Subject: Studies in the News 04-43 (June 23, 2004)


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Studies in the News
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material DEMOGRAPHY
   Trajectory of poor neighborhoods in Southern California
ECONOMY
   Economic impact of child care in North Carolina
EDUCATION
   Details on after-school programs
   Quality indicators of after-school programs
   Proposition 227 implementation and English learners
   Assessment accommodations for English language learners
   Coordinating early childhood systems
   Early education, child abuse and neglect
   Protecting children by strengthening families
   State efforts to evaluate the effects of pre-k
   NCLB and early learning
   Pre-kindergarten standards
   States and universal preschool
   Analysis of full-day and half-day kindergarten
   Overstretched budgets and Head Start programs
   Examining quality of early childhood professionals
HEALTH
   Content and quality of children's health care
   SCHIP flexibility and ongoing budget crises
HUMAN SERVICES
   Parenting strong-willed children
   Internet data collection
   Child and family services reviews
NATIONAL READER
   Kids-friendly cities report card
STUDIES TO COME
   Computers and school readiness
   Understanding preschoolers from diverse cultures
   Mapping brain development
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

DEMOGRAPHY

POVERTY

The Trajectory of Poor Neighborhoods in Southern California, 1970 - 2000. By Shannon McConville and Paul Ong, Center of Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution. The Living Cities Census Series. (The Institution, Washington, DC) 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/es/urban/publications/20031124_Ong.pdf

["The authors examine the location of poor neighborhoods across Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura Counties between 1970 and 2000, and pinpoint where poor neighborhoods have grown the most quickly, explore the changing demographics of these neighborhoods, and investigate the extent to which continued immigration to the region is associated with the emergence of poverty."]

[Request #S3278]

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ECONOMY

CHILDREN

The Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in North Carolina. By Saskia Traill and Jen Wohl, National Economic Development and Law Center. (The Center, Oakland, California) 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.nedlc.org/NCCCEIRFullRptWeb.pdf

["This study finds that the child-care industry in North Carolina accounts for at least 46,000 jobs and brings in $1.5 billion in annual revenue while freeing many parents to work and keep the state's economic engine going. The report also finds the industry has enough economic and social impact to justify government and business intervention to ensure the availability of affordable, high-quality daycare, and offers more than 40 examples of what can be done in the state to strengthen the industry." WRAL.com (June 16, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3279]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

America After 3 PM: A Household Survey on Afterschool in America. By the Afterschool Alliance. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) 2004.

Full Text at: www.afterschoolalliance.org/america_3pm.cfm

["The most in-depth study ever to explore how America's children spend their afternoons has found that 14.3 million kindergarten through 12th graders take care of themselves after the school day ends." CDF Violence Prevention Listserv (May 21, 2004).]

Executive Summary. 4 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/Executive_Summary.pdf

Key Findings. 1 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/Key_Findings.pdf

Topline Summary. 8 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/Topline.pdf

Fact Sheet: African Americans. 1 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/African_American_Fact.pdf

Fact Sheet: Hispanic Populations. 1 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/Hispanic_Fact.pdf

California. 1 p.:
http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/press_archives/america_3pm/CA_NR.pdf

[Request #S3280]

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"Learning After Hours: The Right Kind of After-School Programs Can Pay Off for Kids." By Susan Black. IN: American School Board Journal (June 2004) 6 p.

Full Text at: www.asbj.com/current/research.html

["The right kind of after-school programs can make a big difference for kids and communities. The best programs incorporate self-directed play and time to 'dawdle and daydream' as part of the learning process. The good news is, Congress and state governments are allocating more for out-of-school time programs -- but programs' quality varies widely, with two-thirds of those observed in a recent study earning only poor to fair ratings on three quality indicators: facilities, staffing, and funding. This article looks at the research on what works." Connect for Kids (June 7, 2004).]

[Request #S3281]

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BILINGUAL EDUCATION

Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K-12: Year 3 Report. By Amy Merickel and others, American Institutes for Research and WestEd. Prepared for the California Department of Education. (The Institutes, Palo Alto, California) October 29, 2003. 243 p.

Full Text at: www.wested.org/online_pubs/prop227_2004.pdf

["Building on the work from the first two years of study, this report describes Year 3 activities and presents findings and recommendations. In addition to the evaluation of the Community Based English Tutoring and English Language Acquisition Program, a special focus is on exploring what constitutes 'effective' practices and policies for English learners."]

[Request #S3282]

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"Assessment Accommodations for English Language Learners: Implications for Policy-Based Empirical Research." By Jamal Abedi and others. IN: Review of Educational Research, vol. 74, no. 1 (Spring 2004) pp. 1-28.

["Increased attention to large-scale assessments, the growing number of English language learners in schools, and recent inclusionary policies have collectively made assessment accommodations a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the validity of test results for English language learners. Decisions about which accommodations to use, for whom and under what conditions, are based on limited empirical evidence for their effectiveness and validity. Given the potential consequences of test results, it is important that policymakers and educators understand the empirical base underlying their use. This article reviews test accommodation strategies for English learners, derived from 'scientifically based research.' The results caution against a one-size-fits-all approach. The more promising approaches include modified English and customized dictionaries, which can be used for all students, not just English language learners."]

[Request #S3283]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Coordinating Early Childhood Systems: A Look at Three States [Issue Theme.] By Julie Poppe, National Conference of State Legislatures, and Scott Groginsky, Colorado State Board of Education. IN: Child Care and Early Education: Innovations in State Policy. (National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 36 p.

["As state policymakers examine their child care and early education programs, they are coming to recognize that multiple programs provide services to children in their states. Programs such as child care programs, state-funded prekindergarten programs and Head Start often target similar groups of children. These similarities include age, being at risk for educational problems and having parents with low incomes. To improve the developmental and education needs of children, families’ access to quality early childhood services and government efficiency, state leaders are increasingly taking a more holistic view of their early childhood systems. However, many difficult funding and structural challenges face policymakers as they consider setting up a coordinated early childhood education system. State child care systems often are structured very differently and separately from state preschool systems or Head Start. State human services agencies typically administer, fund and oversee child care programs, while education agencies usually are responsible for preschool programs. Also, child care and preschool issues usually are dealt with by different legislative committees. Therefore, funding streams are different and standards and regulations can vary. This paper reviews three states' efforts at coordination."]

[Request #S3284]

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Advancing Child Abuse and Neglect Protective Factors: The Role of the Early Care and Education Infrastructure. By Sharon L. Kagan, Columbia University. Strengthening Families Through Early Care and Education. (The Center for the Study of Social Policy, Washington, DC) September 2003.

["Quality early care and education programs help to prevent child abuse and neglect by building supportive relationships with families, observing children carefully, responding to early warning signs of abuse and neglect, and promoting children's social and emotional development. Routing program strategies, characteristic of any high quality program, build protective factors that keep children safe from abuse and neglect."]

Executive Summary. 9 p.:
http://www.cssp.org/uploadFiles/KaganExecSummary.pdf

Full Report. 32 p.:
http://www.cssp.org/uploadFiles/Kagan.pdf

[Request #S3285]

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Protecting Children By Strengthening Families: A Guidebook for Early Childhood Programs. By the Center for the Study of Social Policy. Strengthening Families Through Early Care and Education. (The Center, Washington DC) 2004. 113 p.

Full Text at: www.cssp.org/uploadFiles/handbook.pdf

["This handbook provides strategies that early care and education programs can use to support and strengthen families and to provide special help to those that may be at risk of abuse and neglect. This guidebook reflects lessons learned from parents and staff, which can be useful to early care and education programs of all types."]

[Request #S3286]

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State Efforts to Evaluate the Effects of Prekindergarten: 1977 to 2003. By Walter S. Gilliam and Edward F. Zigler, Yale University Child Study Center. (National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey) April 19, 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/StateEfforts.pdf

["This update includes summaries and analyses of the results of all reported state evaluations of state prekindergarten programs." National Institute for Early Education Research, NIEER Online Newsletter (June 11, 2004).]

[Request #S3288]

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Implications for the Early Learning Field. By Kristie Kauerz and Jessica McMaken. No Child Left Behind Policy Brief. (Education Commission of the States, Denver, Colorado) June 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/51/82/5182.pdf

["Aside from creating a few new grant opportunities, the No Child Left Behind Act is not directly focused on the early learning education sector. Looking toward the future, though, the law still presents some unique challenges and opportunities for early learning: 1) State concerns over adequate yearly progress may be used to develop a marketing strategy to proffer early learning as a solution for meeting 3rd-grade accountability benchmarks; 2) The teaching quality components of NCLB bring attention to the importance of high-quality professional development and offer an opportunity to make policymakers and the general public more aware of current discrepancies in pay and training between early childhood educators and K-12 teachers; and 3) NCLB’s reading/literacy components represent a unique opportunity to integrate early literacy into a state's overall early literacy agenda."]

[Request #S3289]

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Pre-Kindergarten Standards: Guidelines for Teaching and Learning. By CTB-McGraw Hill and others. (CTB-McGraw Hill, Monterey, California) 2003. 130 p.

Full Text at: www.ctb.com/media/articles/pdfs/resources/PreKstandards.pdf

["CTB-McGraw Hill, along with leading experts in the field of early childhood education, child development, and literacy, have developed research-based early learning standards for Pre-Kindergarteners (ages 3-5). The project was sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation. The report states that the approach is unique because it: 1) Presents a unified and integrated approach to preschool teaching and learning; 2) Begins with guidelines for the development of self-knowledge, knowledge of others, and achievement motivation; 3) Describes what children will need to experience in order to achieve benchmarks; 4) Includes vignettes that illustrate the teaching, learning, and authentic assessment strategies appropriate to achieve goals and benchmarks; and 5) Recognizes the importance of family in children’s achievement." Center for the Child Care Workforce (June 18, 2004).]

[Request #S3290]

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Early Childhood Education: States Moving Toward Universal Coverage. By Linda Jacobson. Education Reform: Backgrounder. No. 24. (Education Writers Association, Washington, DC) April 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ewa.org/offers/publications/earlychildhoodreform.pdf

["States are seeing quality preschool as a good investment, but the economy has not been kind to funding for state preschool efforts. Recent state funding for preschool dropped or remained flat in 16 out of 19 states where data was available, cutting the numbers of children served and/or money for efforts to improve quality in the programs. This brief provides an overview and questions reporters can ask to explore preschool funding and programs in their own states." Connect for Kids (June 4, 2004).]

[Request #S3294]

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Full-Day and Half-Day Kindergarten in the United States: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99. By Jill Walston, Education Statistics Services Institute, and Jerry West, National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2004. 154 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004078.pdf

["The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in its Early Childhood Longitudinal series, released new findings from full-day and half-day, public and private kindergarten in the United States based on the 1998-99 Kindergarten class. This report describes achievement gains of children in public school settings associated with full-day programs over half-day programs. Additionally, the report shares instructional practices used by teachers. The report concludes with an analysis of the cognitive gains of public school children who attend full-day and half-day programs." Center for the Child Care Workforce (June 18, 2004).]

[Request #S3295]

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HEAD START

Overstretched Budgets Plague Head Start Programs. By Ben Allen and Angela Smith, Research and Evaluation Department, National Head Start Association. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.nhsa.org/download/research/Budget_Survey_Report.doc

["Head Start programs are having to make steep cutbacks according to this survey. It points to cut-backs in both services and enrollment because of inadequate funding." Moving Ideas News (June 9, 2004).]

[Request #S3292]

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

"An Assessment Tool for Professional Development: Examining Quality in Our Early Childhood Professionals." By Mary Benson and others, Indiana University. IN: Child Care Information Exchange, no. 157 (May/June 2004) pp. 31-35.

["Lillian Katz describes four primary ways that programs can be assessed for quality - from above, below, outside, and inside the program. These perspectives can help make better and more informed decisions to make improvements within the programs as well as impact the quality of early care and education overall. The assessment tool featured in the article will provide a tool to examine factors that influence quality from multiple, interrelated perspectives."]

[Request #S3287]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Content and Quality of Health Care for Young Children: Results From the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health [Issue Theme.]" By Neal Halfon and others. IN: Pediatrics Supplement, vol. 113, no. 6 (June 2004)

["The first nationwide study of its kind, the National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH), finds that while many parents are generally satisfied with the quality and content of care provided by physicians during well-child visits, critical areas of health care and development are not being addressed for some young children." The Commonwealth Fund (June 7, 2004) online.]

"Content and Quality of Health Care for Young Children: Results From the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health." By Neal Halfon and Lynn M. Olson. p. 1894.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1894

"Introduction: Results From a New National Survey of Children’s Health." By Neal Halfon and Lynn M. Olson. pp. 1895-1898.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1895

"The National Survey of Early Childhood Health." By Stephen J. Blumberg, Neal Halfon and Lynn M. Olson. pp. 1899-1906.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1899

"Overview of the Content of Health Supervision for Young Children: Reports From Parents and Pediatricians." By Lynn M. Olson and others. pp. 1907-1916.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1907

"Continuity of Primary Care Clinician in Early Childhood." By Moira Inkelas and others. pp. 1917-1925.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1917

"Assessing Development in the Pediatric Office." By Neal Halfon and others. pp. 1926-1933.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1926

"Routine Assessment of Family and Community Health Risks: Parent Views and What They Receive." By Michael D. Kogan and others. pp. 1934-1943.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1934

"Parent Report of Reading to Young Children." By Alice A. Kuo and others. pp. 1944-1951.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1944

"Parents’ Discipline of Young Children: Results From the National Survey of Early Childhood Health." By Michael Regalado and others. pp. 1952-1958.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1952

"Insurance Status and Vaccination Coverage Among US Preschool Children." By Jeanne M. Santoli and others. pp. 1958-1964.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1959

"Satisfaction With Health Care for Young Children." By Neal Halfon and others. pp. 1965-1972.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1965

"Measuring the Quality of Preventive and Developmental Services for Young Children: National Estimates and Patterns of Clinicians’ Performance." By Christina Bethell and others. pp. 1973-1983.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1973

"Financing Childhood Health Supervision Services in the 21st Century." By Stephen Berman. pp. 1984-1985.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1984

"Mommy, Who Is My Doctor?" By Joel J. Alpert, Pamela M. Zuckerman, and Barry Zuckerman. pp. 1985-1987.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1985

"Small Steps and Big Leaps: Implications of the National Survey of Early Childhood Health for Improving the Quality of Preventive and Developmental Care for Young Children." By Peter A. Margolis. pp. 1988-1990.:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/6/S1/1988

[Request #S3297]

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Squeezing SCHIP: States Use Flexibility to Respond to the Ongoing Budget Crisis. By Ian Hill and others, Health Policy Center, Urban Institute. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies. Series A, No. A-65. (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311015_A-65.pdf

["State revenue projections are generally improving, creating hope that the worst of SCHIP's cuts are behind it. Yet federal Medicaid fiscal relief, which states acknowledge played a critical role in helping them avert deeper cuts, is due to expire in June 2004, and uncertainty over the adequacy of federal funding for SCHIP remains. It appears that the residual effects of three years of economic downturn, and state actions to cope with it may last for a considerable time and weaken states ability to recover quickly."]

[Request #S3298]

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HUMAN SERVICES

RESEARCH

Parenting the Strong-Willed Child: The Clinically Proven Five-Week Program for Parents of Two- to Six-Year-Olds. By Rex Forehand, University of Georgia, and Nicholas Long, University of Arkansas. (Contemporary Books, San Francisco, California) 2002. 266 p.

[Includes: "Understanding Your Strong-Willed Child's Behavior;" "Addressing Strong-Willed Behavior: a Five-Week Program;" "Creating a Positive Climate for Behavior Change;" and others. NOTE: Parenting the Strong-willed Child ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3291]

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Internet Data Collection. By Samuel J. Best, University of Connecticut, and Brian S. Krueger, University of Rhode Island. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences Series. No. 141. (Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California) 2004. 91 p.

[Includes: "Using the Internet as a Medium for Research;" "Practicalities of Using the Internet;" "Drawing Samples on the Internet;" "Administering Instruments on the Internet;" "Compiling Responses Online;" and others. NOTE: Internet Data Collections is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3296]

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Child and Family Services Reviews: Better Use of Data and Improved Guidance Could Enhance HHS's Oversight of State Performance. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2004. 59 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04333.pdf

["This report recommends that the Secretary of Health and Human Services ensure the Administration for Children and Families uses the best available data to measure state performance, clarify program improvement plan guidance, and help regional officers better integrate their oversight activities."]

[Request #S3300]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card. By Population Connection. (The Connection, Washington, DC) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.kidfriendlycities.org/2004

["This report gave Los Angeles a B, up from a C in 2001, and Glendale earned an A, up from a B-minus. Cities were graded based on teen pregnancy, violent crime, high school graduation rates, access to family planning and more. The report found the quality of life for children nationwide has generally improved over the past three years, largely because of falling teen pregnancies which affect a host of the other indicators."]

[Request #S3301]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

"Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive and Motor Development." By Xiaoming Li, Wayne State University, and Melissa S. Atkins, Ohio University. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 113, no. 6 (June 2004) pp. 1715-1722.

["In a study of children aged 3 to 5, this study found that those exposed to a home or school computer three to four times a week scored higher on tests that gauge school readiness and cognitive development than non-users. But other research has found no relationship between computer use and children's knowledge or language capability, and some experts believe computer use displaces essential childhood experiences such as playing with toys or with peers." ECS-eClips (June 8, 2004).]

[Request #S3302]

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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

"Understanding Children from Diverse Cultures: Bridging Perspectives of Parents and Teachers." By Maria Lahman and Soyeon Park. IN: International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 12, no. 2 (June 2004) pp. 131-142.

["The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore how families negotiate their perspectives with US teachers regarding school. The cases of three Korean and two Chinese preschoolers were examined. Parents were found to have conflicting views between desiring their child to learn the English language yet expressing concern over what they believe was too much acculturation due to English language acquisition. Teachers were found to value international parents, yet felt it was difficult to communicate with parents and unsure of how to welcome them into the classroom. Findings from this study broaden understandings of families from diverse cultures and promote efforts to establish cooperative partnerships between parents and teachers."]

[Request #S3303]

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HEALTH

BRAIN

"Dynamic Mapping of Human Cortical Development During Childhood through Early Adulthood." By N. Gogtay and others. IN: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 101, no. 21 (May 25, 2004) pp. 8174-8179.

["The article presents a study of brain development in children and adolescents using a brain-mapping technique. Some findings of the study include: 1) Overall, gray matter volume increased at earlier ages, followed by sustained loss starting around puberty; 2) Parts of the brain associated with more basic functions matured early; 3) Motor and sensory brain areas matured first, followed by areas involved in spatial orientation, speech and language development, and attention; 5) Later to mature were areas of the brain involved in executive function, attention, and motor coordination; and 6) Areas involved in taste and smell processing and those containing the primary visual cortex also matured early." Maternal and Child Health Alert (June 4, 2004).]

[Request #S3304]

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