Subject: Studies in the News 05-29 (August 29, 2005)


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Studies in the News for
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Children and Families Commission


Contents This Week

Introductory Material DEMOGRAPHY
   Children in low-income families
ECONOMY
   Children and interactive advertising
EDUCATION
   Alignment of pre-k through third grade
   Latest research on early childhood education
   2006 pre-k proposals in the states
   Family income and early education
   Qualified teachers.
HEALTH
   Early childhood systems and cultural competence
   Well-being of children in 2005
   Children with discontinuous health coverage
   Children without health coverage
HUMAN SERVICES
   Improving quality of family child care
   WIC achievements and historical importance
STUDIES TO COME
   Creating positive outcomes for children
   High quality pre-kindergarten.
   French fries, preschoolers and cancer
   Low-income children and dental care
   Obesity and meal portion sizes
   Disabled children and child care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

DEMOGRAPHY

CHILDREN

Basic Facts About Low-income Children. By the National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. (The Center, New York, New York) June 2005. 3 p.

["This fact sheet series describes general demographic characteristics of children in low-income families -— their number and proportion, where they live and how often they move, their age distribution, race, and ethnicity, and their parent’s education, employment, marital status, and country of origin. It has been designed to provide comparable data for different age groups because young children are more likely to live in low-income families."]

Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 18:
http://www.nccp.org/pub_lic05.html

Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 6:
http://www.nccp.org/pub_ycp05.html

Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 3:
http://www.nccp.org/pub_ecp05.html

[Request #S52901]

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ECONOMY

Interactive Advertising and Children: Issues and Implications. By Eileen Espejo and Christina Romano Glautke. (Children Now, Oakland, California) Summer 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.childrennow.org/assets/pdf/issues_media_iadbrief_2005.pdf

["Many companies are investigating the potential of interactive advertising on television. Interactive television will allow advertisers to target individual viewers with personalized ads, which may increase the likelihood of impulse purchases. Children Now is concerned that advertisers will be able to target children according to their gender, age, household income and/or race by tracking the history of their individual television viewing habits."]

[Request #S52902]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

PK-3: An Aligned and Coordinated Approach to Education for Children 3 to 8 Years Old. By Kimber Bogard and Ruby Takanishi, Foundation for Child Development. Social Policy Report. Vol. 19, No. 3. (Society for Research in Child Development, Ann Arbor, Michigan) 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: srcd.org/documents/publications/SPR/spr19-3.pdf

["This report summarizes the research basis for the PK-3 approach. The authors review the findings regarding the timing and dosage of early educational experiences, program quality, and teacher preparation and compensation. The report also summarizes the developmental basis for PK-3."]

[Request #S52903]

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Focus on Early Childhood Education [Issue Theme.] IN: Harvard Education Letter (July/August 2005) Online. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.edletter.org/current/index.shtml

["This issue offers the full text of a Harvard Education Letter article series on preK-3 education, along with links to the latest research and other resources on early childhood education. In the lead article, Stanford School of Education dean and early childhood education expert Deborah Stipek assesses the state of preschool and elementary education in the U.S., evaluates current federal initiatives and their impact, and suggests directions for future development. She writes, 'Preschool education programs offer us an important opportunity to narrow achievement gaps before children begin school. A question that is not yet settled, however, is what kinds of instruction will narrow these gaps without undermining young children's enthusiasm and self-confidence. ...Increased attention to academic skills is not a problem as long as it does not come at the expense of attention to social skills, emotional well-being, and other resources (such as dental care) that Head Start centers traditionally have provided.' Also, Harvard Graduate School of Education professor Catherine Snow, an expert in early reading and literacy development, talks about the importance of vocabulary and other literacy skills in preparing young children for later academic success and in closing early achievement gaps."]

[Request #S52904]

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Leadership Matters: Governors' Pre-k Proposals Fiscal Year 2006. By Pre[k]Now. (Pre[k]Now, Washington, DC) April 2005. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.preknow.org/documents/LeadershipReport.pdf

["Using the National Institute for Early Education Research’s (NIEER) 10-point scale to define 'quality pre-k' programs, including factors such as class size, curriculum standards, and teacher qualifications, Pre-K Now reports that only three states (Arkansas, Illinois, and North Carolina) earned a high score of 9 or 10. This report finds, encouragingly, that nineteen governors have proposed increased investments in their state Pre-K programs for the 2006 fiscal year, compared to eleven last year. Five states (Oklahoma, Georgia, Florida, New York and West Virginia) have passed legislation calling for voluntary pre-k for all." CDF Early Childhood Development Newsletter (July 2005).]

[Request #S52905]

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"Who Gets an Early Education? Family Income and the Enrollment of Three- to Five-Year-Olds from 1968 to 2000." By Jay Bainbridge and others. IN: Social Science Quarterly, vol. 86, no. 3 (September 2005) pp. 724-745.

["Has inequality in access to early education been growing or lessening over time? Using the October Current Population Survey education supplement from 1968 to 2000, we look at three-, four-, and five-year-olds' enrollment in early education — including center-based care, Head Start, nursery school, prekindergarten, and kindergarten. Our analysis shows a strong link between family income and early education enrollment for three- and four-year-olds, especially when we compare the bottom two and the top two income groups. These differences remain even after controlling for a large variety of factors, including race/ethnicity, maternal employment, family structure, and parental education. Inequality in early education by income group varies by age of child: it is most pronounced for three-year-olds, who have been the least likely to benefit from public early childhood education programs; it has diminished in the past decade for four-year-olds, who have been increasingly likely to have access to public prekindergarten programs; and it has all but disappeared for the five-year-olds, who now largely attend public kindergarten. This pattern suggests a potentially important role for public policy in closing the gap in early education between children of different income groups."]

[Request #S52906]

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TEACHERS

Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence about Teacher Certification, Teach for America, and Teacher Effectiveness. By Linda Darling-Hammond and others, Stanford University. (The Authors, Palo Alto, California) April 2005. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.schoolredesign.net/binaries/(teachercert.pdf

["A study adds new evidence to the national debate over whether teacher education and certification programs create teachers who can best help students achieve. The conclusion: students do markedly better when their teachers received training in how children learn and in ways to make material accessible to a wide range of pupils.... Other studies have shown a link between teacher certification and student achievement but this is the largest." Mercury News (April 16, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52907]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

The Role of State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems in Promoting Cultural Competence and Effective Cross-cultural Communication. By Harvinder Sareen and others. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. No. 8. (National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy at UCLA, Los Angeles, California) July 2005. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.healthychild.ucla.edu/PUBLICATIONS/SECCS%20Initiative%20Cultural%20Competence%20report%20FINAL.pdf

["This report explores what it means for services to be culturally competent and how SECCS grantees can work toward enhanced levels of competence. In doing so, they will improve the quality of services not just for children who are members of ethnic minority groups, but for all of America’s children."]

[Request #S52908]

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America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2005. By Shara Godiwalla and others, Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (The Forum, Washington, DC) July 2005. 186 p.

Full Text at: www.childstats.gov/pubs.asp

["A biennial report to the Nation on the condition of children in America. Nine contextual measures describe the changing population, family, and environmental context in which children are living, and 25 indicators depict the well-being of children in the areas of economic security, health, behavior and social environment, and education. This year's report has special features on children with asthma, children with specified blood lead levels, and parental reports of children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties. In addition, the report includes a special section on family structure and the well-being of children."]

[Request #S52909]

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"Children in the United States with Discontinuous Health Insurance Coverage." By Lynn M. Olson and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 4 (July 28, 2005) pp. 382-391.

["Twenty percent of children who lacked health care coverage for at least part of the year postponed medical care, compared to 16% of uninsured children and 4% covered by a public or private provider, according to this study. Researchers estimated that about 7% of U.S. children were uninsured and 8% lacked coverage for part of the year. According to the report, about four out of five children with gaps in health care coverage have parents who work and two-thirds lived with both parents. The report found that among children who experienced gaps in health care coverage: one-third were in preschool; 61% lived with both parents; and 82% lived with at least one working parent." California Healthline (July 28, 2005).]

[Request #S52910]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Going Without: America's Uninsured Children. By Michael Davern, State Health Access Data Assistance Center. Prepared for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (Covering Kids and Families, Washington, DC) August 2005. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.rwjf.org/files/newsroom/ckfresearchreportfinal.pdf

["The number of uninsured U.S. children decreased by about two million to 8.4 million between 1998 and 2003, and 70% of those children qualified for public health insurance programs such as Medicaid or SCHIP but were not enrolled, according to this study.... 20% of Latino children lacked health insurance, compared with 9% of black children and 6% of white children.... The report found that almost one-third of uninsured children received no medical treatment for a one-year period between 2002 and 2003." California Health Line (August 3, 2005).]

[Request #S52911]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

In Our Own Backyards: Local and State Strategies to Improve the Quality of Family Child Care. By Katie Hamm and others. (Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, DC) 2005. 84 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/G717.pdf

["This study recommends that local and state governments increase support for programs that link training and quality service with improved compensation and benefits and that they launch efforts to reach family child care providers who are unlicensed. Since licensure is positively related to quality of care, efforts must be extended to help these providers become licensed.... Among the programs profiled are those that provide services to traditionally underserved providers, including those with linguistic or cultural barriers and those serving low-income and special needs children. In Our Own Backyards profiles programs in California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Rhode Island."]

[Request #S52912]

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WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN PROGRAM

WIC in the States: Thirty-One Years of Building a Healthier America. By Geri Henchy, Food Research Action Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2005. 185 p.

Full Text at: www.frac.org/WIC/2004_Report/Full_Report.pdf

["The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is 31 years old in 2005. This report reviews WIC's achievements in its 31year history and its importance to women, infants and children, and documents the growth in WIC participation nationally and in each state." Moving Ideas (April 26, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52913]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

FAMILIES & SCHOOLS

What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development. Edited by Kristin A. Moore and Laura Lippman, Child Trends. (Springer, New York, New York) 2005. 390p.

["With children comprising roughly 30% of the global population — almost 2 billion children worldwide — understanding exactly what leads children to grow into confident, caring, responsible adults is an issue that belongs at the forefront of every nation’s agenda. Increasingly, it is understood that we need not only to prevent negative outcomes but to promote positive outcomes. 'What Do Children Need to Flourish?'... focuses on how scholars and practitioners can begin to build rigorous measures of the healthy behaviors and attitudes that result in positive outcomes for children and youth."]

[Request #S52914]

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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

Scaling Up High-Quality Early Education: Choices and Consequences in Universal Pre-Kindergarten Efforts. By Rachel Christina and JoVictoria Nicholson-Goodman, RAND Corporation. Report No. TR-237-EDU. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005. 106 p.

["High quality early childhood programs have been shown to produce broad, long-term societal benefits... More individualized benefits for participating children and their families is also significant."]

[Request #S52915]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Preschool Diet and Adult Risk of Breast Cancer." By Karin B. Michels, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and others. IN: International Journal of Cancer, (August 10 2005) online.

"A new study finds that what you eat as a pre-schooler can affect your health later in life. According to a new study, preschool girls between the ages of 3 to 5 who eat french fries often increase their risk of breast cancer later in life. 'Adding one serving per week increased the risk of breast cancer by 27 percent. I was surprised that we only found one particular food that stood out so clearly to be associated with breast cancer risk.' Dr. Michels says it makes sense to look back to young girls' dietary habits." WPMI-TV (August 18, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52916]

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DENTAL CARE

"Preventive Dental Care and Unmet Dental Needs Among Low-Income Children." By Genevieve M. Kenney and others. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 95, no. 8 (August 2005) pp. 1360-1366.

["More than half of low-income children without health insurance had no preventive dental care visits. Levels of unmet dental needs among low-income children who had private health insurance coverage but no dental benefits were similar to those among uninsured children. Children of parents whose mental health was rated as poor were twice as likely to have unmet dental needs as other children. Additional progress toward improving the dental health of low-income children depends on identifying and responding to factors limiting both the demand for and the supply of dental services. In particular, it appears that expanding access to dental benefits is key to improving the oral health of this population."]

[Request #S52917]

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OBESITY

"The Bigger the Serving, the More Young Children Will Eat, Cornell Study Finds." By David Levitsky and others. IN: Appetite, vol. 44, no. 3. (June 2005) pp. 273-282.

["Contrary to what many people believe, preschool children do not adjust how much they eat in reponse to how much they eat at their last meal or in the past 24 hours or how calorie-rich their meal is. By far, the most powerful predictor for how much children eat is how much food is put on their plate."]

[Request #S52918]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

"Child Care, Disability, and Family Structure: Use and Quality in a Population-based Sample of Low-income Preschool Children." By Susan L. Parish, University of North Carolina, and others. IN: Children & Youth Services Review, vol. 27, no. 8 (August 2005) pp. 905-919.

["The National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) was analyzed to examine the use and quality of child care of low-income preschool children with disabilities as contrasted to low-income nondisabled children. Family structure is a stronger predictor of child care use than disability status. Disabled and nondisabled children living with single parents show similarly elevated rates of participation in child care. Important differences were found in the use and quality of child care. Our findings related to the extremely low cost of care for disabled children living with single parents may suggest particularly deleterious developmental outcomes for these children. These findings suggest the need for child care subsidies directed at low-income disabled children and their families. Further, the protective enforcement of minimum standards of care may require further analysis."]

[Request #S52919]

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