance, a potentially important contribution in the current environment of concern for accountability in education. These techniques, however, are susceptible to a number of sources of bias, depending on decisions about how the modeling is executed and on the quality of the data on which models are based."]

[Request #S54007]

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"The Predictable, But Unpredictably Personal, Politics of Teacher Licensure." By Frederick M. Hess. IN: Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 56 no. 3 (May 17, 2005) pp. 1-17.

Full Text at: www.aei.org/docLib/20050517_TeacherLicensure.pdf

["Those institutions, organizations, and individuals who have helped construct existing arrangements and teacher licensing systems see ... improvement requiring the application of higher standards, additional expertise, more fieldwork and partnering with schools, and more resources. On the other hand, those who would strip down much of the existing licensure apparatus ... regard such efforts as tinkering that leaves established gate-keepers unchallenged, dissuades talent from entering the field, stifles challenges to the reigning orthodoxy, and inflates the cost of educational provision."]

[Request #S54008]

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TEACHERS

Teacher Attrition: A Costly Loss to the Nation and to the States: Issue Brief. By the Alliance for Excellent Education. Issue Brief. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) August 2005. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.all4ed.org/publications/TeacherAttrition.pdf

["This report says the cost of replacing public school teachers who leave the profession is $2.2 billion a year. The leading cause of teacher attrition is not retirement but other reasons such as job dissatisfaction or the pursuit of non-teaching jobs. Attrition is about 50 percent higher in poorer schools than wealthier ones and new teachers are more vulnerable to leaving the profession than those already established in school systems. Besides better pay, the report's authors recommend a combination of high-quality mentoring, professional development and interaction with teachers and community to keep more teachers on the job. The most common source of dissatisfaction: lack of planning time." NIEER Online Newsletter (August 25, 2005).]

[Request #S54010]

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Courses of Action: A Report on Urban Teacher Career Development. By Brad Olsen and Lauren Anderson. Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access. (The University, Los Angeles, California) June 2004. 38 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=idea

[“This paper presents findings from a study investigating relationships among the reasons for entry, preparation experiences, workplace conditions, and future career plans of fifteen UCLA Teacher Education Program graduates working in urban elementary schools in Los Angeles. More specifically, the analysis examines why these early career teachers stay in or consider leaving the urban schools in which they are teaching. The findings highlight the need to reconceptualize notions of teacher retention in order to better acknowledge and support the development of deep, varied, successful careers in the field of urban education. The data suggest that these urban teachers will remain in urban education if they can adopt multiple education roles inside and outside the classroom, and receive professional support during the whole of their professional careers, not just the beginnings of their teaching.”]

[Request #S54011]

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Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners: A Survey of California Teacher’s Challenges, Experiences and Professional Development Needs. By Patricia Gardara and others, The Center for the Future of Teaching and learning. (The Center, Santa Cruz, California) 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.cftl.org/documents/2005/listeningforweb.pdf

["Most California teachers are ill-prepared and ill-equipped to teach students who are not proficient in English, according to a study. Researchers concluded that teachers struggle to communicate with these children and their parents, don't have enough time to teach academic content and language skills and are frustrated with the wide range of academic skills and language proficiency among students. They also don't have appropriate teaching materials and quality professional development programs, researchers found.” Stockton Record (May 17, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54012]

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California’s Hidden Teacher Shortage Gap: How State and District Budgeting Practices Shortchange Poor and Minority Students and Their Schools.” By The Education Trust-West. (The Trust, Oakland, California) September 2005. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.hiddengap.org/resources/report031105.pdf

[“It's not a secret: Schools in affluent neighborhoods are often filled with experienced teachers, while schools serving overwhelmingly low-income, Latino and African-American students tend to be staffed by young teachers just beginning their careers. A report shows just how great that imbalance is, by quantifying how teacher pay -- a key indicator of the years spent in the classroom -- varies widely between schools that are within the same district….That leaves California's poorest schools with teachers who are often new to the profession, have less classroom experience and are paid less." San Jose Mercury News (September 15, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54013]

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State Financial Incentive Policies for Recruiting and Retaining Effective New Teachers in Hard-to-Staff Schools. By Jeremiah Johnson. Education Commission of the States. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) May 2005. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/61/61/6161.htm

[“Education policy researchers have been predicting a major teacher shortage for the past two decades…. The danger of shortages – whether in a subject or hard-to-staff school – is far-reaching…. Clearly, one tactic to address this problem is to attract more teachers to a high need area through financial incentive policies…. Financial incentives come in many forms. The most common types of benefits involve giving college scholarships or deferring payment of college loans in exchange for teaching in a shortage area. Another common approach is to offer teachers housing benefits including compensation for moving expenses and special loans. Other policies include salary increases, offering free or discounted training programs and providing yearly bonuses.”]

[Request #S54014]

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“The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap.” IN: Thinking K-16, vol. 8, no. 1 (Winter 2004) pp. 3-32.

Full Text at: www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/5704CBA6-CE12-46D0-A852-D2E2B4638885/0/Spring04.pdf

[“This report looks at data that cuts through what is outside the control of schools and teachers to reveal the tremendous impact teacher make on student learning. It shows how states, districts and schools are using this information to accomplish two primary goals: 1) Increase the overall number of effective teachers, which includes improving the effectiveness of teachers currently in the classroom; 2) Get more effective teachers into the classrooms of the low-income children who rely on them the most for their learning.”]

[Request #S54015]

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California’s Teaching Force 2004: Key Issues and Trends. By C.E. Esch. (The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, Santa Cruz, California) 2004.

[“Findings: 1) The state’s teaching force is aging, and an impending bulge in teacher retirement is likely to create significant new demand for teachers; 2) Since the passage of NCLB, the number of intern credentials has increased, and the number of emergency permits has decreased. But not all trends have been positive: The production of preliminary credentials had declined, as has enrollment in regular preparation programs; 3) Special education and many secondary education subjects continue to be plagued by shortages of fully credentialed teachers; 4) Underprepared teachers are found in disproportionate numbers in low-performing schools and in schools serving large numbers of minority students, poor students, and English-language-learners; 5) The state’s budget crisis had led to major cuts in recruitment, and fee increases for teacher credential candidates.”]

Executive Summary. 11 p.:
http://www.cftl.org/documents/2004/1204report/1204repoverview.pdf

Full Report. 107 p.:
http://www.cftl.org/documents/2004/1204report/1204fullreport.pdf

[Request #S54016]

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A Sense of Calling: Who Teaches and Why. By Steve Farkas and others. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2005. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/research/pdfs/sense_of_calling.pdf

["Findings from this study show that the overwhelming majority of new teachers say that teaching is work they love to do. Most beginning teachers say that they want a job where they can make a difference and that they have committed to teaching as a lifelong choice... And despite high-profile predictions of a pending teacher shortage, few school administrators currently report widespread hiring problems in their districts."]

[Request #S54017]

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Understanding Alternative Teacher Compensation: Expert Insight From K-12 School Finance Policy Symposium. By California Policy Institute. University of Southern California. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) June 2005. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/html/Document.asp?chouseid=6192

["The current method of compensating teachers -- based almost entirely on experience and earned education credit - is not well aligned to the goal of improving student achievement. However, the panelists cautioned 'merit pay' or 'performance pay' should not be considered policy panaceas by themselves.... The key to realizing the potential benefits of these alternative compensation strategies is that they be considered and implemented as part of a larger, comprehensive reform effort to improve teacher quality."]

[Request #S54018]

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Proposition 74: Public School Teachers. Waiting Period for Permanent Status: Dismissal: Initiative Statute. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) July 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/ballot/2005/74_11_2005.htm

["Proposition 74 would change existing state law in the following ways: Extends Probationary Period to Five Years; Modifies Dismissal Process for Permanent Employees.... The effect of these changes would be to reduce requirements in the initial stages of the dismissal process and potentially place greater focus on the evaluation process."]

[Request #S54019]

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Profile: Troops to Teachers. By C. Emily Feistritzer. National Center for Education Information. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2005. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.ncei.com/NCEI_TT_v3.pdf

["Forty percent of public school teachers plan to exit the profession within five years, the highest rate since at least 1990, according to a study.... The rate is expected to be even greater among high school teachers, half of whom plan to be out of teaching by 2010. Retirement is the dominant factor, as the public teaching corps is aging fast.... The projected turnover rate will deprive school districts of an enormous amount of teaching experience just as the U.S. pushes to get a top instructor in every class." Associated Press (August 18, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54021]

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State Financial Incentive Policies for Recruiting and Retaining Effective New Teachers in Hard-to-staff Schools. By Jeremiah Johnson. Education Commission. (The Commission, Washington, DC) May 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/61/61/6161.doc

["Check out our 50-state roundup of the FINANCIAL INCENTIVES that states have created to recruit and retain teachers in hard-to-staff schools and in critical subject areas."]

[Request #S54022]

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Stand By Me: What Teachers Really Think about Unions, Merit Pay and Other Professional Matters. By Steve Farkas and others, Public Agenda. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2005. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/research/pdfs/stand_by_me.pdf

["Public school teachers say they love their work and are confident in their ability to reach most students. But a majority feels that they are unfairly being held accountable when so much that affects learning is beyond their control. They acknowledge that some teachers shouldn't be teaching, but see unions and tenure as necessary protection against school politics and unfounded accusations by parents and students. Teachers are receptive to 'merit pay' for those who work harder or in the most challenging schools, but not based on test scores or the subject they teach."]

[Request #S54023]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Education Supplement.]

TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

Trapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers. By Alliance for Excellent Education. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.all4ed.org/publications/TappingThePotential/TappingThePotential.pdf

["This new report cites comprehensive induction, especially in a teacher's first two years on the job, as the single effective strategy to stem the rapidly increasing teacher attrition rate. It includes federal policy recommendations, in-depth analysis of new teacher induction practices, and four case studies: Connecticut BEST, Santa Cruz New Teacher Project (California), Tangipahoa FIRST (Louisiana), and The Toledo Plan (Ohio)." Moving Ideas (July 13, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3485]

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Teaching and California's Future: The Status of the Teaching Profession 2003: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations. By Patrick M. Shields and others. (The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, Santa Cruz, California) 2003. 183 p.

Full Text at: www.cftl.org/documents/2003fullreportdec10.pdf

["This report provides the latest available data and analysis of California's teaching workforce and examines the preparation, induction and professional development of teachers. The report also examines the preparation of those assigned to teach special education and English language learning students, and the shortage of qualified teachers in the fields of mathematics and science."]

[Request #S9895]

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TEACHERS

"The Effects of Chronic Teacher Turnover on School Climate and Organization." By Kacey Guin. IN: Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 12, no. 42 (August 16, 2004) pp. 1-30.

Full Text at: epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v12n42/v12n42.pdf

["Although the effects teachers have on students are well documented, the systemwide impact of high rates of teacher turnover -— such as on the health of the school (including faculty, staff, students, and the larger community) -— is often overlooked. This study examined the relationship between teacher turnover and school climate."]

[Request #S4041]

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Reforming Teacher Education: A First Year Progress Report on Teachers for a New Area. By Sheila Nataraj Kirby and others, RAND Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 150 p.

["In a bold attempt to reform the way teachers are prepared in the United States, the Carnegie Corporation [and others] launched Teachers for a New Era in the summer of 2001. The goal of this initiative is to fundamentally reform teacher education in a selected number of teacher preparation programs by providing these sites with funding ... and technical assistance through the Academy for Educational Development.... This report documents their successes and their challenges in the first year of the reform and sets the stage for the future."]

[Request #S4284]

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"Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools." By Kacey Guin. IN: Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 12 no. 42 (August 2004) pp. 1-30.

Full Text at: epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v12n42/v12n42.pdf

["This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school's working climate and ability to effectively function."]

[Request #S4620]

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Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence about Teacher Certification, Teach for America, and Teacher Effectiveness. By Linda Darling-Hammond and others, Stanford University. (The Authors, Palo Alto, California) April 2005. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.schoolredesign.net/binaries/(teachercert.pdf

["A study adds new evidence to the national debate over whether teacher education and certification programs create teachers who can best help students achieve. The conclusion: students do markedly better when their teachers received training in how children learn and in ways to make material accessible to a wide range of pupils.... Other studies have shown a link between teacher certification and student achievement but this is the largest." Mercury News (April 16, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52907]

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Prop 74: Summary Points. By USC California Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 4 p.

["Proposition 74 is an initiative described simply as altering the time necessary for teachers to attain tenure, Proposition 74 would, in fact, amend the California Education Code in three primary areas: 1) Lengthen the probation period for teachers from two years to five years; 2) Formally link performance evaluation and the dismissal process in the education code; and 3) Change the evaluation and dismissal processes related to unsatisfactory performance by allowing school districts to go directly to dismissal following the second consecutive unsatisfactory evaluation."]

[Request #S53814]

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