Subject: Studies in the News 05-32 (September 19, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Special Supplement on Disaster Preparedness


Studies in the News Readings

- "Selected Readings on Disaster and Emergency Preparedness - September 2000 to September 2005 "    

- "Hurricane Katrina: [Special News Resource.] By NewsBank. "NewsBank, America's Newspapers, a nationwide news archive, has made a special page for Katrina related news items. The California State Library provides the NewsBank archive with 115 California community papers and 655 papers nationwide for the use of all California state agencies. For advise on searching or establishing a personal clipping service for custom e-mail updates, email crb@library.ca.gov or call the Capitol Office of the California Research Bureau, (916) 445-3551 or (916) 319-2691. "  infoweb.newsbank.com  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Estimates of Katrina's impact
   International emergency alert system
EDUCATION
   Seismic safety for schools
EMPLOYMENT
   Unprecedented number of benefit claims
ENERGY
   Energy outlook altered by Katrina
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Katrina damage computer model
   Hurricane probability projections
   California still earthquake vulnerable
   Flood risk in the delta
   Standards for measuring flood risk
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   California deployments to Gulf States
   Emergency authority and spending
   Private investment for rebuilding
   Homeland security and the private sector
   Delivering aid through state agencies
   Infrastructure protection
   Costly emergency response equipment
   European approaches to catastrophic risks
   Alternatives to landline phones
   Federal help for first responders
   Mutual aid and critical communications
   Improving emergency response
   Strategies for pet and livestock safety
   Disaster planning personal responsibility
   The next big one
   Bay Area's advances in preparation
STUDIES TO COME
   Transportation fiasco after earthquake
   Staggering earthquake costs
   Tsunami threat to coast
   Hazard loss reduction research
   Emergency services and preparedness
   Emergency response funding
   Government response to new dangers
   California incident command system
   Regional emergency preparedness compact
   San Francisco not prepared for emergencies
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

ECONOMIC STATISTICS

Macroeconomic and Budgetary Effects of Hurricane Katrina. By the Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, D.C.) September 6, 2005. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6627/09-06-ImpactKatrina.pdf

["Hurricane Katrina will have a greater economic impact than previous killer storms, though the energy price spikes, slower growth and job losses will not be enough to push the country into a recession.... The CBO predicted the aftermath of Katrina would see job losses of 400,000 in coming months. These impacts were described as 'significant but not overwhelming.... The economy could suffer a more serious blow if energy supply disruptions along the Gulf Coast last longer than expected." Associated Press (September 7, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53201]

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INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Structure of an International Emergency Alert System. By F. Baker and B. Carpenter, Internet Society. (The Society, Reston, Virginia) 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: straddle3.net/context/03/en/2005_01_21.html

["A system could be used to quickly warn people in an identified geographic region of an impending event, such as a tsunami, hurricane or typhoon, or attack.... Given an alert from an appropriate warning center, the Internet could be used to deliver an authenticated message to ... mobile telephones in affected regions. The same email could trigger public and private organizations to initiate necessary support services such as evacuation orders or provision of shelter and emergency medical response."]

[Request #S53202]

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EDUCATION

SCHOOL BUILDINGS

Seismic Safety in California's Schools: Findings and Recommendations on Seismic Safety Policies and Requirements for Public, Private, and Charter Schools. By the California Seismic Safety Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) 2004. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.seismic.ca.gov/pub/CSSC_2004-04_School%20Safety.pdf

["In any community, public schools constructed under the Field Act after 1978 are likely to be among the safest buildings in which to experience a major earthquake. Private schools are not required by law to meet the Field Act standards, and therefore are not likely to be as safe as public schools of similar age. Private schools located in older buildings can pose a serious risk to the life-safety of their students.... Only some charter school buildings are subject to the Field Act provisions."]

[Request #S53203]

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EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

"California EDD to Help Unemployed in Hurricane Ravaged Louisana." By Loree Levy. IN: State Workforce System News (September 8, 2005) 1.

Full Text at: www.workforceatm.org/articles/template.cfm?results_art_filename=ca_helps.htm

["Staff of the California Employment Development Department will assist in processing an unprecedented number of Unemployment Insurance and Disaster Unemployment Assistance claims from Louisiana residents displaced by Hurricane Katrina."]

[Request #S53226]

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ENERGY

ENERGY

Short-Term Energy Outlook. By the Energy Information Agency. (The Agency, Washinton, D.C.) September 7, 2005. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/pdf/sep05.pdf

["Hurricane Katrina caused significant direct damage to offshore rigs, refineries, pipelines, and ports in the Gulf of Mexico, with wide-scale electricity outages and flooding exacerbating the already devastated infrastructure, compounded by the evacuation of thousands of employees. Katrina initially reduced oil supplies by an estimated 1.4 million barrels per day and natural gas supplies by an estimated 8.8 billion cubic feet per day.... Depending on the region of the country, increases for 2005 natural gas spot prices are expected to range between 37 and 50 percent above the 2004 averages."]

[Request #S53204]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

DISASTERS

Hurricane Katrina "Final" Forecast Model Estimates: Experimental Computer Simulation and Economic Impact Analysis. By Mark Johnson and Chuck Watson, University of Central Florida and Kinetic Analysis Corporation, (The Corporation, Orlando, Florida) 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: hurricane.methaz.org/hurapak/katrina.html

["About 86 percent of oil production in the Gulf of Mexico and 59 percent of the natural gas output are being disrupted by Hurricane Katrina.... The site uses property databases to estimate damage to residential, commercial and other types of structures in each county and city. Projected losses also take into account economic losses, such as businesses and theme parks having to shut down." Science Daily (September 2, 2005) Online.]

U.S. Damage Estimates.
http://hurricane.methaz.org/hurapak/AAL122005_staterep.html

Gulf of Mexico Oil Production Impact.
http://hurricane.methaz.org/hurapak/AAL122005_gomex_oil.html

Major Toxic Material Storage Sites.
http://hurricane.methaz.org/hurapak/AAL122005_tri_root.html

Transportation Facility Impacts.
http://hurricane.methaz.org/hurapak/AAL122005_wfp_fac.html

[Request #S53205]

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Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity. And U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2005. By William Gray and others, Tropical Meteorology Project, Colorado State University. (The Project, Collins, Colorado) August 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: typhoon.atmos.colostate.edu/Forecasts/2005/aug2005/

["Information obtained through July 2005 indicated that the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season will be an extremely active one.... We expect Atlantic basin Net Tropical Cyclone activity in 2005 to be about 235 percent of the long-term average. The probability of U.S. major hurricane landfall is estimated to be well above the long-period average."]

[Request #S53206]

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EARTHQUAKES

"California Earthquake Could Be the Next Katrina." By Jia-Rui Chong and Hector Becerra. IN: Los Angeles Times (September 8, 2005) A1+.

Full Text at: www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-quake8sep08,0,7906983,full.story

["Officials believe that a major temblor could cause the level of destruction and disruption seen on the Gulf Coast.... More than 900 hospital buildings ... need either retrofitting or total replacement and the state recently agreed to five-year extensions to hospitals that can't meet the 2008 deadline to make the fixes. More than 7,000 school buildings across the state would also be vulnerable during a huge temblors.... Only two of the LAPD's 19 stations meet the most rigorous quake-safe rules.... Seismologists are particularly concerned about ... 40,000 structures in California made from 'non-ductile reinforced concrete,' a rigid substance susceptible to cracking.... Few such structures have been seismically retrofitted, officials said."]

[Request #S53207]

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FLOODS

"Subsidence, Sea Level Rise, and Seismicity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. By Jeffrey Mount and Robert Twiss. IN: San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, vol. 3 no. 1 (March 2005) [online.]

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=jmie/sfews

["When UC Davis geology professor Jeffrey Mount looks at the images of broken levees and surging floodwaters in New Orleans, he sees the future of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.... Mount and another scientist have concluded that over the next 50 years, there is a 2-in-3 chance that a major storm or earthquake will cause widespread levee failure in the Northern California delta, part of the West Coast's largest estuary and the source of drinking water for more than 22 million Californians." Los Angeles Times (September 1, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53208]

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Reducing Flood Losses: Is the 1% Chance Flood Standard Sufficient? By Larry Olinger, American Association of Floodplain Managers Foundation, and others. (The Foundation, Madison, Wisconsin) September 22, 2004.

["The foundation of the system for estimating floods fails to consider wetter weather that exists in many places today, increased runoff caused by urbanization in many watersheds, and decades of sediment accumulation in waterways.... The so-called '1 percent standard' for measuring flood risk has been debated in the scientific community ever since it was first adopted in California in 1923.... A panel of experts analyzed the 1 percent standard and found that while the standard has had a number of benefits, such as encouraging safer home construction, it has many shortcomings." Sacramento Bee (September 8, 2005) B1.]

Report. 46 p. Appendicies
http://www.floods.org/Foundation/Files/2004_Forum_Report_Final_Color.pdf

Background Papers. 145 p.
http://www.floods.org/Foundation/Files/2004_Forum_BackgroundPapers.pdf

[Request #S53209]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

California Resources Deployed to the Gulf States. By the Office of Emergency Services. (The Office, Sacramento, California) September 15, 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.oes.ca.gov/Operational/OESHome.nsf/ALL/1223FA54B1CFD24A8825706F006F235C?OpenDocument

["Total Individuals from California -- 1,777: Swiftwater Rescue Teams (112 firefighters and lifeguards); Urban Search & Rescue Task Forces (528 people); Incident Support Team Managers (30 people) OES Fire & Rescue Branch Assistant Fire Chiefs (3 people); One OES Law Enforcement Branch representative; Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (210 people); National Guard (781 soldiers and airmen); and California Highway Patrol (112 officers)]

[Request #S53225]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Analysis of the 2005-06 Budget Bill: Homeland Security. By the Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office: Sacramento, California) 2005.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/analysis_2005/general_govt/gen_02_cc_homeland_security.htm

["To date, the state's homeland security efforts have been directed through executive orders and budget requests. The authority for Office of Homeland Security (OHS) has been primarily provided through broader emergency authority under the Emergency Services Act (ESA). Our review, however, found that OHS and some of its specific duties (in particular the prevention of disasters) are not delineated in the ESA.... Statewide, only 31 percent of homeland security funds have been spent.... The most recent grants have an average expenditure rate of 29 percent."]

[Request #S53210]

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From Tragedy to Triumph: Principled Solutions for Rebuilding Lives and Communities. By Edwin Meese III, Stuart M. Butler, and Kim R. Holmes. (Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.) September 12, 2005. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/GovernmentReform/sr05.cfm

["Responding to natural disasters involves two overlapping phases. The first is to get people out of danger and give them the immediate help they need. That requires both public and private organizations to slash red tape that impedes action.... The second phase is to create the best possible conditions for rebuilding lives and communi­ties. The key to making this phase successful is to encourage creative and rapid private investment through incentives and reduced regulation, and to channel long-term education, health, and other assistance directly to the people and areas affected so that they can control their future."]

[Request #S53211]

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Homeland Security and the Private Sector. By Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/60xx/doc6042/12-20-HomelandSecurity.pdf

["Federal initiatives, such as disaster-preparedness grants from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, involve directly funding the coordination efforts of local governments and businesses.... Federal assistance could be available under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, which would compensate state and local governments for up to 75 percent of their efforts to provide early assistance to victims of accidents that the President declared to be an emergency or major disaster."]

[Request #S53212]

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Meeting the Basic Needs of Hurrican Katrina Victims: Recommendations to Policymakers. By Robert Greenstein, Center for the Center of Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 9, 2005, 19 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-9-05pov.pdf

["Our proposals are largely structured around amending existing programs and delivering aid through state and local agencies that have an established infrastructure and already provide widespread aid in locations around the country.... It will be essential for the federal government to tap into the safety net already in place in every state - to provide housing, health care, basic income, and food - by providing the federal resources and, where necessary, administrative flexibility so that these basic services can be provided to disaster victims no matter where they are temporarily located."]

[Request #S53213]

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Critical Infrastructure Protection: Department of Homeland Security Faces Challenges in Fulfilling Cybersecurity Responsibilities. By Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-434. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2005. 78 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-434

["Federal law and policy call for critical infrastructure protection activities that are intended to enhance the cyber and physical security of both the public and private infrastructures that are essential to national security, national economic security, and national public health and safety.... Because a large percentage of the nation's critical infrastructures is owned and operated by the private sector, public/private partnerships are crucial for successful critical infrastructure protection."]

[Request #S53214]

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Findings and Recommendations on the Resource Needs of California's Urban Search and Rescue Teams. By California Seismic Safety Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) 2003.

Full Text at: www.seismic.ca.gov/pub/CSSC_2003-05_FINAL_USAR_Report_2003_05.doc

["It is imperative for public health and safety that trained and equipped local Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) first-responders are available for emergency response throughout the state. Local governments alone cannot shoulder the financial burden of developing and maintaining the needs of local US&R resource teams. Emerging technological advances are continuing to develop emergency response equipment that is more effective and efficient, yet costly to local governments."]

[Request #S53215]

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Catastrophe Risk: U.S. and European Approaches to Insure Natural Catastrophe and Terrorism Risks. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-199. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2005. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-199

["In this report, GAO provides an overview of the insurance industry's current capacity to cover natural catastrophe risk and discusses the impacts of the 2004 hurricanes; and describes the approaches that six European countries have taken to address natural and terrorist catastrophe risk, including whether these countries permit insurers to use tax-deductible reserves for such events."]

[Request #S53216]

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"After Chaos, Changes in Calling?" By Olga Kharif. Business Week (September 2, 2005) [online].

Full Text at: www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2005/nf2005092_8957_db094.htm

["According to a memo from the Homeland Security Department, the telecommunications infrastructure in New Orleans, Biloxi, and Gulfport is considered to be a total write-off. Little surprise, then, that survivors, police, and other emergency-service providers are relying on satellite phones.... The American Red Cross is shipping in satellite phones, while Globalstar donated more than 100 phones to the governors' offices in Louisiana and Mississippi.... The city could become the test bed for new technologies such as WiMax, where a single antenna could blanket a town or part of a larger city that would otherwise require a number of cell towers."]

[Request #S53217]

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DHS' Efforts to Enhance First Responders' All-Hazards Capabilities Continue to Evolve. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-652. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2005. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d05652.pdf

["The report examines U.S. Department of Homeland Security policies and strategies that promote the development of the all-hazards emergency management capabilities of first responders. In addition, the report reviews how first responders' emergency management capabilities for terrorist attacks differ from those capabilities needed for natural or accidental disasters." TRB Newsletter (August 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S53218]

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Getting the Green Light: Safer Communities Through Mutual Aid and Critical Communications Interoperability. By Center for Digital Government. (The Center, Folsom, California) 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: media.centerdigitalgov.com/reg2view/Getting_the_Green_Light.pdf

["The great lesson from the recent events is the life and death importance of effective, interoperable communications during times of crisis. The need for interoperability, where public safety officials can share information in a secure, real-time digital environment, is more evident now than ever before.... This paper examines the current situation and the need to transform communications systems to an enterprise-wide operation."]

[Request #S53219]

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Emergency Preparedness: More Needs to Be Done to Improve California's Preparedness for Responding to Infectious Disease Emergencies. By California State Auditor. (The Auditor, Sacramento, California) August 2005. 92 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/2004-133.pdf

["Although California has completed several tasks related to responding to infectious disease emergencies, it has more to do to improve its prepardness. To ensure that California is better prepared to respond efficiently and effectively to infectious diseases emergencies, the following steps should be taken: Medical Services should update and issue the Disaster Medical Response Plan and Medical Mutual Aid Plan as soon as resources and priorities allow; Health Services should develop and implement a tracking method for following up on recommendations identified in after-action reports." NOTE: Additonal public policy readings on Public Health and Emergency Preparedness are available from CRB.]

[Request #S53220]

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DANR Guide to Disaster Preparedness. By the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Davis. (The Universtiy, Davis, California) 91 p.

Full Text at: www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vetext/DANR/DANRGuide2.pdf

["Effective, well-rehearsed strategies for pet and livestock safety must be in place before a disaster occurs. Disaster preparedness can mean the difference between undue loss and suffering of animals, which adds additional trauma to human victims, and successful evacuation and care for both people and animals." Includes: "Role of the GovernorŐs Office of Emergency Services;" "Some Key Elements in Developing a Disaster Plan for Animal Care;" "Disaster Preparedness Training Manuals, Workshops, Videotapes, Resource Information;"]

[Request #S53221]

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Be Smart, Be Responsible, Be Prepared. Be Ready! Get Involved, Volunteer, Bear Responsibility. By the Governor's Office of Emergency Preparadness (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.oes.ca.gov/Operational/OESHome.nsf/ALL/7A43A30DB8F1F1CA88256FE90079CEB6?OpenDocument

["Earlier this year, officials at the state Office of Emergency Services launched a campaign, targeted at kids... It provides printable versions of a fairly comprehensive checklist of supplies that should be on hand. A week's supply of water -- a gallon per day per person -- first-aid kit and book, a bicycle, a city map, a tool kit, a candle and matches, flashlights, radio, spare batteries, cash, a coil of rope, a knife, an ax, bleach, plastic trash bags and more. It advises a family preparedness plan. Designate an out-of-the area friend or relative who will be the central contact for family members who may be separated. Set a meeting place, know where to shut off water and gas to your home, make photos or videos of your belongings and store them with someone out of the area." San Diego Tribune (September 16, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53222]

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"The Next Big One: Where America Is Most Vulnerable and How the Nation Can Better Manage the Risks Ahead." IN: Business Week, (September 19, 2005) online.

["We live in a private, hyper-efficient, just-in-time economy with no slack built into it. But dealing with catastrophe requires just the opposite -- extra capacity and backup. Cell-phone communications failed in both New York and New Orleans in part because there was little backup built into the systems.... The federal government already spends billions annually on Homeland Security, public works, and public health to defend against disasters, but it is not focused on areas of greatest threat.... Establishing clear lines of authority in case of disaster before disaster strikes is important. New York had them. New Orleans didn't."]

[Request #S53223]

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"Are We Ready? The Bay Area Is a Model for Quake Preparedness, but Huge Gaps Remain in Retrofitting, Response." And "Anticipating the Big One: Best Preparation for Quake Assumes Worst-case Scenario." By Kevin Fagen and others. IN: San Francisco Chronicle (September 18, 2005) A1+

Full Text at: sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/09/18/MNGLUEOVO21.DTL

["The region is more prepared than ever for a major disaster, emergency planners say thanks to governments and companies spending billions of dollars over the past decade to upgrade water, transportation, communications and emergency response systems.... Despite some recent advances, there remain alarming vulnerabilities in most of these areas, particularly transportation and housing.... An untold number of houses with weakly supported bottom floors are sure to crumble. And though communities are confident they can shelter a third of the 330,000 who lose their homes, which may be adequate because many will find their own accommodations -- nobody will know until it happens.... Area fire and police departments operate on so many different frequencies that they may not be able to radio each other after a quake."]

[Request #S53224]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

EARTHQUAKES

"Predicting Earthquake Effects - Learning from Northridge and Loma Prieta." By Thomas L. Holzer, U.S. Geological Survey IN: Science, vol. 265, no. 5176 (August 26, 1994) pp. 1182-1183.

["Because large earthquakes typically overwhelm state resources and place unplanned burdens on the federal government, it is important to learn from these earthquakes how to reduce future losses. My purpose here is to explore a potential implication of the Northridge and Loma Prieta earthquakes for hazard-mitigation strategies."]

[Request #S3472]

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What Are We Predicting Will Happen to Our Transportation System in Future Earthquakes? By The Association of Bay Area Governments. (The Association, Oakland, California.) April 30, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/eqtrans/result.html

["ABAG's report revises upward it's 1997 projections. Scientists have a more complete understanding of earthquake behavior after studying new phenomena from major quakes in Turkey, Japan and the California desert. Consequently, ABAG thinks there will be more road damage everywhere." Oakland Tribune (May 1, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5350]

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Residential Earthquake Recovery: Improving California's Post-Disaster Rebuilding Policies and Programs. By Mary C. Comerio, Professor, Architecture Department, University of California, Berkeley, and others. CPS Report. (California Policy Seminar, Berkeley, California) 1996. 181 p.; Appendices.

["This report examines the current state of earthquake recovery practice in California, with special emphasis on housing recovery. Public and private payments for residential rebuilding in the aftermath of Northridge have so far totaled $12-13 billion, or about 50-60% of the total recovery cost."]

[Request #S5773]

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California Earthquake Loss Reduction Plan: 1997-2001. By the California Seismic Safety Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) [1998.]. 49 p.

["[This document] projects the Commission's vision to the year 2010, in conformance with the National Hazards Mitigation Strategy, while undergoing a continuous process of evaluation that will refine the direction and measure the results. A total of 120 initiatives each identify a new or renewed effort to provide direction for implementation."]

[Request #S6615]

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An Evaluation of Future Earthquake Losses in California: A White Paper. By the California Department of Conservation. (The Department, Sacramento, California) September 19, 2000. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.consrv.ca.gov/news/PDFs/EQ_Loss_WhitePaper.pdf

["A new report estimated that the average annual costs of quake damage to buildings alone in the state could total $3.9 billion during the next few decades and reach a staggering $4.7 billion a year -- if losses to contents, inventory and income are counted in.... In California during the past 30 years, property damage from quakes has totaled as much as $56 billion, the state report said." San Francisco Chronicle (September 20, 2000) A2.]

[Request #S10863]

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NATURAL DISASTERS

Tsunami Scenario: Landslide Tsunami Scenario Off of Palos Verdes, California. By Philip Watts and others. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. (The Union, Washington, DC) December 15, 2000. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.appliedfluids.com/scenario.html

["Undersea Landslides Tagged As Tsunami Threat To Coast: Tsunamis generated by underwater landslides pose a serious threat to coastal communities in California and elsewhere.... Though earthquakes are the most likely culprit behind such massive landslides, other factors such as water movement and unstable rock can cause slides. In those cases, there might not be much warning to nearby communities, researchers said." Sacramento Bee (December 22, 2000) A6.]

[Request #S1122]

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Tsunami Mitigation Efforts on California's North Coast: Draft. By the Redwood Coast Tsunami Working Group. (The Group, Arcata, California) 2001. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.pmel.noaa.gov/its2001/Separate_Papers/R-14_Dengler.pdf

["Pacific Tsunami is Wake-Up Call for California: There's reason to take heed because coastal California has many faults extending offshore capable of rupturing in magnitude-7 quakes.... A national tsunami program will provide $148,000 this year for California to study areas vulnerable to inundation." San Francisco Chronicle (July 22, 1998) A3.]

[Request #S7346]

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Assessing Federal Research and Development for Hazard Loss Reduction. By Charles Meade and Megan Abbott, Rand Science and Technology Policy Institute. Prepared for the Office of Science and Technology Policy. MR-1734-OSTP. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2003. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1734/MR1734.pdf

["The study concludes that a comprehensive national loss database and greater use of loss modeling would assist in identifying essential research areas, and that R&D activities should be reoriented toward longer-term efforts, focusing on technologies that can reduce infrastructure losses and better protect individuals and property. The study offers recommendations on a more thoughful framework for the role of research in hazard loss reduction."]

[Request #S9318]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Governor's Office of Emergency Services: Its Oversight of the State's Emergency Plans and Procedures Needs Improvement While Its Future Ability to Respond to Emergencies May Be Hampered by Aging Equipment and Funding Concerns. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July 2003. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002-113.pdf

["Office of Emergency Services (OES) is responsible for assuring the State's readiness to respond and recover from natural, man-made, and war-caused emergencies. It is also responsible for assisting local governments in their emergency preparedness, response, and recovery efforts. Among these activities are OES's efforts to update the State Emergency Plan (emergency plan) and related annexes, assess the adequacy of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS), and identify weaknesses in its own performance during past emergencies while applying any lessons learned.The six county emergency operation centers (EOCs) we reviewed generally have adequate emergency response plans and training, however, OES's recent survey of county EOCs revealed that many are in need of better equipment and potentially costly upgrades."]

[Request #S3748]

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Emergency Responders: Drastically Underfunded, Dangerously Unprepared. By Waren B. Rudman and others, Council of Foreign Relations. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2003. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.cfr.org/pdf/Responders_TF.pdf

["California firefighters ... could benefit froma new study warning that the United States is ill-prepared to handle another terrorist attack.... The new study ... calls for more personal protective gear, a better 911 system and strengthened urban search and rescue teams, among other improvements. The 98 billion cost estimate potentially would entail a tripling of current state, local and federal spending." Sacramento Bee (July 1, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S3751]

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Be Prepared: Getting Ready for New and Uncertain Dangers. Report #162. Little Hoover Commission (Sacramento, California) January 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/162/report162.pdf

["We need not be motivated by fear, but by the knowledge that preparation diminishes harm. Toward that end, the Commission offers these suggestions for improving the readiness of all Californians, their communities and the state. Much more analysis will be needed to know what precisely needs to be done. These recommendations would provide for progress to be made with each new day."]

[Request #S4305]

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"Disaster Master." By John Buntin. IN: Governing, vol. 15, no. 3 (December 2001) pp. 34-37.

["The Incident Command System (ICS) [is] an innovative management template that lets public safety personnel who respond to a disaster -- be it an earthquake, fire, hurricane or hazardous-material spill -- organize quickly to get complex tasks done. A structure developed to deploy emergency workers when fires, floods or earthquakes hit can be adapted to terrorist attacks, too."]

[Request #S4938]

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Regional Emergency Preparedness Compact: Safeguarding the Nation's Communities. By William R. Dodge and others, Alliance for Regional Stewardship. (The Alliance, Mountain View, California) 2002. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.regionalstewardship.org/Documents/REPCSReport.pdf

["The first section of this report reviews the state of emergency preparedness in our regions. The second section shares some of the most promising examples of regional approaches to emergency preparedness. The last section suggests actions that state and federal governments and national associations and foundations can take to support the development of regional emergency preparedness compacts."]

[Request #S6374]

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It's A Catastrophe: The State of Emergency Planning in San Francisco. By the Civil Grand Jury for the City and County of San Francisco. (The City, San Francisco, California) June 19, 2003. 33 p.

Full Text at: web.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/courts/Emergency_Services_editorial_final(1).pdf

["Inattention from San Francisco leaders has left the city woefully unprepared to deal with terrorism, earthquakes and other potential disasters, the civil grand jury said.... Grand jury spokeswoman Arlene Singer said that despite the terrorist attack in New York City on Sept. 11, 2001, San Francisco's disaster training is inadequate, drills are too infrequent, equipment is lacking, and communications systems are vulnerable to interruption." San Francisco Chronicle (June 20, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8496]

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