Subject: Studies in the News 04-62 (September 20, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


- "California Indians are the first Californians, having occupied the land for millennia, but most citizens and visitors to our state do not know this fact or the story of California Indians. California Indians are a diverse people with world-views, traditions, stories and songs, all based on a balanced and respectful relationship with the land and its people. " http://www.laprensa-sandiego.org/archieve/may24-02/seals.htm    

- "The history of California Indians is a different story from that of other ethnic groups who came in the last few centuries as immigrants to an already populated land. For Indians, this is their homeland, and their history spans more than 10,000 years of occupation. Unlike other groups who came to California to gain wealth or to escape undesirable conditions, California Indians lived in a land of plenty. Their material technology reflected what was necessary to meet their needs. " http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1.htm    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material

CALIFORNIA READER
   Early laws related to California Indians
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Tribal jails and corrections
   Crime and American Indian children
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Culturally based education
   American Indian children in Los Angeles
   U.S. apology to Native Peoples
   Family strengthening in Indian America
   Indian renaissance
   State of the Indian Nations
   Unmet needs for Native Americans
   Loss of Native American languages
   Native American languages act
   Court case on sacred sites
DEMOGRAPHY
   One in four Native Americans resides in California
ECONOMY
   Native American economic development
EDUCATION
   Research in culturally based education
   Education Research Agenda
   Multicultural learning styles and instructional approaches
   Culturally based education
   Indian schools struggle with mandates
   Native American Education
   Culturally responsive American Indian education
   Indian Education Act in New Mexico
   Improving education for Zuni children
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Mercury in lake fish
   San Joaquin water diversion illegal
   Final report on Klamath fish
   Coho salmon recovery plan
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   State/Tribal relations
   Understanding state and tribal governments
   Building tribal and local government relationships
   Sacred land returned to the Wiyot Tribe
   Cooperation between states and tribes
   American Indian trust management plan
HEALTH
   Native American health care system
   Childhood predictors of Native American alcoholism
   Child abuse predeterminate for later alcoholism
   Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children
   Native Americans and health care
HOUSING
   Housing discrimination for Native Americans
HUMAN SERVICES
   Out-come based framework for Aboriginal child care
   Indian child welfare act and the states
   American Indian children and welfare programs
   Welfare reform on tribal lands
   State/Tribal collaboration
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

Early California Laws and Policies Related to California Indians. By Kimberly Johnston-Dodds, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 02-014. (CRB, Sacramento, California) September 2002. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/14/02-014.pdf

["This report contains information obtained from public records related to four examples of early State of California laws and policies that significantly impacted the California Indians’ way of life. These early examples include: the 1850 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians; State of California militia laws and policies related to 'Expeditions against the Indians'; and laws enacted during the first fifteen years of statehood that accommodated Indian tribes’ traditional fishing practices."]

[Request #S6685]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

NATIVE AMERICANS

"Incarcerating Ourselves: Tribal Jails and Corrections." By Eileen M. Luna-Firebaugh, University of Arizona. IN: The Prison Journal, vol. 83, no. 1 (March 2003) pp. 51-66.

["Many Indian nations are creating and running jails regardless of the costs, because they have determined that they can provide custodial services near home communities and with cultural and traditional components that are not met by mainstream facilities. They have also determined that the provision of essential law enforcement and custodial services are opportunities to expand tribal sovereignty in important ways."]

[Request #S7595]

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YOUTH

Enlarging the Healing Circle: Ensuring Justice for American Indian Children. By the Coalition for Juvenile Justice. (The Coalition, Washington, DC) 2003.

["The report identifies substance abuse, depression, gang involvement and faulty legal procedures as major underlying causes of American Indian youth delinquency.... A failure to understand the particular cultures and perspectives that impact American Indian youth can only lead to more lost children."]

[Request #S9005]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AMERICAN INDIANS

A Review of the Research Literature on the Influences of Culturally Based Education on the Academic Performance of Native American Students. By William G. Demmert, Jr. and others, Northwest Regional Education Laboratory. (The Laboratory, Portland, Oregon) 2003. 142 p.

Full Text at: www.nwrel.org/indianed/cbe.pdf

["One of the major tasks facing Native American communities is to create lifelong learning opportunities that allow all the members to improve their quality of life, and to meet their tribal responsibilities through meaningful contributions to the local, national, and world communities in which they live and interact. The greatest educational challenge for many is to build learning environments that allow each of their young children to obtain an education that 'creates good people that are knowledgeable and wise.'"]

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CALIFORNIA INDIANS

The Status of American Indian Children in Los Angeles. By Paul M. Ong and others, The Ralph and Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. Policy Briefs. Paper 03. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=lewis

["This policy brief presents findings on the status of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) children in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.... According to the 2000 census, there were 111,000 AIANs in the region. These children and their parents face numerous social problems and economic challenges. This brief uses three decades of census data to provide an updated analysis of the socioeconomic status of AIAN children."]

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NATIVE AMERICANS

Senate Joint Resolution 37: To Acknowledge a Long History of Official Depredations and Ill-Conceived Policies by the United States Government Regarding Indian Tribes and Offer an Apology to all Native Peoples on Behalf of the United States. By Senator Sam Brownback and others. (United States Congress, Washington, DC) May 6, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:sj37is.txt.pdf

["The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs has passed a resolution of national apology to Native peoples of the United States. S.J. 37 now moves on to the full Senate for consideration. Lead sponsor Sam Brownback, R-Kan., offered the bill 'so that healing and reconciliation can take place.'" Indian Country Today (June 30, 2004) 1.]

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The Context and Meaning of Family Strengthening in Indian America. By the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development. (Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) August 2004. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/publications/data/fs_indian_america.pdf

["While it would be misleading to fail to point out the severe problems of poverty, ill-health, underemployment, and other social difficulties that many children and families face in Indian America, we believe a great deal can be learned by examining the increasing number of successful Native communities."]

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Indian Renaissance: Countering Centuries of Oppression and Neglect, American Indians Travel the Road to Renewal. By Joseph Bruchac. IN: National Geographic, vol. 206, no. 3 (September 2004) pp. 76-95.

[Cultural and economic energy is flowing across Indian Country.... This revival was ignited with the political activism of the 1960's when, after centuries of subjugation and government control, Indians increased demands for sovereignty and expanded efforts to reclaim their heritage. With growing economic clout ... tribes are waging legal and political battles for greater control over their lands."]

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The State Of Indian Nations Today: Mapping a Course For the Next Seven Generations. Presented by Tex Hall, National Congress of American Indians. (The Congress, Washington, DC) January 31, 2003. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.ncai.org/form/docs/SOIN_ADDRESS.pdf

["Indian Leader Urges Bush to Help Tribes with Health, Poverty: Tex Hall painted a picture in which American Indian leaders are challenged with high poverty rates, severe impediments to economic development and a skeletal health system. Nearly one-fourth of American Indian households have no telephone service, more than 14 percent of reservation homes lack electricity and 8 percent have no running water." Associated Press State & Local Wire (January 31, 2003) 1.]

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A Quiet Crisis: Federal Funding and Unmet Needs in Indian Country. By the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (The Commission, Washington, DC) July 2003. 131 p.

Full Text at: www.usccr.gov/pubs/na0703/na0731.pdf

["The report finds that the United States is not meeting its obligation to Native peoples, an obligation rooted in the history of forced removal from lands and confiscation of natural resources that they depended on for their livelihood. The study finds evidence of pervasive unmet needs in health care, housing, law enforcement and education in Native American communities due to the government failure to honor promised funding." PR Newswire (July 14, 2003) 1.]

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S. 575: A Bill to Amend the Native American Language Act To Provide For the Support Of Native American Language Schools, and Other Purposes. 108th Congress, 1st Session. March 7, 2003.

Full Text at: frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:s575is.txt.pdf

["(S. 575) seeks to provide support for American Indians and other indigenous language 'survival' schools.... It is designed to only support existing schools and will probably have its biggest impact in Hawaii, where the island's indigenous language is taught in many schools.... This is not to say that it will not affect California tribes at all. Hinton says that existing programs, such as the one at Pechanga will benefit from this legislation." Indian Country Today (July 16, 2003) 1.]

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Written Statement On S. 575, A Bill To Amend The Native American Languages Act. Presented to The Senate Indian Affairs Committee. By John W. Clark. (The Author, Washington, DC) May 15, 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: indian.senate.gov/2003hrgs/051503hrg/cheek.PDF

["To American Indians, Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians, our languages are synonymous with cultural identity. Without language there is no way to communicate and pass on the values and teachings from elders to tribal youth. Sadly, many tribal groups have already lost their language."]

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SACRED SITES

Cholla Ready Mix v. William Civish, BLM Safford, Arizona Field Office District Manager and others. Opinion. U.S. Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit. 03-15423. D.C. No. CV-02-01185-FJM. September 1, 2004. 14 p.

["A 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals panel ... upheld a trial judge's decision to dismiss the suit that challenged the state's refusal to renew a permit that would enable gravel excavated from ... a northern Arizona site considered sacred by several American Indian tribes ... to be used for highway projects.... The state said its renewal decision was based on the property's historic and cultural values." Associated Press (September 1, 2004) 1.]

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DEMOGRAPHY

NATIVE AMERICANS

The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000. By Shella U. Ogunwole. U.S. Census Bureau (The Bureau, Washington, DC) February 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-15.pdf

["One in four of the 4.1 million American Indians and Alaska Natives counted in the 2000 Census now calls California or Oklahoma home, the Census Bureau reported… [with] California boasting the largest presence, 628,000 people.” San Francisco Chronicle (February 13, 2002) A3.]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Indian Economic Development: Relationships to Economic Development Administration Grants and Self-determination Contracting is Mixed. By the Governmental Accountability Office. GAO-04-847. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2004. 93 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04847.pdf

["GAO analyzed all Economic Development Administration grants made to Indian tribes from 1993-2002 and determined what economic development resulted.... GAO also analyzed the relationship between changes in tribes’ economic profile and the extent to which they had self-governance or contracting arrangements to perform their own services."]

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EDUCATION

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Experimental Research in Culturally Based Education: An Assessment of Feasibility: Final Paper. By Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Prepared for the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. (The Laboratory, Portland, Oregon) June 2004. 90 p.

Full Text at: www.nwrel.org/indianed/cbe/2004.pdf

["Survey results strongly suggest that community involvement is critical and needs to take place early. Not only would the research need support and approval from various community agencies, its design and implementation would also require extensive input from stakeholders. Of particular importance is support and buy-in from tribal councils, school boards, and parents. To that end, we recommend that the process of site selection, as well as designing experimental research include ample opportunities for Native community input and dialogue."]

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American Indian and Alaska Native Education Research Agenda. By the Research Agenda Working Group. (The Group, Charleston, West Virginia) November 2001. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.indianeduresearch.net/agenda.pdf

["This report responds to the Executive Order (13096 ). It summarizes the current state of research and describes.... Running throughout the discussions of the research topics are considerations of appropriate research methods and approaches and the clear demand from Native educators, leaders, and parents that researchers develop information that can be applied now."]

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Theoretical Perspectives, Research Findings, and Classroom Implications of the Learning Styles of American Indian and Alaska Native Students. By R. Soleste Hilberg and Roland Tharp, Center for Research, Education, and Excellence at the University of Santa Cruz. ERIC Digest EDO-RC-02-3. (The Center, Santa Cruz, California) September 2002. 2 p.

Full Text at: crede.ucsc.edu/products/print/erics/eric11_learningstyles.pdf

["It's long been known that the culture of a student is one factor that influences his or her learning style, but recent research indicates that even in mono-cultural classrooms, individuals operate with a broad range of learning styles. The authors discuss general theoretical perspectives on learning styles and their own work on the learning styles of American Indian and Alaska Native students. They maintain that even in single-culture classrooms, teachers must use a variety of instructional approaches so that all students can learn effectively. This digest also includes case studies of instructional approaches that accommodate different learning styles and a discussion of their effectiveness."]

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A Review of the Research Literature on the Influences of Culturally Based Education on the Academic Performance of Native American Students. By William G. Demmert, Jr. and others, Northwest Regional Education Laboratory. (The Laboratory, Portland, Oregon) 2003. 142 p.

Full Text at: www.nwrel.org/indianed/cbe.pdf

["One of the major tasks facing Native American communities is to create lifelong learning opportunities that allow all the members to improve their quality of life, and to meet their tribal responsibilities through meaningful contributions to the local, national, and world communities in which they live and interact. The greatest educational challenge for many is to build learning environments that allow each of their young children to obtain an education that 'creates good people that are knowledgeable and wise.'"]

[Request #S8867]

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NATIVE AMERICANS

"Indian Schools Struggling with Federal Mandates." By Sean Cavanagh. IN: Education Week (July 28, 2004) online.

Full Text at: www.edweek.org/ew/ew_printstory.cfm?slug=43Bia.h23

["The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) oversees 185 schools serving 48,000 students in 23 states.... State and local leaders representing rural districts across the country have raised concerns about the The No Child Left Behind Act's impact. But even in comparison with those districts, BIA systems face challenges that still stand out."]

[Request #S3797]

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Native American Education: A Reference Handbook. By Lorraine Hale. (ABC-CLIO, Inc., Santa Barbara, California) 2002. 309 p.

[Includes: "The Law and Native American Education;" "Issues and Strategies;" "Language, Math, and Science;" "Associations, Organizations, and Tribal Entities;" and "Print and Nonprint Resources." NOTE: Native American Education ... is available for 3-day loan. ]

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Widening the Circle: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for American Indian Children. By Beverly J. Klug and Patricia T. Whitfield. (RoutledgeFalmer, New York, New York) 2003. 322 p.

Full Text at: www.routledge-ny.com

[Includes: "A Brief History of American Indian Education"; "Language and Cultural Values: Defining Who We Are"; "American Indians and Their Cultures"; "Refusing to Believe in the Doctrine of Failure: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for American Indian Children" and others." NOTE: Widening the Circle.... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S7327]

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Indian Education Act. By the New Mexico State Legislature. (The Legislature, Santa Fe, New Mexico) April 2003. 9 p.

["Richardson Signs into Law Indian Education Legislation: The Act sets forth plans to improve teacher training, native-language preservation, culturally relevant curriculum, tribal participation in accountability and parent involvement in the schooling of American Indian children." Santa Fe New Mexican Online (April 5, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S7908]

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Improving Education for Zuni Children. By Studies in Native American Education. (Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence, Santa Cruz, California) 2002. Video.

["Since separating from a larger school district more than 20 years ago, the Zuni Public School District and the Zuni Community have engaged in a steady effort to improve their schools for Zuni children. This video presents the Zuni vision for improving schools for their children, creating classrooms in which students work together on a variety of challenging activities occurring simultaneously, talking with their peers, negotiating and planning, reading, writing, and sharing their learning." NOTE: Improving Education for Zuni Children ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

FISH

Reel Danger: Power Plant Mercury and the Fish We Eat. By Emily Figdor, U.S. Public Interest Research Group. (Clear the Air, Washington, DC) August 2004. 55 p.

Full Text at: cta.policy.net/reports/reel_danger/reel_danger_report.pdf

["More than half the fish in the nation's lakes and reservoirs have levels of mercury that exceed government standards for women of child-bearing age and children, according to an environmental coalition's analysis of a survey by the Environmental Protection Agency. A breakdown of the survey findings from the first two years of a four-year study was the basis of the report." New York Times (August 3, 2004) A15.]

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Natural Resources Defense Council, et al. v. Roger Patterson, et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of California. CIV-S-88-1658, August 27, 2004. 41 p.

Full Text at: 207.41.18.73/caed/DOCUMENTS/Opinions/Karlton/Naturalvspatterson.pdf

["The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation violated state and federal law by diverting most of the water from the San Joaquin River to agriculture for more than 50 years, a federal judge ruled.... The specific question was whether the agency is legally liable for the decimation of Chinook salmon and other types of fish that were native to the upper reaches of the river before construction of Friant Dam in the early 1940s." Sacramento Bee (August 28, 2004) 1.]

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Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Causes of Decline and Strategies for Recovery. By the Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin, National Research Council. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) October 2003.

["After nearly two years of study, the scientific committee suggested a series of aggressive steps ranging from reviving long-drained lakes and wetlands to better controlling erosion from logging, restoring coldwater flows into tributaries, shuttering a hatchery and toppling dozens of dams. But the 12-member panel stuck by a controversial finding: increased flows in the Klamath River and higher water levels in Oregon's Upper Klamath Lake are not justified to protect coho salmon in the river and the lake's two species of sucker fish." Los Angeles Times (October 22, 2003) B6.]

Press release. Various pagings.:
http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309090970?OpenDocument

Full Report. 450 p.:
http://www.nap.edu/books/0309090970/html

[Request #S9477]

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SALMON

Recovery Strategy for the California Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): Report to the California Fish and Game Commission. And Response to Comments on the Draft Recovery Strategy for the California Coho Salmon. By the California Department of Fish and Game. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 2003; January 2004.

["The California Fish and Game Commission ... adopted a plan to restore the habitat of the increasingly scarce fish. The commission's decision capped years of deliberations on how to best help replenish stocks of coho -- or silver -- salmon, which have been depleted by extensive fishing and water diversion as well as muddy runoff, often triggered by land development and logging operations." Los Angeles Times (February 7, 2004) B6.]

Recovery Plan. 382 p.:
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/nafwb/pubs/2003/CohoRecovery/Recovery%20Strategy.pdf

Responses to Comments. 229 p.:
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/nafwb/pubs/2004/CohoRecovery/Response_to_comments.pdf

Other recovery strategy documents. Various pagings.:
http://www.dfg.ca.gov/nafwb/coho.html

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

TRIBAL RELATIONS

New Mexico Legislature Creates Cabinet-level Indian Affairs Department. State/Tribal Relations Update. By the National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Washington, DC) March 2004. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/statetribe/nmcabinet.htm

["The legislation signed by the (New Mexico) Governor in March will establish a Secretary of Indian Affairs position in the Governor's cabinet.... The department will be comprised of an administrative division and program service division and will be the coordinating agency for intergovernmental and interagency programs that deal with tribal issues in the state."]

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Government to Government: Understanding State and Tribal Governments. By Susan Johnson and Jeanne Kaufmann, National Conference of State Legislatures and John Dossett and Sarah Hicks, National Congress of American Indians. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June 2000. 67 p.

["States and tribes have mutual interests: to use public resources effectively and efficiently, to provide comprehensive services to their respective citizens, to protect the natural environment, and to sustain economies.... This publication provides information for state legislators about tribal governments and for tribal leaders about state governments."]

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Government to Government: Building Tribal and Local Government Relationships. By the Governor's Office of Planning and Research. ( The Office, Sacramento, CA) 2003. 11 p.

["Among the challenges California faces in the 21st century will be adjusting to and accommodating the growing presence and influence of California's Native American tribes.... This change presents an opportunity for both local and tribal governments to build new relationships that will ease tensions over land use, economic development and environmental quality, and open the doors to collaboration on infrastructure and other improvements to benefit all jurisdictions."]

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A Resolution of the City Council of Eureka Supporting the Transfer of a Portion of Indian Island to the Wiyot Tribe. Resolution 04-22. By the City Council of the City of Eureka. (The Council, Eureka, California) May 18, 2004. 3 p.

["The city's mayor presented a tribal chief the deed to 40 acres of land.... 'I think what we are doing is reinventing history,' said Mayor Peter La Vallee said in an interview Friday. 'You can't say you're sorry. But 144 years later, we can say it wasn't right and honor the culture of the tribe and its roots.'" Associated Press (June 26, 2004) 1.]

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Government to Government: Models of Cooperation Between States and Tribes. By Susan Johnson and others, National Conference of State Legislatures and National Congress of American Indians. (The Conference, Washington, DC) May 2002. 87 p.

["As Native American tribes and state governments evolve in the 21st century, there are continuing changes in state-tribal relations. Both governments are discovering areas of mutual interest and finding new ways to cooperate. This book examines a broad range of issues and highlights the ways tribes and states have built better communication and mutual respect."]

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Comprehensive Trust Management Plan. By the Department of the Interior. (The Department, Washington, DC) March 28, 2003. 109 p.

Full Text at: www.doi.gov/indiantrust/pdf/doi_trust_management_plan.pdf

["This final Comprehensive Trust Management Plan ... presents a strategic plan to guide the design and implementation of integrated trust reform efforts.... In January 2002, the Secretary of the Interior launched an effort to develop a comprehensive approach for improving Indian trust management.... By examining the entire organization and its service delivery model, DOI is building the framework for modernization and initiating a business culture change. While much remains to be done in the long term, this plan is a major milestone toward achieving a performance-based, accountable trust management system."]

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HEALTH

ACCESS TO CARE

Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Draft Report for Commissioners' Review. By the United States Commission on Civil Rights. (The Commission, Washington, DC) July 2, 2004. 145 p.

Full Text at: www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf

["Health care for many Native American in this country sinks to Third World levels.... deaths from alcoholism are 770 percent more likely ... from tuberculosis, 650 percent; and from diabetes, 420 percent.... The Indian Health Service ... is so underfunded that it spends only ... about half of what the government spends on prisoners." Washington Post (August 30, 2004) A22.]

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ALCOHOL & DRUG USE

"Childhood Abuse Related to Alcoholism in Native Americans." By Mary P. Koss and Nicole Yuan and others, University of Arizona. IN: American Journal of Preventive Medicine (September 2003.)

["New research on seven Native American tribes suggests that tribe members who were abused or sent away to school as children are more likely to have problems with alcohol later in life. Alcohol abuse extracts a terrible toll among several Native American communities, making it important to understand factors that might influence alcohol abuse among the population." Health Behavior News Service (September 17, 2003) 1.]

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"Adverse Childhood Exposures and Alcohol Dependence Among Seven Native American Tribes." By Mary P. Koss and others IN: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3 (October 2003) pp. 238-244.

["New research on seven Native American tribes suggests that tribe members who were abused or sent away to school as children are more likely to have problems with alcohol later in life.... More than two-thirds of respondents reported at least one kind of adverse childhood experience." Health Behavior News Service (September 17, 2003) 1.]

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DIABETES

"Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children, With Special Emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native Children." By Marcia M Ditmyer and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol.112 issue 4 (October 2003) pp. 328-348

["While change in physical activity and diet have significantly increased the rate of type 2 diabetes in children throughout the U.S., studies have shown that American Indian and Alaskan Native children face a higher risk of contracting the disease than do children of other ethnicities.... Prevention programs in these communities require a cooperative effort ... with appropriate tribal authorities, school, communities, state and federal agencies, and local businesses. The report also calls for more research, prevention efforts, and treatments for children with type 2 diabetes."]

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UNINSURED POPULATION

"Health Service Access, Use, and Insurance Coverage Among American Indians/Alaska Natives and Whites: What Role does the Indian Health Service Play?" By Stephen Zuckerman and others. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 1 (January 2004) pp. 53-59.

["The health care needs of the 4.1 million people who report American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry are rarely prominent in national health policy discussions. A new analysis examines the role of the Indian Health Services for the uninsured and identifies some of the health policy challenges that affect Native Americans. More than a third (35%) of AI/ANs are uninsured and the problem is worse among low-income AI/AN people. The reach of the Indian Health Services (IHS) is limited with less that half of uninsured AI/ANs identifying IHS as a source of coverage and care." Kaiser Family Foundation (February 11, 204) 1.]

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HOUSING

DISCRIMINATION

Discrimination In Metropolitan Housing Markets: Phase 3 - Native Americans. By Margery Austin Turner and Stephen L. Ross, The Urban Institute. Prepared for U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (The Institute, Washington DC) 2003. 92 p.

Full Text at: www.huduser.org/Publications/pdf/hds_phase3_final.pdf

["This report offers invaluable assistance by documenting where and how discriminatory practices take place.... The findings will enable HUD to devote more attention, including enforcement that penalizes illegal discrimination to communities with significant Native American populations."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Appropriateness of Outcome-based Framework for Aboriginal Child Care. By Margo Greenwood and Perry Shawana. (Indian Education Research, Charleston, West Virginia) May 2002. 138 p.

Full Text at: www.indianeduresearch.net/greenwood1.pdf

["This study is designed to examine the appropriateness of outcome based regulation as a framework for aboriginal child care. The purpose of this study is to document recommendations from aboriginal communities and individuals and analyze frameworks that have adopted an outcome based regulatory process."]

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CHILDREN

The Indian Child Welfare Act and the States. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 32. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2004. pp. 1-2.

["The provisions of the federal act are somewhat general and this can lead to problems with state enforcement. Some states have chosen to enact their own Indian child welfare laws or develop policies that clarify requirements of the federal act and specify what state action is necessary for compliance."]

[Request #S3798]

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American Indian / Alaska Native Children in the Child Welfare Service Program. By California Department of Social Services, Research and Development Division. (The Division, Sacramento, California) 2003. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.dss.cahwnet.gov/research/res/PDF/AmIndianYr2000.PDF

["This report indicates that there were similarities between American Indian children and other children in areas such as referral types, age, and gender distribution, reasons for removal from home and adoption rates. Areas where there were a difference included a higher referral rate and higher poverty rate for American Indian children. In addition, a slightly higher percentage of American Indian children were placed in out-of-home care but a slightly lower percentage of American Indian children exited out-of-home care to reunify with their parents."]

[Request #S8866]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform on Tribal Lands, States and Tribes: Building New Traditions: Examples of State/Tribal Collaborations. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2004. 12 p.

["As tribal governments exercise their self-governing powers and take more control over program administration and the provision of services within their communities, there is an increasing need for policymakers to learn to interact with tribes as sovereign governments.... Tribes face unique challenges as they work to develop a program that will help families in their communities end their reliance on government assistance and become self-sufficient."]

[Request #S1620]

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States and Tribes: Building New Traditions; Welfare Reform on Tribal Lands: Examples of State/Tribal Collaboration. By Andrea Wilkins. (National Conference of State Legistatures, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 12 p.

["As tribal governments exercise their self-governing powers and take more control over program administration and the provision of services within their communities, there is an increasing need for policymakers to learn to interact with tribes as sovereign governments, instead of viewing them as special interest or minority groups contained within a few states.... The development of a collaborative government-to-government relationship between the states and tribes is necessary. Welfare reform, economic development and trust land issues are just a few of the many policy areas this project will focus on in which government-to-government cooperation can be beneficial."]

[Request #S3112]

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