Subject: Studies in the News 05-20 (July 18, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Television and educational achievement
EDUCATION
   Early learning standards
   National policy for early education
   Newspaper coverage of early childhood education
   Full-day kindergarten trends
   Prekindergarten and school preparation and performance
   Computers and young children
   Investing in early education
   Achieving learning goals through play
   Case for investing in early education
   Review of early education in the states
   Professional development for caregivers
   Return on investment of early childhood education
   Head Start and quality national standards
   Head Start impact study
   Head Start and children with disabilities
   Benefits of preschool
   Social and emotional development through preschool
   Investing in universal preschool education
   Testing in preschool
   Preschool teachers knowledge of ADHD
   Measuring school readiness
   Early learning programs
   Rural children and school readiness
HEALTH
   Children and post-traumatic stress
   External quality review and children's health services
   Children and aircraft noise
   Children with special needs.
   Health and well-being of children
   Home visits to at-risk infants
   Obesity epidemic and state action
   Teen parenting issues
HOUSING
   Resilient children in distressed neighborhoods
HUMAN SERVICES
   Child care for working parents.
   Patterns of child care use in Los Angeles
   Race and the child welfare system
STUDIES TO COME
   Pilot preschool initiatives
   Health effects of air pollution on prenatal health
   Risk factors for autism
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in Californiaís Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Libraryís website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

"Association of Television Viewing During Childhood with Poor Educational Achievement." By Robert J. Hancox and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 159, no. 7 (July 2005) pp. 614-618.

Full Text at: archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/159/7/614.pdf

["Excessive television viewing in childhood has long been associated with adverse effects on health and behavior. This study found that watching too much television has long-lasting consequences for educational achievements and subsequent socioeconomic status and well-being."]

[Request #S52001]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Inside the Content: The Breadth and Depth of Early Learning Standards. By Catherine Scott-Little, SERVE, and others. (SERVE, Greensboro, North Carolina) 2005. 76 p.

Full Text at: www.serve.org/_downloads/publications/insidecontentfr.pdf

["The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic analysis of the content of early learning standards. In conducting the study, the authors have shown that early learning standards are increasingly common across the nation. The authors' analysis indicates that standards documents vary tremendously in the depth and breadth of their content. What is clear is the need for systematic analysis of the content of early learning standards, particularly because many states are currently in the process of developing or revising those standards."]

[Request #S52002]

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Early Child Care and Education: The Need for a National Policy. By Jennifer Kolker and others, Public Works. (Center for National Policy, Washington, DC) 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.cnponline.org/Press%20Releases/Reports/9-21-04%20ECE%20version%2016.pdf

["With mounting evidence that high-quality early child care and education can significantly affect life chances, especially for low-income children, this report calls for development of a comprehensive national policy to ensure broad access to effective programs. The authors review data on program availability, adequacy and cost. They assess state efforts, current federal funding and coordination issues."]

[Request #S52003]

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An Analysis of U.S. Newspaper Coverage of Early Childhood Education. By Katherine C. McAdams, University of Maryland. (The University, College Park, Maryland) Fall 2004. 63 p.

Full Text at: www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/hechinger/resources/EARLYCHILD-Report_Final_1.pdf

["Researchers at the University of Maryland analyzed 1,176 articles in 25 newspapers and found a pervasive pattern of coverage that is shallow and 'only occasionally concerned with teaching and learning.' Pre-K involves a range of difficult issues like quality, accountability, and accessibility but journalists often don't probe them. The report says that in cities comprising its case studies, 40 percent of the stories on pre-K dealt with governance, 40 percent with funding and only 10 percent dealt with issues directly related to education." NIEER Online Newsletter (June 13, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52004]

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Making the Most of Kindergarten: Present Trends and Future Issues in the Provision of Full-Day Programs. By Debra J. Ackerman and others, National Institute for Early Education Research. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2005. 16 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/policyreports/report4.pdf

["Kindergarten plays an important role as one of the first steps toward educational success, yet kindergarten policies and schedules vary widely across and within states. The best evidence indicates that a full-day kindergarten schedule can have positive benefits for childrenís kindergarten enrollment, academic outcomes, and subsequent retention rates. These benefits seem to be greater for disadvantaged children, and the expected benefits -- and costs -- may therefore vary from one community to another."]

[Request #S52005]

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Does Prekindergarten Improve School Preparation and Performance? By Katherine A. Magnuson and others, National Bureau Of Economic Research. Paper No. W10452. (The Bureau, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2004. 46 p.

Full Text at: papers.nber.org/papers/w10452.pdf

["Using data from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, the authors estimated the effects of prekindergarten on children's school readiness. The study found that prekindergarten increases reading and mathematics skills at school entry, but also increases behavioral problems and reduces self-control. Furthermore, the effects of prekindergarten on skills largely dissipate by the spring of first grade, although the behavioral effects do not. Finally, effects differ depending on children's family background and subsequent schooling, with the largest and most lasting academic gains for disadvantaged children and those attending schools with low levels of academic instruction."]

[Request #S52006]

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Rates of Computer and Internet Use by Children in Nursery School and Students in Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade: 2003. By Matthew DeBell, Education Statistics Services Institute. Prepared for the National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2005. 4 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005111.pdf

["This brief describes the percentage of students in grades 12 or below who used computers or the Internet in 2003. It highlights the fact that computer and Internet use is commonplace and begins early. Even before kindergarten, a majority of children in nursery school use computers and 23 percent use the Internet."]

[Request #S52007]

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Success Stories: State Investment in Early Care and Education in Illinois, North Carolina and Rhode Island. By Anne W. Mitchell, Alliance for Early Childhood Finance. (Smart Startís National Technical Assistance Center, Raleigh, North Carolina) 2005. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.earlychildhoodfinance.org/Publications/SuccessStoriesPDFDraft2.pdf

["This report describes three states that have stepped forward to make their own investments in early care and education services, with the investments often serving as engines for efforts to raise the quality of services and to forge them into more cohesive systems. The report tells the story of how each state secured these investments and discusses the factors common to their success."]

[Request #S52008]

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Achieving Learning Goals Through Play: Teaching Young Children with Special Needs. By Anne H. Widerstrom. (Paul H. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, Maryland) 2005. 239 p.

["Play is more than fun - it is a powerful teaching tool that helps young children learn. This practical guide gives early childhood educators creative, ready-to-use strategies for weaving individual learning goals into play activities throughout the school day. Developed for use with young children who have special needs, it is equally effective for all children." NOTE: Achieving Learning Goals ... is available for a 3-day loan.]

[Request #S52009]

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Early Childhood Education for All: A Wise Investment. By Leslie Calman, Legal Momentum's Family Initiative, and Linda Tarr-Whelan, Tarr-Whelan and Associates. (The Initiative, New York, New York) 2005. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.familyinitiative.org/FamilyInitiativeReport.pdf

["This is the first national report to pull together scholarly research, economic development studies and the experience of state-level initiatives to make the case for investing in early care and education as an economic driver. Citing research by Nobel Prize winners, independent scholars, advocates and Federal Reserve economists, it demonstrates the substantial long-term and short-term return on investment in early care and education, including: taxpayer return of up to $13 for every $1 invested; the early child-care education industry rivaling the telecommunications industry in Massachusetts and the hotel industry in New York; demonstrated reductions in crime and welfare dependence; statistically fewer social problems; and improvement of worker productivity among parents." Early Education in the News (April 17, 2005).]

[Request #S52010]

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Early Education in the States: A Year in Review, 2004. By Steffanie Clothier, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2005. 73 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/print/cyf/prekreport.pdf

["This report is designed to provide in-depth information about actions in state legislatures on early education issues. It contains an introduction; a review of the research on early education; comments on the role of state legislatures in early education; a summary of the acts and proposals; and a detailed, state-by-state description of the bills. Executive orders and Washington stateís ballot measure also are included."]

[Request #S52011]

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"Improving the Quality Of Infant-Toddler Care Through Professional Development." By Philippa H. Campbell and Suzanne A. Milbourne, Thomas Jefferson University. IN: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, vol. 25, no. 1 (Spring 2005) pp. 3-14.

["The quality of childcare has been of increasing concern nationally in the past decade. Increasing the formal education levels of child caregivers, improving working conditions and salary levels, providing professional development training, and developing accredited programs have all been suggested as interventions to improve the quality of childcare. This study attempted to look at the value of small amounts of onsite consultation added to a five-session training program."]

[Request #S52012]

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Early Childhood Investment Yields Big Payoff. By Robert G. Lynch. Policy Perspectives. (WestEd, San Francisco, California) 2005 12 p.

Full Text at: www.wested.org/online_pubs/pp-05-02.pdf

["This paper makes a compelling case for a nationwide investment in a high-quality, publicly funded early childhood development program, especially for children living in poverty. Making such an investment will improve the academic performance and quality of life of millions of our nationís children, reduce crime, make the workforce of the future more productive, and strengthen our nationís economy. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of such a program and the benefits of investing in it on a large scale."]

[Request #S52028]

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HEAD START

Eliminating Quality Standards and Local Control of Head Start Threaten Delaware's Public Safety. By Louise van der Does and others, Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. (Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, Washington, DC) 2005. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/reports/deheadstart.pdf

["Head Start has shown strong results in improving language and math skills, reducing grade retention, and increasing graduation rates. Head Start has accomplished these successes by relying on local community agencies and school districts to run local Head Start programs within a framework of national quality standards and national monitoring. Taking Head Start out of the hands of local communities and eliminating national quality standards would not only compromise the futures of young children, but would also threaten the publicís safety as these children become adults."]

[Request #S52013]

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Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings. By Westat and others. Prepared for Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2005.

Full Text at: www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/impact_study/reports/first_yr_finds/firstyr_finds_title.html

["The report indicates that while children in Head Start reap positive benefits, on most measures Head Start graduates and enrollees continue to lag significantly behind children from economically advantaged families. Notably the report shows that, in less than one school year, Head Start was able to nearly cut in half the achievement gap in pre-reading skills and resulted in parents reading to their children more often -- two factors that lead to later success in school." ExchangeEveryDay (June 13, 2005).]

Executive Summary. 23 p.:
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/impact_study/reports/first_yr_execsum/first_yr_execsum.pdf

Full Report. 333 p.:
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/impact_study/reports/first_yr_finds/first_yr_finds.pdf

[Request #S52017]

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Preparing for Success: How Head Start Helps Children with Disabilities and their Families. By Danielle Ewen, Center for Law and Social Policy, and Katherine Beh Neas, Easter Seals. (The Center, Washington, DC)May 6, 2005. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/hs_disabilities_updated.pdf

["In 2004, 13 percent of the children in Head Start and Early Head Start -- more than 134,000 children -- were diagnosed with a disability. Without Head Start, some of these children might have gone undiagnosed, leaving their disabilities unaddressed for years." Moving Ideas (June 1, 2005).]

[Request #S52018]

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PRESCHOOL

"The Preschool Promise: Going to Preschool Benefits Children Their Entire Lives. Can States Afford to Provide it to All Kids?" By Julie Poppe and Steffanie Clothier, National Conference of State Legislatures. IN: State Legislatures, vol. 31, no. 6. (June 2005) pp. 26-28.

["Read about 3 state legislators' perspectives on recent achievements in their states. The article highlights mounting research and the latest economic evidence that shows preschool pays off."]

[Request #S52014]

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Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Development Through Preschool. By Judi Boyd and others, National Institute for Early Education Research. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2005. 20 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/policyreports/report7.pdf

["This policy brief describes the importance of social and emotional development for children in their earliest years and as they grow older, reviews the evidence that high-quality preschool programs can promote social and emotional development, and describes the characteristics of those preschool programs that are most likely to benefit children."]

[Request #S52015]

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The Economics of Investing in Universal Preschool Education in California. By Lynne A. Karoly and James H. Bigelow, RAND Corporation. Prepared for the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005.

["There is increased interest in California and other states in providing universal access to publicly funded preschool education for one or two years prior to kindergarten entry. This study provides an analysis of the economic returns from investing in preschool education in the state of California."]

Executive Summary. 31 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG349.1.pdf

Full Report. 192 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG349.pdf

[Request #S52016]

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"Testing Goes to Preschool." By Robert Rothman, Annenberg Institute for School Reform. IN: Harvard Education Letter, vol. 21, no. 2. (March/April 2005) pp. 1-4.

Full Text at: www.edletter.org/pdfs/2005-ma-fcd.pdf

["Like the standards movement in elementary and secondary education, the use of standardized tests in preschools has generated heated debate among specialists in early childhood education. Critics have charged that the tests may not provide accurate information on childrenís abilities and many worry about the impact of testing on program quality. By emphasizing such skills as letter and word recognition, opponents warn that tests could direct teachers away from other important aspects of early childhood education, like health and social and emotional development, since they are not included on many assessments."]

[Request #S52019]

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"Preschool Teachers' Knowledge, Opinions, and Educational Experiences with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder." By Melissa Stormont and Molly S. Stebbins, University of Missouri-Columbia. IN: Teacher Education and Special Education, vol. 28, no. 1. (Winter 2005) pp. 52-61.

["Although ADHD is a very prevalent disorder with an onset in the preschool years, there is no known research that has investigated preschool teachers' knowledge of ADHD. Since preschool teachers are a main influence in the lives of children in their formative years, it is critical that preschool teachers' knowledge, opinions, and educational experiences related to ADHD be assessed."]

[Request #S52020]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Measuring Progress Toward School Readiness. By Amber Minogue and Stephanie Clothier, National Conference of State Legislatures, Child Care and Early Education. (NCSL, Washington, DC) 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/legis/cyf/schoolready.pdf

["Using the lens of school readiness, policymakers can consider a broad-based, comprehensive look at how families, communities and schools are meeting the needs of children. Interventions based in human services, public health, and education can be focal points for policies that improve school readiness. This brief outlines a definition of school readiness, provides a short synopsis of state strategies to improve school readiness, and examines how states are measuring progress toward meeting that goal."]

[Request #S52021]

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Building a Foundation for Success by Getting Every Child Ready for School. By Robin Wade and others, Southern Regional Education Board. (The Board, Atlanta, Georgia) 2005. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.sreb.org/main/Goals/Publications/05E03-Every_Child_Ready.pdf

["This report outlines four successful strategies for high-quality early learning programs: (1) offer pre-kindergarten to all children who are at risk of academic failure, not just those from families living in poverty; (2) strive to meet quality standards; (3) ensure that all children have a school-readiness assessment before they enter first grade; and (4) continue to place a priority on programs that encourage vaccinations and health insurance for children." Connect for Kids (June 20, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52022]

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Preliminary Rural Analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Ė- Kindergarten Cohort. By Martha Zaslow and others, Child Trends. Prepared for National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, Mississippi State University. Rural Early Childhood Brief. No. 2. (The Center, Mississippi State University, Mississippi) 2005. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ruralec.msstate.edu/briefs/3-05_brief.pdf

["Children in rural America are 60% more likely than their nonrural peers to be placed in special education programs in kindergarten, according to this study, which also found wide disparities in school readiness when rural children are evaluated by race. Early education programs based in centers also appeared to be less available to rural children, compared with children in more densely populated areas." ECS e-clips (May 27, 2005).]

[Request #S52023]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Post-traumatic Stress and Its Effect on Health Outcomes in Children." By Jacqueline Grupp-Phelen and Doug Zatzick. IN: Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 3. (March 2005) pp. 309-310.

["This study finds children who suffer post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to violence are more likely to have other health problems. Most of the children who had witnessed at least one violent incident began bed-wetting and thumb-sucking, while 20 percent appeared to be at risk of PTSD." United Press International (March 9, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51316]

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Using External Quality Review Organizations to Improve the Quality of Preventive and Developmental Services for Children. By Henry Ireys and others, Mathematica Policy Research. (Commonwealth Fund, New York, New York) 2005. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/814_Ireys_EQROsimprovequality.pdf

["Federal regulations encourage state Medicaid agencies to use external quality review organizations (EQROs) to help implement strategies for assessing the quality of services provided to Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled in managed care plans. This study provides strategies for using EQROs to enhance the quality of preventive and developmental services for young children. The authors' findings indicate that only a few states are now using EQROs to assess preventive and developmental services."]

[Request #S52024]

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"Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise and Children's Cognition and Health: A Cross-National Study." By S.A. Stansfeld and others. IN: Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9475. (June 4, 2005) pp. 1942-1949.

["Researchers said that children exposed to high levels of aircraft noise could suffer impairments in their reading ability. The researchers also found road traffic noise was associated with memory issues and that exposure to both types of noise appeared to increase stress in children and reduce their quality of life." United Press International (June 3, 2005).]

[Request #S52025]

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Children with Special Health Care Needs. County of Los Angeles, Department of Health Services. (The Department, Los Angeles, California) June 2005. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.lapublichealth.org/ha/reports/habriefs/Special%20Children%20FINAL_1.pdf

["Some children have and are at increased risk for chronic medical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that require a greater amount and complexity of services than are needed by most other children."]

[Request #S52026]

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Children in Our Community: A Report on Their Health and Well-Being. By the Peninsula Partnership for Children, Youth and Families. (The Partnership, San Mateo, California)2005. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.pcf.org/about/pdfs/childreport2005.pdf

["The report is intended to direct attention to changes in children's health and well-being in San Mateo County and is organized around four key outcomes related to childrenís health, safety, success in school and home environment."]

[Request #S52027]

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INFANTS

Evaluation of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): First Year Program Impacts. By Susan Mitchell-Herzfeld, New York State Office of Children and Family Services, and others. (Center for Human Services Research, University at Albany, Albany, New York) 2005. 79 p.

Full Text at: www.albany.edu/chsr/reports/25561_inside_88.qxd.pdf

["This evaluation found that families with infants at risk for abuse or neglect who received home visitors as part of the rigorous Healthy Families New York program showed positive effects in parenting, child health and development, and parental life course development." Connect for Kids (June 6, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52029]

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OBESITY

"Childhood Obesity Epidemic Spurs State Action." By Dan Lorentz. IN: Statenews, vol. 48 no. 6. (June/July 2005) pp. 12-15.

["If the rapid rise in childhood obesity is left unchecked, kids alive today may be the first generation in 200 years to have shorter life expectancies than their parents. And on the way to their earlier graves, this generation of children will likely drive up medical costs. This realization is leading many state legislatures to feel urgency in their efforts to combat the epidemic, especially among children."]

[Request #S52030]

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TEEN PARENTING

Infants, Toddlers, and Teen Parents [Issue Theme.] Zero to Three: Journal of Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families. Vol. 25, No. 4. (ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, Washington, DC) March 2005. pp. 1-60.

[Includes: "Children of Teen Parents: Challenges and Hope;" "Teen Parents in Early Childhood Interventions;" "Passing it On: Lessons in Relationships;" "Parenthood--Unprepared;" High-Quality Child Care: A Shelter From the Storm for the Children of Teens"; and others. NOTE: Zero to Three ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S52032]

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HOUSING

PUBLIC HOUSING

Resilient Children in Distressed Neighborhoods: Evidence from the HOPE VI Panel Study. By Michael Eiseman and others, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center, Urban Institute. A Roof Over Their Heads: Changes and Challenges for Public Housing Residents. Brief No. 7. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311186_Roof_7.pdf

["The HOPE VI program can profoundly affect the lives of children, who are the most vulnerable residents of distressed public housing and particularly likely to suffer from the stress of relocation. However, according to this brief, some children in the HOPE VI Panel Study are doing surprisingly well, succeeding in school and thriving despite challenges. Exploring why these children often cope so well in their new environment, the authors find that children of better-educated parents, children whose parents are highly engaged in their schooling, and socially competent children are more likely to be resilient, while children with depressed parents are less likely."]

[Request #S52033]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Child Care, Parents, and Work: The Economic Role of Child Care in Iowa. By Kathleen Larson and others, Center for Family Policy, Iowa State University. (The Center, Ames, Iowa) June 2005. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.extension.iastate.edu/cd-dial/pdf/ChildCareParents.pdf

["This report demonstrates the economic role that child care plays in Iowa's economy. It found that the Iowa child care industry generates almost 17,300 direct jobs in child care and an additional 1500 in industries that supply child care businesses." Family Initiative Newsletter (June 6, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S52034]

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Patterns of Child Care Use for Preschoolers in Los Angeles County. By Laura Chyu and others, the RAND Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR116.pdf

["This report examines patterns of child care use in 2000-2001 for children ages 0-5 who were not yet enrolled in kindergarten or first grade. The authors report on whether or not non-parental child care is used, the primary type of care used, the amount of child care used per week, the number of arrangements, the cost of care, and child-to-adult ratios in child care settings. The authors investigated the relationships between these child care measures and neighborhood, family, and child characteristics in Los Angeles County. Finally, the authors also considered the differences in child care patterns between the poorest families and others."]

[Request #S52035]

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CHILDREN

Race Matters in Child Welfare: The Overrepresentation of African American Children in the System. Edited by Dennette M. Derezotes, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and others. (CWLA Press, Washington, DC) 2005. 248 p.

["Several studies show that children of different ethnic or racial backgrounds receive dissimilar treatment by the child welfare system, but little is known about the appropriateness of the treatment. This compilation of papers critically examines child welfare policy and practice, the causes of child maltreatment, and how each impacts the disproportionate representation of African American children in the system." NOTE: Race Matters ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S52036]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

From Planning to Practice: State Efforts to Improve Early Childhood Education. By the National Association of State Boards of Education. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2005. 44 p.

["This report looks at a pilot preschool initiative in six states designed to ensure that all children start school ready to learn. Case studies describe key state policies that have proven successful. The six states in the Early Childhood Network - Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wyoming, focused on seven core areas: successful partnering among state agencies, engaging all stakeholders and sustaining public support, strategic planning by the state department of education, establishing comprehensive early learning standards based on research, developing quality early childhood teachers, demanding program quality assurances, and integrating special education." NOTE: From Planning to Practice ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S52037]

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HEALTH

AIR POLLUTION

"Chromosomal Aberrations in Cord Blood Are Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons." By Kirsti A. Bocskay and others. IN: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 14. (February 2005) pp. 506-511.

["This study reveals that exposure of expectant mothers to combustion-related urban air pollution may alter the structure of babies' chromosomes while in the womb. While previous experiments have linked such genetic alterations to an increased risk of leukemia and other cancers, much larger studies would be required to determine the precise increase in risk as these children reach adulthood. The air pollutants considered in this study include emissions from cars, trucks, bus engines, residential heating, power generation and tobacco smoking. These pollutants can cross the placenta and reach the fetus." The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (February 15, 2005).]

[Request #S52038]

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AUTISM

"Risk Factors for Autism: Perinatal Factors, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status." By Heidi Jeanet Larsson, University of Aarhus, Denmark, and others. IN: American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 161, no. 10. (2005) pp. 916-925.

["In recent years, many programs and studies have found that early recognition of autism and other developmental disabilities is important because early treatment can significantly improve a childís development. Some of the specific factors that the study found to be associated with the risk of autism included: breech presentation at birth, delivery before 35 weeks, and low birth weight at delivery. The study also found many of these factors were independently associated with autism."]

[Request #S52039]

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