Subject: Studies in the News 04-78 (December 3, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Bay area business confidence survey
   Best performing cities
   The loss of high tech workers
   U.S. economy and job creation
   Business ownership by veterans
EDUCATION
   Reforming American high schools
   Illiteracy in Los Angeles County
EMPLOYMENT
   Labor and employment dispute resolution
   Immigrant workers and recession
   Job training policy
   U.S. labor projections
   City and county retirement liabilities
   Governmental pension financing
   Nationwide survey of public retirement systems
   State aging trends and indicators
   Gender based wage gap
   Work participation strategies
   Women, work, and family in California
   Women's work supports
   Changing workforce and workplace
HUMAN SERVICES
   Child care subsidies and employment outcomes
   Children in poverty
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, October 2004
   Studies in the News, November 2004
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

BUSINESS CLIMATE

Bay Area Business Confidence Survey. By Evans/McDonough Company, Inc. Prepared for the Bay Area Council. (The Council, San Francisco, California) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.bayareacouncil.org/site/pp.asp?c=dkLRK7MMIqG&b=242086

["While the business outlook is relatively stable for the region as a whole, confidence levels vary by industry. For example, an astounding 100 percent of respondents from the leisure and hospitality sector see the upcoming six months showing signs of improvement. But, only 40 percent of construction/transportation executives surveyed see moderate improvements."]

[Request #S4496]

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CITY RANKINGS

Best Performing Cities: Where America's Jobs Are Created and Sustained. By Ross DeVol and others. (The Milken Institute, Santa Monica, California) November 2004. 44 p.

["The state of California placed a total of seven metros on last year’s Milken Institute Top 20 Best Performing Cities, but managed only two in 2004.... Riverside/San Bernardino 8th, is up from 20th in 2003; San Diego, 16th, down from 5th in 2003."]

[Request #S4497]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

What Is Happening to Silicon Valley’s Talent Pool? By Michael Dardia, Tracey Grose, Hugh Roghmann. (Sphere Institute, Burlingame, California) October 8, 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.sphereinstitute.org/publications/FinalPresentationNOVA10-8_v6.pdf

["Half of the Californians working in tech in 2000 have left the field.... Nearly one-fourth of the tech workers have taken non-technology jobs that often pay less.... Another 28 percent have fallen off California's job rolls altogether." San Jose Mercury News (October 8, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4498]

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JOB CREATION

Two Measures of Employment: How Different Are They? By Tao Wu, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Regional Report, FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2004-23. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) August 27, 2004. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2004/el2004-23.pdf

["How well has the economy performed in terms of creating jobs? To answer that question, most analysts look at two independent monthly estimates of employment published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the payroll survey and household survey.... This Economic Letter examines the historical and recent behavior of these two employment measures to answer questions."]

[Request #S4499]

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SMALL BUSINESS

Entrepreneurship and Business Ownership In the Veteran Population. By Waldmand Associates. Prepared for the Office of Advocacy, Small Business Administration. (The Office, Washington, DC) November 2004. 82 p.

Full Text at: www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs242tot.pdf

["The study found that more than one-third of new veteran-entrepreneurs and current veteran business-owners had gained skills from their active duty service that were directly relevant to business ownership. Also, prior business ownership and employment experience had a positive impact on an even higher percentage of veteran business owners."]

[Request #S4500]

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION REFORM

"Making High Schools Better: Reform Groups Search for Answers Far and Near." By Rick Allen. IN: Education Update, vol. 46 no. 4 (August 2004) Various pagings

Full Text at: www.ascd.org/publications/ed_update/200408/allen.html

["As educators seek new frameworks for high school education, some researchers point to countries like Denmark or Singapore, where high standards and expectations are understood by students across grade levels and mesh with the expectations of university and business leaders. Others urge school administrators to look closer to home and listen to the comments of disaffected students. In both cases, reform groups encourage educators and policymakers to think outside the current high school box."]

[Request #S4501]

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LITERACY

Literacy@Work. By the L.A. Workforce Literacy Project. (The Project, Los Angeles, California) September 2004.

["Fifty-three percent of working-age Los Angeles County residents have trouble reading street signs or bus schedules, filling out job applications in English or understanding a utility bill. Civic, business and education leaders released an extensive report on literacy problems in the Los Angeles area and mapped out a five-year plan to address them.... Educated immigrants who have not yet learned English, immigrants who are not literate in their native tongue and English-speaking high school dropouts contribute to the area's workforce literacy problems, according to the report." Los Angeles Times (September 9, 2004) A1.] Summary Report. 24 p.:
http://www.workforceliteracy.org/workforceliteracy/PDF/LiteracyReport.pdf

Full Report. 199 p.:
http://www.workforceliteracy.org/workforceliteracy/PDF/LiteracyReportFull.pdf

[Request #S4502]

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EMPLOYMENT

EMPLOYMENT LAW

Researching Labor Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution in Employment. By Suzanne Thorpe and Laura J. Cooper, University of Minnesota Law School. (The Authors, Minneapolis, Minnesota) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.llrx.com/features/adr.htm

["This guide identifies comprehensive bibliographies that discuss arbitration and other means of employment dispute resolution in unionized and nonunionized settings and sources that provide information about alternative dispute resolution professionals." LLRX Update (October 28, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4503]

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IMMIGRATION

A Jobless Recovery? Immigrant Gains and Native Losses. By Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2004/back1104.pdf

["The number of adult immigrants (18 years of age and older) holding a job increased by over two million between 2000 and 2004, while the number of adult natives holding a job is nearly half a million fewer. This Backgrounder also finds that the number of adult natives who are unemployed or who have withdrawn from the labor force is dramatically higher in 2004 than it was in 2000. These findings raise the possibility that immigration has adversely affected the job prospects of native-born Americans." Publisher's Announcement (October 27, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4504]

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JOB TRAINING

Job Training Policy in the United States. By Christopher J. O'Leary and others. UpJohn Institute for Employment Research. (The Institute, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 2004. 359 p.

Full Text at: www.upjohninst.org/publications/ch1/jtp.pdf

["This book provides a broad overview of federally funded job training programs as they exist today. In particular, it examines training service providers and methods of delivering training services, including the use of individual trainging accounts and eligible training provider lists. In addition, public training programs are compared to private training provided in the United States and to public training programs offered in other industrial nations." NOTE: Job Training Policy ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4505]

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LABOR STATISTICS

CBO's Projections of the Labor Force. By Paul Burnham and others, Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2004. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/58xx/doc5803/09-15-LaborForce.pdf

["This paper presents the Congressional Budget Office’s projections of growth in the labor force from 2004 through 2014. It also discusses several key sources of uncertainty surrounding the two main factors that determine the size of the labor force: the size of the adult civilian noninstitutional population; and changes in the fraction of that population that is either working or actively looking for work — the labor force participation rate."]

[Request #S4506]

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RETIREMENT

Wilshire Report on City and County Retirement Systems: Funding Levels and Asset Allocation. By Julia K. Bonafede and others, Wilshire Associates. (Wilshire Associates, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.wilshire.com/Company/2004_State_Retirement_Funding_Report.pdf

["Wilshire forecasts a long-term return on state pension assets equal to 7.2% per annum, which is 0.8% below the average actuarial interest rate assumption of 8.0%. If correct, this asset performance shortfall will increase total unfunded liabilities for state pension plans by an additional $40 billion per year."]

[Request #S4507]

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"Strawberry Fields Forever: The Precipice of Governmental Pension Financing." By Frank Shafroth. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 33, no. 12 (September 20, 2004) pp. 873-877.

Full Text at: services.taxanalysts.com/taxbase/nav.nsf/STNFrame?Open&Login

["Within the decade ... Social Security and Medicare, currently $789 billion, or 34 percent of federal spending, will swell to $1.5 trillion, or 42 percent of the budget. State and local governments also face growing demands on promises made in a different era, but with fewer options and greater accountability."]

[Request #S4508]

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Public Fund Survey: Summary Findings: FY 2003. By Keith Brainard, National Association of State Retirement Administrators. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2004. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.publicfundsurvey.org/SurveyFindingsFY03.pdf

["The survey contains data on public retirement systems that provide pension and other benefits for a combined 12.7 million active members, 5.6 million annuitants, and that hold $1.86 trillion in assets in trust for these participants. Based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the membership and assets of systems included in the survey represent more than 85% of the nation’s entire public retirement system community."]

[Request #S4509]

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Measuring the Years: State Aging Trends and Indicators. By Laura Summer and others, Center for Best Practice, National Governors Association. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/center/databook04/

["This publication identifies current trends and future directions related to an aging America, to assist state policymakers in creating programs and policies that respond to unique needs of the people in their state."]

[Request #S4510]

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WAGES

The Gender Wage Ratio: Women's and Men's Earnings. By the Institute for Women's Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/C350updated.pdf

["The gender wage ratio, which had remained virtually constant from 1955 through the 1970s, began to increase in the 1980s. For full-time year-round workers, the ratio of women’s median annual earnings to men’s rose from 60.7 in 1960, reaching 71.6 in 1990. Over the 1990s, the wage ratio grew modestly. An all-time high of 76.6 was reached in 2002, but the ratio fell back in 2003, to 75.5."]

[Request #S4511]

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WELFARE RECIPIENTS

A Study of Work Participation and Full Engagement Strategies. By Jaqueline Kauff and others, Mathematica Policy Research. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) September 2004. 128 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/studyofwork.pdf

["Dramatic changes in the welfare system have drawn attention to the need to engage a broader group of welfare recipients in activities that build their capacity to work.... This study examined seven programs to document their operations and effectiveness, and to identify lessons that could help other programs with similar goals." Publisher's Announcement (October 28, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4512]

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WOMEN

Women, Work, and Family in California. By Deborah Reed, Public Policy Institute of California. California Counts. Vol. 6, No. 2. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) November 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/CC_1104DRCC.pdf

["(The study) explores trends in the work participation, earnings, and occupations of California women. (The study) finds that while less than half of California's working-age women were in the labor market in the late 1960s, over 70 percent are working today. Their annual incomes are about 75 percent higher than in the late 1960s because they are working more hours, earning more per hour, and entering higher-paying occupations. The salaries of married women have been the main source of growth in family income over the past 20 years."]

[Request #S4513]

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Women's Work Supports, Job Retention, and Job Mobility: Child Care and Employer-provided Health Insurance Help Women Stay on Jobs. By Sunhwa Lee, Institute for Women's Policy Research. Research-in-Brief. No. B244. (The Institute, Washington, DC) November 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/B244.pdf

["The findings indicate that low-income mothers have a high rate of job turnover compared with higher-income mothers. Yet, low-income mothers who have health insurance coverage from their employers are significantly more likely to stay on their job than women who have other types of health insurance or no health insurance. Having a regular child care arrangement — whether it be relative care, non-relative care, or center-based care — also helps job retention among low-income mothers with preschool children."]

[Request #S4514]

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WORKFORCE

The 21st Century at Work: Forces Shaping the Future Workforce and Workplace in the United States. By Lynn A. Karoly and Constantijn W. A. Panis. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Labor. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2004.

["What are the forces that will continue to shape the U.S. workforce and workplace over the next 10 to 15 years? With its eye on forming sound policy and helping stakeholders in the private and public sectors make informed decisions, the U.S. Department of Labor asked RAND to look at the future of work. The authors analyze trends in and the implications of shifting demographic patterns, the pace of technological change, and the path of economic globalization."]

Full Document. 306 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG164.pdf

Summary. 31 p.:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG164.sum.pdf

[Request #S4515]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Child Care Subsidy Use and Employment Outcomes of TANF Mothers During the Early Years of Welfare Reform: A Three State Study. By Bong Joo Lee and others, Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) September 2004. 65 p.

["This study examines the relation between subsidy take-up and employment duration among single mothers who were receiving TANF or who had recently left the TANF program during the early years of welfare reform (1997 to 1999). It found that child care subsidy take-up rates among the income-eligible mothers are low — never exceeding 35 percent. Even after controlling for a range of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of our study population, we find that using a child care subsidy decreases the probability of ending employment over the study period."]

[Request #S4516]

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CHILDREN

The Children Left Behind: Deeper Poverty, Fewer Supports. By Deanna M. Lyter and others, Institute for Women's Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/D457.pdf

["While many have heralded the success of welfare reform, this work uncovers a much more complex picture whereby the nation's most vulnerable children are shown to be faring much worse under welfare reform. In order to rectify this situation, this study recommends the following: 1) States must do a better job of reaching out to families no longer receiving welfare; 2) Policymakers must increase income disregards for those transitioning away from welfare; 3) Congress and the states must expand access to education and training."]

[Request #S4517]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 04-68 - 04-71 (October 2004).

[Includes: "Employer-sponsored health care coverage shrinking;" "Unemployment and African-American middle class;" "Health benefits and employment;" "Wage gap and Latinos;" "Personal reemployment accounts;" "Lack of federal benefits for unemployed;" "TANF caseloads and unemployment insurance;" "High-performance welfare bonuses awarded;" "Implementing welfare reform;" and others.]

[Request #S4518]

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"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 04-73 - 04-76 (November 2004).

[Includes: "Trade sanctions and child labor;" "Federal government workforce ;" "San Diego's pension reform committee ;" "Generational work attitudes;" "TANF and work activities;" "Families cycling on and off welfare;" and others.]

[Request #S4519]

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