Subject: Studies in the News 05-10 (April 19, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1855 - "From 1855 to 1868 Snowshoe Thompson was the only postal mail carrier of any kind regularly traversing the Sierra Nevada. Technology waits for no man, however. It was only a matter of time until the railroad company managed to get a line over the mountains. Though Thompson was strong and valiant he could not outrun the iron horse. In '1868 the railroad succeeded spanning the Sierras and Thompson's services were no longer needed. The only problem was that he had never been paid. That's right. For 13 years he had carried the mail and never saw a paycheck. The Placerville postmaster had never been given authority to issue one.... Back home in Genoa grateful postal customers rallied around Thompson. They raised enough money to buy him a small ranch near his home town. He died there four years later. "  http://ci.placerville.ca.us/hangtown%20history/cit  

1855 - "In 1855, Governor John Bigler announced that coal had been discovered in the State of California. Various coal mines were developed in the Mount Diablo region.... The mines brought laborers, mechanics.teamsters, boatsmen and their families..... The 'secondary industries' of clay mining and ranching associated with the property were perhaps more important economically than coal production. The clay was layered between the layers of coal and referred to as 'bone' and was noted as the major source for . pottery and brick works in the county. http://ci.placerville.ca.us/hangtown%20history/city%20history.htm"    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Refusing drunk driving tests
   Adult drug courts
   Impact of drug policies on women and families
   Rise in hate crimes
   Re-entry of prisoners to the community
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Debate about benefits of the arts
   State arts endowments
DEMOGRAPHY
   Market forces and demographic changes
   Diversity of the Asian and Pacific Islander
ECONOMY
   Understanding farming statistics
   Clothing imports from China
   U.S. trade with China
   Growth in local economies
   Southern California economic forecast
   Central American free trade agreement
   Manufacturing in Southern California
   Mini-forecasts for Southern California regions
EDUCATION
   After-school programs
   Out-of-school time and academic achievement
   Charter schools and accountability
   Policies to strengthen California's higher education
   College tuition debt
   English learners in California schools
   California's K-12 schools national rankings
   Graduation rates and race/ethnicity
EMPLOYMENT
   Sexual discrimination and retaliation
   Court blocks older retirees' benefits cut
ENERGY
   Summer electricity shortage possible
   Questioning reliance on natural gas
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Indoor air pollution in California
   Canadian greenhouse gas agreement
   Marine life protection draft plan
   World ecosystem assessment
   Nuclear waste at risk from attack
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Federal budgetary proposals
   Analysis of federal budget
   Information technology in city government
   Redistricting in California
   San Diego pensions illegal
   Fiscal policy report card on America's governors
HEALTH
   Californians support doctor-assisted suicide
   Out of control childhood asthma
   Kids' time spent with "new media"
   Chemicals in home products
   Indoor air quality and child care
   Availability and cost of healthier food items
   Second hand smoke and breast cancer
HUMAN SERVICES
   Hunger and American children
   Social security and the elderly
   Size of undocumented population in California
   Budget resolutions impact on low income programs
   TANF bill includes possible Medicaid cost allocation
   Children's health and welfare reform
TRANSPORTATION
   Driver's license and ID card requirements
STUDIES TO COME
   Overly harsh criminal punishment
   Learning theory and student achievement
   Health implications of perchlorate ingestion
   The high cost of free parking
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE

Refusing Drunk Driving Tests. By Jeanne Mejeur, National Conference of State Legislature. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 13, No. 3. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2005. 2 p.

["Without chemical test results, drunk drivers may still be arrested and charged based on other evidence, such as failing a standard field sobriety test. For prosecutors, however, the single most convincing piece of evidence is a blood alcohol content (BAC) test result. Juries want to know how drunk the person was. Without a BAC test result, prosecutors have a more difficult time winning a conviction. Offenders who refuse tests may be more likely to be acquitted, charged with a lesser offense, given a plea bargain or have the charges dropped altogether."]

[Request #S51001]

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DRUG TREATMENT

Adult Drug Courts: Evidence Indicates Recidivism Reductions and Mixed Results for Other Outcomes. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2005. 86 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d05219.pdf

["Drug court programs, which were established in the late 1980's as a local response to increasing numbers of drug-related cases and expanding jail and prison populations, have become popular nationwide in the criminal justice system. These programs are designed to reduce defendants' repeated crime and substance abuse behavior by engaging them in a judicially monitored substance abuse treatment.... This report describes the results of the GAO's review of published evaluations of adult drug court programs particularly relating to (1) recidivism outcomes, (2)substance use relapse, (3)program completion, and (4)the costs and benefits of drug court programs."]

[Request #S51002]

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Caught in the Net: The Impact of Drug Policies on Women & Families. By Lenora Lapidus, American Civil Liberties Union, and others. (The Union, New York, New York) March 2005. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.fairlaws4families.org/final-caught-in-the-net-report.pdf

["America's war on drugs is inflicting deep and disproportionate harm on women -- most of them mothers -- who are filling prisons in ever-rising numbers despite their typically minor roles in drug rings, contends a major new report.... The report recommends expansion of treatment programs geared toward women, says incarceration should be a last resort, and urges more vigorous efforts to maintain ties between imprisoned mothers and their children." Sacramento Bee (March 17, 2005) A9.]

[Request #S51003]

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HATE CRIME

Anti-Semitic Incidents at Highest Level in Nine Years: Anti-Defamation League Audit. By the Anti-Defamation League. (The League, New York, New York) April 4, 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.adl.org/PresRele/ASUS_12/4671_12.htm

["Anti-Semitic incidents in California and the U.S. have reached their highest level in nine years, and experts blamed the rise on the spread of neo-Nazi propaganda, according to a report. Fueled by a spike in reports of anti-Jewish harassment in schools, the number of incidents increased by 17 percent nationwide and 30 percent in California." Los Angeles Daily Times (April 4, 2005)1.]

[Request #S51004]

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PRISONERS & PAROLEES

Report on the Re-entry Policy Council: Charting the Safe and Successful Return of Prisoners to the Community. By the Re-Entry Policy Council and others. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2005.

["Re-entry is the process of transition that individuals make from prison or jail to the community.... Budget crunches in every state have made it nearly impossible for lawmakers and governors to address this issue by simply building more prison and jails; to control the soaring cost of corrections in their respective jurisdictions policymakers and elected officials must find ways to ensure that the transition people make from prison or jail to the community is safe and successful."]

Report Preview. 24 p.:
http://www.reentrypolicy.org/documents/ReportPreview.pdf

Full Report. 700 p.:
www.reentrypolicy.org/documents/rpc_report.pdf

Full Report By Chapter. Various Pagings.:
http://www.reentrypolicy.org/report-pdf-index.html

[Request #S51005]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts. By Kevin F. McCarthy and Others, The Rand Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005. 124 pages.

Full Text at: www.wallacefoundation.org/NR/rdonlyres/5A501171-C822-447E-9FE7-0A2082EA54C2/0/Gifts_of_the_MuseText.pdf

["This study seeks a broader understanding of the arts' full range of effects, including both instrumental and intrinsic benefits. It argues for a recognition of the contribution that both types make to the public welfare, but also of the central role intrinsic benefits play in generating all benefits. And it calls for efforts to sustain the supply of the arts with a focus on building demand, particularly by strengthening early exposure." Center for Arts and Culture (March 2, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51006]

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State Arts Endowments. By Mandy Rafool, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 13, No. 6. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2005. 2 p.

["The popularity of arts endowments has grown in recent years. Before 1990, only three states and Puerto Rico had cultural trusts. Currently, 17 states and Puerto Rico have some type of cultural endowment, the most recent being Iowa. This trend is likely to continue as state arts agencies seek to diversify their funding base."]

[Request #S51007]

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DEMOGRAPHY

Demography Is Not Destiny, Revisited. By Robert B. Friedland and Laura Summer, Center on Aging Society, Georgetown University. (The Commonwealth Fund, Washington, DC) March 2005. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/789_friedland_demographynotdestinyII.pdf

["This report provides a framework and some of the basic data necessary to understand why the future of the United States will not be determined solely by anticipated changes in the size and age distribution of the population. Choices made through the political process and through market forces, in conjunction with demographic changes, will determine the future."]

[Request #S51008]

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ASIAN AMERICANS

The Diverse Face of Asians and Pacific Islanders in California. By The Asian Pacific American Legal Center of Southern California. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2005. 60 p.

Full Text at: demographics.apalc.org/publications/CA_Report_feb_02_05.pdf

["More than one-third of all Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the nation live in California, and 2003 Census estimates show the continued growth and diversity of the state's API community. This report studies indicators such as race and ethnicity, housing, language, health, income, poverty, and education in the Bay Area, Central Valley, and Southern California regions."]

[Request #S51009]

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ECONOMY

AGRIBUSINESS

Understanding the Farm Problem: Six Common Errors in Presenting Farm Statistics. By Timothy A. Wise. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University. (The University, Medford, Massachusetts) March 2005. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/wp/05-02TWiseFarmStatistics.pdf

["Farm statistics are regularly quoted in the press and in policy circles, often in misleading ways. This in turn, can easily lead to mistaken policies. Two examples of misleading statistical presentation include the common refrain that farm incomes are now higher than non-farm incomes. Another is the oft-quoted statement that 60% of farmers and ranchers never got any government support at all. This paper is intended to both highlight some of the common errors in depicting the farm sector and present a more accurate image of family farming in the United States."]

[Request #S51010]

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ASIA

U.S.- China Trade: Textile Safeguard Procedures Should Be Improved. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2005. 59 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d05296.pdf

["U.S. textile and apparel imports from China have more than doubled in value since China became a World Trade Organization (WTO) member. When joining the WTO, China agreed to a special textile safeguard mechanism applicable only to that country. In this report, GAO 1) describes the mechanism, 2) describes requests for safeguard action filed by U.S. requests, and 3) evaluates U.S. agency procedures for transparency and accessibility."]

[Request #S51011]

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China's Trade with the United States and the World. By Thomas Lum and Dick Nanto, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Congressional Research Service. (The Service, Washington, DC) 2004. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.usembassy.it/pdf/other/RL31403.pdf

["This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China's international trade with the United States and other countries."]

[Request #S51012]

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BUSINESS FORECASTS

San Joaquin County Business Outlook. First Quarter Analysis - 2005. By the Business Forecasting Center, Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific. (The Center, Stockton, California.) 2005. 9 p.

Full Text at: forecast.pacific.edu/outlook/2005FirstQ.pdf

["The California and San Joaquin County economies are poised for continued expansion, says a report. Despite current conditions, however, county consumers worry that rising oil prices and interest rates or record federal deficits may bring the party to a close." The Record (April 5, 2005) D1.]

[Request #S51013]

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CALIFORNIA

Economic Forecast and Industry Outlook For California and the Los Angeles Five-county Area Including the National and International Setting: 2005 - 2006. By Jack Kyser and others, Economic Information and Research Department, Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) 2005. 76 p.

Full Text at: laedc.info/pdf/Forecast-2005-01.pdf

["California's economy will be improving during 2005, with non-farm employment up by 1.7% or by 253,700 jobs. Personal income will move ahead by 6.1% during 2005, easing to 5.7% growth during 2006.... Southern California's economy will gather momentum in 2005 and 2006."]

[Request #S51014]

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NAFTA

CAFTA's False Promise. By Kevin P. Gallagher, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University. (The University, Medford, Massachusetts) March 21, 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/AmerProgCAFTAMar05.pdf

["The U.S. Congress and the Central American nations are currently considering the Central American Free Trade Agreement. Through CAFTA, Central American governments hope to attract new inflows of foreign direct investment. Washington promises that investments will start flowing if Central American governments agree to far-reaching investment rules."]

[Request #S51015]

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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Manufacturing in Southern California. By Jack Kyser. Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. (LAEDC Economics, Los Angeles, California) April 2005. 26 p.

Full Text at: laedc.info/pdf/Mfg-2005.pdf

["Southern California manufacturing can regain the competitive edge it had 15 years ago, but it's going to need some help from the state, local governments and school districts according to a report. In its annual report, the Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation wanted to remind government officials that manufacturing can boost, not drain, tax rolls and can provide jobs for those not destined for college." Press Enterprise (April 5, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51016]

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"2005 Mini-Forecasts for Southern California Regions." IN: Forecast Direct, vol. 2 no. 1 (2005) pp. 1-4.

["This brief looks at the 2005 economic outlooks for the five major regions of Southern California."]

[Request #S51017]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

The After-school Hours: A New Focus for America's Cities. By Mark Ouellette and others, National League of Cities, Institute for Youth, Education, and Families. (The League, Washington, DC) 2005. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.nlc.org/content/Files/IYEF-Lessons%20Learned%20AfterschooI.pdf

["This report details how civic leaders in eight cities approached the challenges of improving the quality of after-school programs in underserved neighborhoods, and increasing access to the programs, while building political and community support... The report offers practical advice and lessons for any local official to use." Connect for Kids (April 4, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51018]

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Making Out-of-School Time Matter: Evidence for an Action Agenda. By Susan Bodilly and Megan K. Beckett, RAND Education and RAND Labor and Population, The RAND Corporation. Prepared for the Wallace Foundation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005.

["Publicly funded before- and after-school-programs have seen unprecedented growth in the past 20 years, but evidence is mixed on whether they influence academic achievement."]

Full Document. 153 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG242.pdf

Summary. 13 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG242.sum.pdf

[Request #S51019]

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CHARTER SCHOOLS

Charter Schools: To Enhance Education's Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-level Data Are Needed. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2005. 74 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d055.pdf

["GAO examined 1) how states allow charter schools flexibility, 2) how states promote accountability for school performance and financial integrity for charter schools, 3) the implications of NCLBA for charter schools, and 4) the role the Department of Education plays in charter schools accountability."]

[Request #S51020]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Policy Recommendations to Strengthen California Higher Education. By Karl Engelbach, California Postsecondary Education Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) March 2005. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.cpec.ca.gov/completereports/2005Reports/OP05-01.pdf

["California's community colleges will have to increase classroom and laboratory space by 50 percent in the next eight years to fully meet enrollment demand, according to a new report. Los Angeles County alone is projected to grow from 393,747 students in fall 2003 to 563,006 in 2013, a 43 percent increase, which will require an average 3.64 percent increase in state enrollment funding for growth, per year, to meet the demand." Los Angeles Daily News (March 27, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51021]

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Debt Burden: A Comparison of 1992-93 and 1999-2000 Bachelor's Degree Recipients a Year after Graduating. By Susan P. Choy, Mpr Associates, and others. (National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC) 2005. 106 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005170.pdf

["Students who graduated from college in 2000 did not, on average, face a heavier debt burden a year later than those who graduated in 1993... That is because they earned higher salaries after graduating and because low interest rates helped to keep their monthly loan repayments down, the report concludes." Chronicle of Higher Education (March 28, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51022]

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IMMIGRANTS

English Learners in California Schools. By Christopher Jepsen and Shelley de Alth, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2005.

["The Public Policy Institute of California discovered Spanish- and Hmong-speaking students take longer to master English than children from some other groups, most likely because many lack qualified teachers and affluent parents. Lead author Christopher Jepsen noted that more research needs to be done to determine which factors influence student achievement and which instructional methods work best." ASCD SmartBrief (April 7, 2005).]

Full Report. 138 p.:
http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/R_405CJR.pdf

Research Brief. 2 p.:
http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/RB_405CJRB.pdf

[Request #S51023]

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K-12 EDUCATION

California's K-12 Schools: How Are They Doing? By Stephen J. Carroll and others, RAND Education, RAND Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2005. 256 pages.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG186.pdf

["This report carefully documents how California's public schools have declined in quality along many important dimensions since the 1970s. Moreover, the investigators report a growing, if somewhat vague, awareness among Californians that the quality of our public schools has slipped both relative to the past, as well as to schools in other states."]

[Request #S51024]

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SCHOOL DROPOUTS

Who Graduates in California? By Christopher B. Swanson, Urban Institute Education Policy Center. EPC Policy Bulletin. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/900794_who_graduates_CA.pdf

["Graduation rates for the high school class of 2002 show that 71 percent of all students in California's public education system complete high school with a diploma. This level falls slightly above the national average. However, we also find very large disparities between students from different racial-ethnic groups. A graduation gap of over 30 percentage points separates the highest-and the lowest-performing groups. Historically disadvantaged minorities have graduation rates between 50 and 60 percent. Fewer than two-thirds of all students graduate from high school in central city districts and in communities that suffer from high levels of racial and socioeconomic segregation."]

[Request #S51025]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISCRIMINATION

Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-1672. March 29, 2005. Various pagings

Full Text at: a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/29mar20051045/www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/04pdf/02-1672.pdf

["The Supreme Court strengthened enforcement of the landmark Title IX law that bars sex discrimination in schools and colleges, ruling that teachers and coaches may challenge schools for giving girls second-class treatment without fear of being punished....The decision revived a lawsuit brought by a high school teacher and girls' basketball coach from Birmingham, Alabama. He said he was fired as the coach after he complained that his athletes were forced to practice in an old gym with poorer facilities and locker rooms than those used by boys." Los Angles Times (March 30, 2005) A20.]

[Request #S51026]

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RETIREMENT

AARP, et al v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 05-CV-509. March 30, 2005. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.paed.uscourts.gov/documents/opinions/05D0402P.pdf

["A federal judge barred a government agency from allowing employers to cut or terminate health benefits for retirees at age 65. In a case with nationwide implications, the court said the proposed regulation by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 'is illegal' under federal age discrimination law.... The judge said her hands were tied by an earlier court ruling. 'The EEOC argues persuasively that without this exemption, employers will reduce or eliminate health benefits for all retirees, no matter what their age,' she wrote." Sacramento Bee (March 31, 2005) A12.]

[Request #S51027]

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ENERGY

ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

2005 Summer Operations Assessment. California Independent System Operator. (The Operator, Folsom, California) March 23, 2005. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.caiso.com/docs/09003a6080/35/46/09003a60803546fd.pdf

["Demand for power may outstrip supplies in Southern California if the temperature this summer is higher than usual. The Southland will have inadequate power if the heat reaches a level that occurs about 10% of the time, said a report. Supplies may be stretched because the economy is growing faster in the Southland than in the rest of the state and transmission bottlenecks hinder the ability to import power from other areas." Los Angeles Times (March 29, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51028]

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ENERGY

The Critical Need to Examine More Carefully the Role of Liquefied Natural Gas in Meeting Future U.S. Energy Needs. By Andrew D. Weissman, Energy Ventures Group. (The Group, Washington, DC) Spring 2005. 30 p.

["While there is no question that LNG has an important role to play in future U.S. energy strategy, there is a critical need to examine more carefully than any federal or state Agency appears to have examined to date the extent to which the U.S. should rely on LNG vs. other alternative domestic sources of energy supply available to the U.S. market.... Given the huge financial commitments required, as a practical matter, once these commitments are made, they may largely preclude the U.S. from deploying alternative energy strategies for many years."]

[Request #S51029]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Indoor Air Pollution in California. By the Air Resource Board. (The Board, Sacramento, California) February 2005. 330 p.

Full Text at: www.arb.ca.gov/research/indoor/ab1173/report0205/rpt0205.pdf

["The California Air Resources Board asserts that indoor air can be as polluted and dangerous to breathe as outdoor air, costing the state at least $45 billion a year in lost worker productivity, medical expenses and premature deaths. Yet, by and large, the government does little to stem indoor air pollutants, which come from sources as disparate as cigarettes, gas stoves and certain types of air purifiers." Sacramento Bee (March 27, 2005) A1.]

[Request #S51030]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the Canadian Automotive Industry Respecting Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions. By the Government of Canada and the Canadian Automotive Industry. (Natural Resources Canada, Windsor, Ontario, Canada) April 5, 2005.

["Faced with the threat that Canada would adopt tough, California-style rules on auto emissions, major automakers agreed to voluntarily reduce the global-warming emissions of cars and light trucks sold north of the border. Auto industry watchdogs said the deal could force automakers to adopt similar stringent emissions rules for vehicles sold throughout the United States." San Francisco Chronicle (April 6, 2005) A6.]

Agreement. Various pagings.
http://www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/media/mous/2005/20050405_e.htm

Press release. 1 p.
http://www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/media/newsreleases/2005/200522_e.htm

[Request #S51031]

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COASTAL RESOURCES

California Marine Life Protection Act Initiative: Final Draft Master Plan Framework. By the MLPA Blue Ribbon Task Force. (California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California) April 4, 2005.

["The Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) Initiative established an MLPA Blue Ribbon Task Force, together with a Master Plan Science Advisory Team and stakeholder advisory groups, to oversee the completion of several objectives. The first of these objectives is this master plan framework, which includes guidance, based on the MLPA, for the development of alternative proposals of MLPAs in an initial central coast study region."]

Plan. 83 p.
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mrd/mlpa/pdfs/mpf0405_a.pdf

Appendices and Other Documents. Various pagings.
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mrd/mlpa/draftdocuments.html

[Request #S51032]

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ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report. By the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. (The Assessment, Scheveningen, Netherlands) March 2005. 219 p.

Full Text at: www.millenniumassessment.org

["The five-year study, commissioned by the United Nations and a number of businesses and independent groups, arrived at a mixed prognosis for planet Earth: Its deteriorating environmental health is still treatable, but only with aggressive and expensive corrective measures.... What makes this study different from other reports is that it's based on evidence that's generally agreed upon by the consensus of scientists, rather than facts of the 'he-said, she-said' variety, said study executive director Walt Reid, an ecologist.... Aimed at business and government leaders, the report is often written not in the scary language of an environmental polemic but as a financial ledger for Earth." Sacramento Bee (March 31, 2005) A6.]

[Request #S51033]

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HAZARDOUS WASTE

Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage: Public Report. By the Committee on the Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage, National Research Council. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) April 2005.

["Spent nuclear fuel stored at commercial reactors across the nation may be vulnerable to terrorist attacks that would set off fires and disperse radiation to surrounding areas, nuclear experts warned. The report recommended that all the nation's 103 commercial reactors be examined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and that measures be taken to reduce the potential for fires if the plants were attacked.... The academy's conclusions have been disputed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear power industry." Los Angeles Times (April 7, 2005) A14.]

Report. 125 p.
http://books.nap.edu/catalog/11263.html

Press release. 1 p.
http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309096472?OpenDocument

[Request #S51034]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

FEDERAL BUDGET

An Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 2006. By the Congressional Budget Office. Prepared for the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2005. 81 p.

Full Text at: mirror2.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/61xx/doc6146/03-15-PresAnalysis.pdf

["At the request of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has analyzed the President's budget request for fiscal year 2006 using its own economic assumptions and estimating techniques, with contributions from the Joint Committee on Taxation. This report presents CBO's analysis of that budget."]

[Request #S51035]

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Preliminary Analysis of the President's Budget Request for 2006. By the Congressional Budget Office. Presented to the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 15, 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/61xx/doc6137/03-05-CochranLetter.pdf

["President Bush's budget would keep federal deficits over $200 billion annually over the next decade, Congress' top budget analyst said. The analysis . said Bush's plans for spending and taxes would yield deficits through the decade ending in 2015 totaling $2.58 trillion. That is $1.6 trillion worse than they would be if none of the president's fiscal plans becomes law, the budget office said, the chief factor being his plan to make already enacted tax cuts permanent." San Jose Mercury News (March 5, 2005) A4.]

[Request #S51036]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Digital Cities Survey, 2004. By the National League of Cities and the Center for Digital Government. (The Center, [Sacramento, California]) 2005. 13 p.

Full Text at: media.centerdigitalgov.com/reg2view/2004DigCitiesReport.pdf

["Service-oriented, business-driven and cost-effective emerged as the key characteristics of city governments that participated in this survey. The report documents the results, major findings, and trends from last year's survey, which evaluated city governments' use of information technology to better serve their citizens and streamline operations."]

[Request #S51037]

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REDISTRICTING

Designer Districts: Safe Seats Tailor Made for Incumbents. By Mike Surrusco and others, California Common Cause. (Common Cause, Washington, DC) April 2005. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/{FB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665}/CCDesignerDisricts_FINAL_2.pdf

["Our analysis of elections since 1982 -- covering three redistricting cycles -- shows that competition was suppressed when redistricting was in the hands of incumbents in the 1980s and 2000s. But after a court-imposed redistricting in 1991, with lines drawn by three retired judges appointed by the California Supreme Court, competition rose in both U.S. House and state legislative races." Common Cause Press Release (April 7, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51038]

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RETIREMENT SYSTEMS

Violations of State & Local Laws Related to SDCERS Pension Fund: Interim Report #3. By Michael Aguirre, Office of the City Attorney. (The Office, San Diego, California) April 8, 2005. 23 p.

["City Attorney Michael Aguirre declared that San Diego pension benefits spanning nearly a decade are illegal and therefore void, and that a mix of taxes and benefit reductions is needed to close a $1.37 billion pension-system deficit. Aguirre's report said increasing the assets and lowering the liabilities of the $3.6 billion San Diego City Employees Retirement System will be difficult because of limited ability to raise revenue and reduce pension obligations." San Diego Tribune (April 9, 2005) 1.]

The Report. 23 p. :
http://genesis.sannet.gov/infospc/templates/attorney/pdf/thirdinterimreport.pdf

Exhibits for the Report. 192 p.:
http://genesis.sannet.gov/infospc/templates/attorney/pdf/exhibits_report3.pdf

[Request #S51039]

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STATE GOVERNMENTS

Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2004. By Stephen Moor and Stephen Slivinski, Cato Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 1, 2005. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa537.pdf

["The Cato study graded 42 governors, based on 15 measures of fiscal performance. Governors who cut taxes and spending earned higher grades and governors who increased spending and taxes earned low grades. The institute claims that states with low taxes and restrained spending have better long-term growth." Associated Press (March 3, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51040]

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HEALTH

ASSISTED SUICIDE

By a Large Margin Californians Still Support the Concept of Doctor-Assisted Suicide: The Field Poll. By the Field Research Corporation. (The Corporation, San Francisco, California) March 2, 2005. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.field.com/fieldpollonline/subscribers/RLS2155.pdf

["In the poll, 70 percent of adults agreed that incurably ill patients should have the right to ask for and receive life-ending medication. Twenty-two percent opposed the concept. In addition, 68 percent of respondents - including 62 percent of people 65 years or older - would personally want to have this option if they were ill." Sacramento Bee (March 2, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51041]

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ASTHMA

"The Asthma Trap." By Sara Corbett. IN: Mother Jones, vol. 30, no. 2 (March/April 2005) pp. 58-65, 90-92.

Full Text at: www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2005/03/asthma.html

["Doctors say asthma should be easy to keep under control -- all it takes to control asthma is the right medication, clean air and a reasonably stress-free life ... yet the epidemic is now one of the leading causes of hospitalization for children. What is leaving millions of kids out of breath?"]

[Request #S51042]

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CHILDREN

Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds. By Donald F. Roberts, Stanford University, and others. Prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) March 2005. 145 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/entmedia/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=51809

["The report shows that youths are increasing the time they spend with 'new media' (computers, Internet and video games) without shedding the old (TV, print and music). Consequently, students are stuffing an increasing amount of media content into their lives, using more than one medium at a time and packing 8 1/2 hours of media content into just under 6 1/2 hours each day." Chicago Tribune (March 10, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51043]

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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

Sick of Dust: Chemicals in Common Products -- A Needless Health Risk in Our Homes. By Pat Coster and others, Safer Products Project. (The Project, Spring Brook, New York) March, 2005. 50p.

Full Text at: safer-products.org/downloads/Dust%20Report.pdf

["Common household dust contains a variety of hazardous chemicals originating from everyday consumer products, including Teflon and other nonstick cookware and fabrics coated with water resistant Gore-Tex, according to a study. The study showed that hidden away in dust balls in vacuum cleaner bags were 35 toxic industrial chemicals that are legal in products but have been shown to cause reproductive, respiratory and other health problems in humans or test animals." San Francisco Chronicle, (March 23, 2005) A1.]

[Request #S51044]

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"Indoor Air Pollutants: Limited-resource Households and Child Care Centers." By Joseph Laquatra and others. IN: Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 67, no. 7 (March 2005) pp. 39-43.

["This paper reports on a study of indoor air quality in homes and child care facilities in non-metropolitan counties of New York State. Specific pollutants examined were lead, radon, carbon monoxide, asbestos, and mold. High levels of pollutants were observed in many facilities and certain pollutants were significantly and negatively correlated with household income."]

[Request #S51045]

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LOW INCOME

"The Availability and Cost of Healthier Food Items." By Karen M. Jetter and Diana L. Cassady, Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, Davis. AIC Issue Brief. No. 29 (The Center, Davis, California) March 2005. 6 p.

Full Text at: aic.ucdavis.edu/pub/briefs/IB%2029.pdf

["Making simple dietary improvements -- substituting whole-wheat bread for white, low-fat cheese for whole-fat products, skinless poultry for regular chicken -- could help ease the epidemic of obesity and related diseases sweeping the nation. But such a change may be simply out of reach for many low-income consumers. A family of four could spend $850 to $960 a year more on healthier food -- the equivalent of 35 to 40 percent of a low-income family's entire food budget.. Low-income consumers seeking improved nutrition often cite high prices and a lack of healthy food choices as a barrier." Stockton Record (March 22, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51046]

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SMOKING

Technical Support Document for the "Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant." By State of California Air Resources Board. (The Board, Sacramento, California) March 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/ets/dreport/dreport.htm

["A sweeping study led by California state scientists on the health risks of breathing second-hand smoke adds breast cancer and premature birth to an already long list of ills associated with cigarettes. The findings go further in establishing the link between cigarettes and breast cancer than any before." Sacramento Bee (March 10, 2005) A1.]

[Request #S51047]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Hunger and Food Insecurity among American Children: Consequences and Prevention. By Deanna Wilson, Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program. C-SNAP Report. (C-SNAP, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts) March 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: dcc2.bumc.bu.edu/csnappublic/report_March2005.pdf

["A brief report describing hunger and food insecurity, its severe impact on children, and the potential for a combination of public programs to protect young children from under-nutrition."]

[Request #S51048]

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ELDERLY

Social Security and the Income of the Elderly. By Michael Ettlinger and Jeff Chapman, Economic Policy Institute Issue Brief. No. 206. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 23, 2005. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/issuebriefs/206/ib206.pdf

["Although Social Security is an important insurance program for people of all ages, at any given point in time the largest single demographic group of recipients is those age 65 and over. For a large majority of this group, the program is critical to their quality of life -- 65% of these elderly rely on Social Security for over half their income.... One-third rely on Social Security for 90% of their income. Nationally, the median married couple or individual recipient age 65 and over relies on Social Security for 67% of income. High reliance on Social Security for the well-being of the elderly is typical regardless of sex, race, or state of residence."]

[Request #S51049]

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IMMIGRATION

Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. By Jeffrey S. Passel, Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 21, 2005. 11 p.

Full Text at: pewhispanic.org/files/reports/44.pdf

["As of March 2005, the undocumented population has reached nearly 11 million including more than 6 million Mexicans.... In addition, another 2.5 million undocumented migrants or about 24 percent of the total are from other Latin American countries. About 9 percent are from Asia, 6 percent from Europe and Canada, and 4 percent from the rest of the world.... California is home to almost one-fourth of the nation's undocumented immigrants, the greatest concentration in all U.S. states. That share, however, has declined significantly from 1990 when almost half, or 45 percent, of all undocumented immigrants in the United States were in California."]

[Request #S51050]

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LOW INCOME

House Budget Resolution Would Require Much Deeper Cuts in Key Low-income Programs than Senate Budget Plan: Depth and Breadth of Cuts a Key Issue in the Budget Resolution Conference. By Sharon Parrott and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 30, 2005. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/3-30-05bud.pdf

["The budget resolutions passed by the House and Senate in mid-March differ sharply in the size of their cuts in key 'mandatory' (or 'entitlement') programs that assist low-income families with children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. The House Budget Resolution calls for an estimated $30 billion to $35 billion in cuts over the next five years in Medicaid, food stamps, and low-income programs.. The Senate Budget Resolution, by contrast, does not include cuts in low-income mandatory programs other than the Food Stamp Program. In other words, the House budget plan's cuts to low-income mandatory programs would be at least ten times larger than those in the Senate budget plan."]

[Request #S51051]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

House TANF Bill Includes Possible Medicaid Cost Allocation Offset. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 05-13. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 24, 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2005/IB05-13.pdf

["The House Ways and Means bill reauthorizing the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program would reduce state reimbursements for Medicaid administration for federal fiscal years (FYs) 2005-2006 to approximately reflect the shares assumed in the TANF block grant (known as 'cost allocation'). The rationales given for the reductions are to prevent duplicative payments and to fund the extension of the transitional medical assistance program."]

[Request #S51052]

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Pediatricians Find TANF Sanctions Put Young Children at Risk. By C-SNAP: Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program. C-SNAP Policy Brief. (C-SNAP, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts) March 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: dcc2.bumc.bu.edu/csnappublic/TANF_March2005.pdf

["As key lawmakers mount a major push to reauthorize the nation's welfare law, a long-term study carried out by pediatricians and child health researchers has found that existing welfare policies are having a direct negative effect on some young children's health." Connections (April 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51053]

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TRANSPORTATION

DRIVERS' LICENSES

Driver's License Requirements: A Mandate in the Wings? By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 05-12. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 24, 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2005/IB05-12.pdf

["Congress passed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) that included a provision regarding driver's license and ID card requirements. In the past, states and territories established their own standards for identity documents; however, P.L. 108-458 federalized standards for driver's licenses, ID cards and birth certificates. H.R. 418, the House-passed Real ID Act of 2005, specifies standards that must be met, the data systems required to maintain and share information, the verification systems that must be established and the technological safeguards that must be deployed."]

[Request #S51054]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME CONTROL

Go Directly to Jail: Criminalization of Almost Everything. By Gene Healy. (The Cato Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 160 p.

["As the Cato Institute's 'Go Directly to Jail' shows, it is now frighteningly easy for American citizens to be imprisoned for actions that no reasonable person would regard as the type of morally culpable behavior for which the serious sanction of criminal law was once reserved. Compiled and introduced by Gene Healy, the book offers essays from a variety of authors who sound the alarm of legislative -- rather than judicial -- activism run amok." The Washington Times (January 11, 2005) A17.]

[Request #S51055]

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EDUCATION

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom. By M. Suzanne Donovan and John D. Bransford. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2005. 616 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/books/0309074339/html/

["How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom outlines how three central tenets of learning theory might shape instruction in those subjects. Those tenets, drawn from the extensive research analysis of a committee of scholars, suggest that teachers must address students' initial understanding and preconceptions about particular topics, provide a foundation of factual knowledge and conceptual understanding, and teach strategies to help students take control of their learning."]

[Request #S51056]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

DRINKING WATER

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion. By the Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion. (National Academies of Sciences, Washington, DC) 2005. 191 pages.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/books/0309095689/html

["Perchlorate, a chemical used in fuel for rockets and missiles that, in high doses, can decrease thyroid function in humans, has turned up in drinking water in more than 35 states. A new report says it is safe to ingest perchlorate at doses 20 times greater than the "reference dose" currently proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency" National Public Radio, All Things Considered (January 10, 2005) 1. NOTE: Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion will be available for 3-day loan.] ]

[Request #S51058]

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LAND USE

The High Cost of Free Parking. By Donald C. Shoup, University of California, Los Angeles. (American Planning Association, Chicago, Illinois) March 1, 2005. 576 p.

["Cities and taxpayers are wasting billions of dollars subsidizing parking on valuable land that could be used for housing or parks, says Donald Shoup, an urban planning professor at UCLA....The book challenges traditional thinking that cheap and plentiful parking is smart public policy. It comes at a time when cities and companies are studying how much parking to provide workers and how to encourage wider use of mass transit....Shoup urges cities to review their parking requirements and adjust prices and supply based on demand." USA Today (March 20, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S51059]

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