Subject: Studies in the News 04-37 (May 27, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1854 - "By 1854, some began to call El Monte the 'End of the Santa Fe Trail.' Early in that decade a permanent settlement was established by immigrants from Texas, the first settlement in Southern California founded by citizens of the United States.... El Monte, on the bank of the San Gabriel River, played a significant part in California's early pioneer history. It was first an encampment on the Old Spanish Trail, an extension of the trail from Missouri to Santa Fe. ceres.ca.gov/geo_area/counties/LosAngeles/landmarks.html "    

May 15, 1854 - "Sacramento's first county courthouse, formerly located on the northwest corner of 7th and I Streets, served as California's state capitol from January 16, 1852 to May 4, 1852 and from March 1, 1854 to May 15, 1854, when it housed the third and fifth sessions of the State Legislature. ceres.ca.gov/geo_area/counties/Sacramento/landmarks.html "    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Prison life sentences double
   State crime legislation
   States modifying sentencing laws
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Marriage, the courts and the constitution
DEMOGRAPHY
   State and county population projections
ECONOMY
   Future of work in the creative age
   California economic outlook
   Universities and development of industry clusters
   Effective practices in philanthropy
   False crisis of outsourcing
   Federal funds for R & D
   Enhancing inventiveness
EDUCATION
   Change in high school curricula
   Exit exams and the dropout rate
   California public school dropout rates
   Private donations supporting school programs
   Poll on diversity in public schools
   School readiness primer
   School-to-career initiatives
EMPLOYMENT
   Minimum wage increase long overdue
ENERGY
   Petroleum refining industry future
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Groups sue over California spotted owl
   Pesticides in humans
   Appliance recycling
   Reduced silver levels in San Francisco Bay
   Concerns over fire season
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Project grants and federal funds
   FFIS competitive grant update
   Federal mandates impact state budget deficits
   Taxation of software sales
   Disparities in commercial property taxes
   Tax-deferred retirement savings
   Review of May budget revision
   States' sluggish fiscal year
   Cities rely on sales tax revenues
HEALTH
   Disabled people can sue states
   Immigration and the labor force
   New York City smoking rate declines
   Cost of covering California's uninsured
   Profile of the uninsured
HOUSING
   Housing supply and affordability
   Affordable housing research
HUMAN SERVICES
   Marriage/divorce and low-income children
   Benefits of a healthy marriage
   Recommendations for improving foster care
   Budget threatens health and welfare programs
   State-tribal collaboration
INSURANCE
   Automobile insurance premium levels
   Review of workers' compensation experience
TRANSPORTATION
   Road accidents lead occupational fatalities
   Auditing railroad safety program fees
STUDIES TO COME
   Vaccines and autism
   Influenza vaccines and neurological complications
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News (SITN) is a current compilation of policy-related items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau and State Information & Reference Center to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state employees and other interested individuals, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME STATISTICS

The Meaning of "Life:" Long Prison Sentences in Context. By Marc Mauer and others, The Sentencing Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) May 2004. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.sentencingproject.org/pdfs/lifers.pdf

["Prison Life Sentences Double in Last Decade: The number of prisoners serving life sentences has doubled in the past decade as tough-on-crime initiatives have led to harsher penalties, a study says.... The report said the increases were not the result of more crime, because violent crime fell significantly during the period covered by the study. Rather, longer mandatory sentences and more restrictive parole and commutation policies are most responsible." San Francisco Chronicle (May 12, 2004) A7.]

[Request #S3067]

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LEGISLATION

State Crime Legislation in 2003. By Donna Lyons, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL State Legislative Report. Vol. 29, No. 1. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 14 p.

["State legislatures in 2003 accelerated the trend to divert drug offenders to treatment. New laws provide community options for some offenders, including those who violate conditions of probation or parole, and assist with offender re-entry to the community.... Some laws include requirements for assessment of offender needs and assert that state investments be in research-proven or best-practice interventions."]

[Request #S3068]

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SENTENCING

Changing Fortunes or Changing Attitudes? Sentencing and Corrections Reforms in 2003. By Jon Wool and Don Stemen, States Sentencing and Corrections Program, Vera Institute of Justice. Issues in Brief. (The Institute, New York, New York) March 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.vera.org/publication_pdf/226_431.pdf

["In the last year, more than half the states took legislative steps to modify tough sentencing laws passed in the 1990s, like scrapping mandatory minimum terms or requiring treament instead of prison for first-time drug offenders.... Dan Wilhelm, Vera Institute director, said, 'It is now becoming a bipartisan recognition of the magnitude of the challenge, given the incredibly punitive and expensive punishment system that has accumulated over the past 20 years.'" Chattanooga Times Free Press (May 3, 2003) A3.]

[Request #S3069]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

SAME-SEX MARRIAGES

A Defining Moment: Marriage, the Courts and the Constitution. By Matthew Spalding, The Heritage Foundation. Backgrounder. No. 1759. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) May 17, 2004. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/LegalIssues/bg1759.cfm

["A series of significant judicial decisions has brought the issue of homosexual 'marriage' to the forefront of our nation's attention.... Faced with such a concerted legal and political effort ... policymakers must now take immediate steps at both the state and federal levels to protect marriage, prevent judicial usurpation, and uphold the rule of law."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CALIFORNIA

Population Projections by Race/Ethnicity for California and its Counties 2000 - 2050. By the Department of Finance, State of California. (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 2004. Tables.

["By the time California reaches its bicentennial year in 2050, the Golden State will need to find room for 20 million additional residents.... The state's ethnic makeup will continue its dramatic evolution over the next 50 years ... with Latinos constituting a majority around 2038. By 2050 ... Latinos will account for 54 percent of all Californians, whites 23 percent, Asians 12 percent, blacks 6 percent, and American Indians and multiracial people 2 percent each." Sacramento Bee (May 20, 2004) 1.]

Technical Notes:
http://www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/DRU_Publications/Projections/P1.htm

Data Tables:
http://www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/DRU_Publications/Projections/P-1_Tables.xls

[Request #S3082]

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ECONOMY

ARTS & CULTURE

The Future of Work in the Creative Age. By John Eger, California Institute for Smart Communities, San Diego State University. (The Institute, San Diego, California) May 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.culturalcommons.org/comment.cfm

["With the worldwide spread of the Internet, digitization and the availability of highly educated workforces in countries such as India and China, outsourcing is increasingly affecting white collar jobs in the United States. But John Eger sees hope for workers and communities in the transition to a 'Creative Age' -- a period in which America should once again thrive and prosper because of our tolerance for dissent, respect for individual enterprise, freedom of expression and recognition that innovation is the driving force for the U.S. economy, not mass production of low-value goods and services." Center for Arts and Culture (May 12, 2004)1.]

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CALIFORNIA

Economic Perspective: Summary of Recent Economic Development. By the California State Board of Equalization. (The Board, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.boe.ca.gov/news/pdf/EP504.pdf

["U.S. Economic Developments: The above-average growth of the past several quarters continues -- with real GDP showing an increase of 4.2 percent in the first quarter of 2004.... Many economic forecasters expect the relatively strong growth of the past several quarters to continue.... Preliminary data for the first quarter of 2004 indicate that California has added proportionately fewer nonagricultural jobs than has the U.S. economy."]

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Universities and the Development of Industry Clusters. By Jerry Paytas, Center for Economic Development, Carnegie Mellon University, and others. Prepared for the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) 2004. 112 p.

Full Text at: www.smartpolicy.org/urole/ucluster2004.pdf

["A study finds that, within a region, universities are best able to affect the growth of young, emerging clusters. The study concludes that a university must have a large base of research and development in order to significantly impact a cluster.... To have maximum benefit ... the institution must align services and community involvement with regional interests and industry clusters across a broad spectrum.... The university needs to actively address business, workforce and community issues in addition to developing an exceptional research capacity."]

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NOT FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Attitudes and Practices Concerning Effective Philanthropy: Executive Summary. By Francie Ostrower, Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy, Urban Institute. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310986_attitudes_practices_ES.pdf

["In 2003, the Urban Institute conducted a survey of 1,192 grantmaking foundations in order to construct a wide-ranging and rigorous portrait of attitudes and practices concerning effective philanthropy in the foundation field.... This executive summary provides a general overview and examples of survey results."]

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OUTSOURCING

Myths and Realities: The False Crisis of Outsourcing. By Tim Kane and others, The Heritage Foundation. Backgrounder. No. 1757. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) May 13, 2004. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Economy/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=63378

["Outsourcing is not a credible threat to the U.S. economy, and objective research is quickly debunking its many underlying myths. At worst, outsourcing is a politically charged trigger word that has the potential to advance seriously flawed economic policy. For example, if state governments begin to bar contracts with firms that subcontract any work overseas, they will hamstring the competitiveness of U.S. firms." Heritage Foundation (May 17, 2004) 1.]

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RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2001, 2002, and 2003: Detailed Statistical Tables. By Ronald L. Meeks, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Science Foundation. (The Foundation, Arlington, Virginia) March 2004. 304 p.

Full Text at: www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/nsf04310/pdf/nsf04310.pdf

[“Tables ... present the 2001 data by geographic distribution, performer and federal agency. Maryland captures the greatest share of federal intramural research. California, the District of Columbia and Virginia make up a distant second, third and fourth place finishes, respectively.”]

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TECHNOLOGY

Invention: Enhancing Inventiveness for Quality of Life, Competitiveness and Sustainability. By the Committee for Study of Invention. Prepared for the Lemelson-MIT Program and the National Science Foundation. (The Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts) April 23, 2004. 72 p.

Full Text at: web.mit.edu/invent/n-pressreleases/downloads/report.pdf

["This report summarizes findings and recommendations of a yearlong study of invention and inventiveness. We have aimed, through an interdisciplinary approach to the subject, to shed new light on invention and on the special kind of creativity involved in inventing.... The report contains our collective findings and our recommendations to policy makers in their efforts to encourage inventiveness in young people, to enhance the climate for invention, and to enhance the value of inventions to society."]

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EDUCATION

ASSESSMENT

The High School Transcript Study: A Decade of Change in Curricula and Achievement, 1990 - 2000. By Robert Perkins and others, Westat, and Janis Brown, National Center for Education Statistics, U. S. Department of Education. NCES 2004-455. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2004. 131 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004455.pdf

["American students are not taking enough science and math courses in preparation for college or the work force, say education officials responding to a federal study of high school transcripts.... The report ... was based on a study of transcripts from more than 20,000 graduating high school seniors from 277 public and private high schools." Washington Times (April 29, 2004) 1.]

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DROPOUT RATES

Pushed Out or Pulled Up? Exit Exams and Dropout Rate in Public High Schools. By Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Education Working Paper. No. 5. (The Institute, New York, New York) May 5, 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/ewp_05.pdf

["This study uses two highly respected graduation rate calculations to evaluate what effect high school exit exams have on graduation rates. The results for both graduation rate calculations show that adopting a high school exit exam has no effect on a state's graduation rate. The analyses also show that neither reducing class sizes nor increasing education spending leads to higher graduation rates."]

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One-Year Dropout Rates in California Public Schools. By The Department of Education, State of California and others. (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 2004. Tables.

["State education officials went through the motions of releasing annual dropout and graduation rates.... Federal officials require states to calculate the data each year and publicly report the findings.... State officials do not know what percent of students actually are finishing high school. They do know the four-year dropout rate of 12.9 percent is wrong." The Oakland Tribune (April 30, 2004) 1.]

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EDUCATION FINANCE

"Schools Count on Private Donations." By Eric Louie. IN: Contra Costa Times (May 17, 2004) A1.

["Parent-faculty clubs are getting additional help from nonprofit fund-raising organizations to fill gaps left by public funding.... Donations flow into the Moraga school district, which serves another affluent area. Of last year's $14.6 million budget, $400,000 came from the Moraga Educational Foundation, $131,000 from parent clubs and $70,000 from other donations, says superintendent Rick Schafer. The majority of that money came from soliciting parents to contribute, rather than fund-raising events, he says. It covers computer technology, library services, art and music instructors and other costs."]

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PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Report on the Status of Public School Education in California with Special Emphasis on the Status of Equality in Public School Education: A Survey of a Cross-Section of Classroom Teachers in California Public Schools. By Louis Harris and the Peter Harris Research Group. Prepared for the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) May 2004.

["This report finds that schools serving predominantly students of color are much more likely than schools serving white students to have under-qualified teachers, cockroaches, rats, or mice, and a lack of textbooks." Action Alliance for Children (May 25, 2004).]

Full Report. 88 p.:
http://www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/1F605152-67B9-4634-B667 DBC66078D995/0/HarrisReport10.pdf

Executive Summary-Louis Harris. 14 p.:
http://www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/7C8362B1-4D4D-4977-B10B-B5AB01A6E906/0/Harrisexecutivesummary.pdf

Executive Summary-IDEA. 3 p.:
http://www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/596CE54C-E38D-4A0F-8B2D-77222062B227/0/IDEAexecutivesummary.pdf

[Request #S3083]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Getting Children Ready for School: A Primer on School Readiness. By Amber Minogue, Child Care and Early Education, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 4 p.

["This introductory primer will attempt to provide readers with a quick but comprehensive guide to understanding the issue of school readiness. Outlining the history of school readiness as a policy movement, the primer provides background for the current policy climate surrounding the issue. In addition, the primer defines indicators and results and how they can be used to measure the effectiveness of legislative policies."]

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SCHOOL-TO-WORK

The Effects of School-to-Career Programs on Postsecondary Enrollment and Employment. By David Neumark, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2004. 113 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/R_504DNR.pdf

["The analysis looks at the different types of programs and finds that, on the national level, some of the more broad-based activities have a positive effect on college enrollment and employment.... In contrast, the more narrowly targeted programs -- which are the ones primarily funded in California -- have ambiguous results.... The study argues that there is a pressing need to assess the usefulness of the state's school-to-career programs -- and perhaps consider reallocating funds." Publisher's Announcement (May 19, 2004) 1.]

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EMPLOYMENT

MINIMUM WAGE

No Longer Getting By: An Increase in the Minimum Wage Is Long Overdue. By Amy Chasanov, Economic Policy Institute. EPI Briefing Paper. No. 151. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/151/bp151.pdf

["In the six years since Congress last raised the federal minimum wage, the value of that $5.15 per hour, which translates to $10,712 per year for a full-time worker, has slipped to an historic low, far below the poverty line." Moving Ideas (May 11, 2004) 1.]

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ENERGY

PETROLEUM

New Forces at Work in Refining: Industry Views of Critical Business and Operations Trends. By D. J. Peterson and Sergej Mahnovski, RAND Science and Technology. MR-1707-NETL. Prepared for the National Energy Technology Laboratory. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 115 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1707

["This report presents an overview of how the U.S. refining industry views its future. The findings were derived from discussions with representatives of 40 refining firms, technologies and services providers, research institutions, and other organizations who were selected for their prominent positions in the industry."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENDANGERED SPECIES

Center for Biological Diversity, et al. v. Gale A. Norton, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief. May 11, 2003. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.earthjustice.org/news/documents/5-04/CSOComplaint.pdf

["Conservationists sued the federal government for refusing to grant endangered-species protection to the California spotted owl.... Its cousins, the northern and Mexican spotted owls, are protected under the Endangered Species Act, but the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service denied protected status to the California owl in February 2003." San Francisco Chronicle (May 12, 2004) B3.]

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PESTICIDES

Chemical Trespass: Pesticides in Our Bodies and Corporate Accountability. By Kristin S. Shafer and others, Pesticide Action Network North America. (The Network, San Francisco, California) May 2004.

["A study indicates that all Americans have some levels of pesticides in their bodies. Women, children and Mexican-Americans have the highest concentrations.... The study is based on blood and urine samples taken by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from more than 9,000 people nationwide. People in this group typically showed traces of 13 of 23 pesticides analyzed." San Luis Obispo Tribune (May 12, 2004) 1.]

Executive Summary. 8 p.:
http://www.panna.org/campaigns/docsTrespass/ChemTresExSumEng(print).pdf

Report. 58 p.:
http://www.panna.org/campaigns/docsTrespass/ChemTresMain(print).pdf

[Request #S3089]

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RECYCLING

Appliance Recycling and Materials Requiring Special Handling. By Daniel Pollak, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB-04-007. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/04/07/04-007.pdf

["The Metallic Discards Act of 1991 mandates that materials requiring special handling (MRSH) be removed and properly disposed of during recycling. MRSH includes chlorfluorocarbons (CFCs), sodium azide canisters in unspent vehicle air bags, encapsulated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), used oil, and mercury found in switches and temperature control devices.... Enforcement of the Act is uneven and there are likely widespread violations. Options to enhance compliance include recycling fees on the sale or manufacture of such items, tightening the licensing of recyclers who handle MRSH, clarifying the language of the Act, and increasing enforcement."]

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SAN FRANCISCO BAY

Pulse of the Estuary: Monitoring and Managing Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary: 2004. By the San Francisco Estuary Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) May 4, 2004.

["Tough pollution laws combined with new technology have reduced levels of silver, a heavy metal that can poison wildlife, by more than 95 percent in the bay over the past 25 years. As silver levels have fallen, biologists have noticed a jump in the reproductive rates of clams. The clams, in turn, provide food for fish, birds and other animals." San Jose Mercury News (May 5, 2004) B6.]

Press Release 2 p.:
http://www.sfei.org/rmp/pulse/Pulsepresssheet.pdf

Report. 70 p.:
http://www.sfei.org/rmp/pulse/POE2004.pdf

[Request #S3091]

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WILDFIRES

Firefighting Preparedness: Are We Ready for the 2004 Wildfire Season: Testimony. By Lynn Scarlett, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management and Budget, U.S. Department of Interior; Mark Rey, Undersecretary for Natural Resources and Environment, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Ellen Engleman Conners, Chairman, National Transportation Safety Board; James B. Hull, Texas State Forest Service, Co-Chair, Blue Ribbon Panel on Federal Aerial Firefighting. Presented to House Resources Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. (The Subcommittee, Washington, DC) May 13, 2004. Various pagings

Full Text at: resourcescommittee.house.gov/archives/108/ffh/05_13_04.htm

["California has already declared an early fire season, and wildfires have burned 31,920 acres in the state. California is one of the states that is bracing for an above normal fire season, fueled by continuing drought, unusually warm and dry weather, and lower-than-usual winter precipitation. Undersecretary for Natural Resources and Environemnt, Mark Rey, addressed the joint decision by the USDA Forest Service and the Department of Interior to discontinue the use of 33 large airtankers for fire suppression purposes, in effect terminating the national 2004 airtanker contract." California Capitol Hill Bulletin (May 14, 2004) 5.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

BUDGETING

Competitive Grants: How Does Your State Fare? By Federal Funds Information for States. Special Analysis 04-01. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 12, 2004. 4 p.

["In recent years, states have been more aggressive in their pursuit of federal funds. Applying for project grants is one approach to bringing in additional federal revenue. To see how states have fared, FFIS compiled a database of project grants states received in FY 2002."]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

FFIS Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 04-13. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 14, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/cg/2004/CG04-13.htm

[Includes: "Environmental Quality Incentive Program Assistance;" "Research to Study Virulence of Mycobacteriumavium Complex Bacteria from Drinking Water;" "Epidemiology of Drug Abuse;" and others.]

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FEDERAL MANDATES

Passing Down the Deficit: Federal Policies Contribute to the Severity of the State Fiscal Crisis. By Iris J. Lav and Andrew Brecher, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 12, 2004. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/5-12-04sfp.pdf

["The state fiscal crisis has been deep and prolonged.... As states debate and enact budgets for fiscal year 2005 ... they are facing deficits of roughly another $40 billion for that year.... Federal policies,which have reduced state revenues and imposed additional costs on states, have played a significant role in enlarging these deficits and are impeding states' fiscal recovery.... Federal policies have cost states and localities more than $175 billion over the four-year course of the state fiscal crisis."]

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PROPERTY TAXES

"An Argument for Sourcing Sales of Software as Tangible Personal Property for California Franchise and Income Tax Purposes." By William Hays Weissman. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 32, no. 6 (May 10, 2004) pp. 429-436.

["California, like many states, has no controlling authority that explicitly addresses the proper manner of sourcing sales of software for franchise and income tax purposes.... This article discusses some of the issues involved and argues that California should treat all software as tangible personal property for franchise and income tax purposes regardless of its method of delivery."]

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PROPOSITION 13

"Huge Disparities Found in California Commercial Property Taxes." By Lenny Goldberg and David Kersten, California Tax Reform Association. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 32, no. 6 (May 10, 2004) pp. 437-457.

["This study sought to examine the inequalities in property taxes paid by commercial property owners across California in a post-Proposition 13 world. The results show that huge disparities exist across the state among substantially similar properties and that those disparities are likely to increase in the years ahead if Proposition 13, as it applies to commercial properties, remains unchanged."]

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REVENUE AND TAXATION

Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings in Long-Term Revenue Projections. By Paul Burnham and others, Congressional Budget Office. A CBO Paper. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: ftp://ftp.cbo.gov/54xx/doc5418/05-10-RetirementSavings.pdf

["This paper examines how long-term revenue projections are affected by explicitly incorporating tax-deferred retirement savings. Using data from tax returns in a model that it constructed, CBO estimates that federal revenue will increase by 0.5 percent of gross domestic product over the next 75 years as a result of tax-deferred retirement accounts. About one-half of that increase will occur in the next 25 years."]

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STATE BUDGET

Governor Releases May Revision to the Budget. By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) May 13, 2004. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2004/040513mayrevise.pdf

["Revised Budget Backs Off Cuts: Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger unveiled a revised $103 billion budget that abandons steep cuts to health services for the poor and fulfills his no-tax-increase pledge, but seeks to wipe out upcoming state worker raises and relies heavily on borrowing to erase $15 billion in red ink." Sacramento Bee (May 14, 2004) A1.]

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STATE REVENUES

A Sluggish Year: Fiscal Year 2003 Tax Revenue Summary. By Nicholas W. Jenny, Fiscal Studies Program, Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government. State Fiscal Brief. No. 70. (The Program, Albany, New York) 2004. 7 p.

Full Text at: stateandlocalgateway.rockinst.org/fiscal_pub/state_fb/FB_70.pdf

["State general fund tax revenue grew by 1.2 percent from fiscal year 2002 to fiscal year 2003. This follows a sharp decline from fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2002, and is the second weakest year of growth since 1991.... Without substantial net legislated tax increases, state tax revenue would have declined by an estimated 0.5 percent. When we also include the effect of inflation, the decline reaches 3.4 percent."]

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TAXES

A Comparison of the Growth in Property and Sales Tax Bases For 218 Cities in California, 1980-1999. By Martha Jones, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 04-006. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/04/06/04-006.pdf

["This report includes graphs showing the growth in property and sales tax bases for 218 individual cities since 1980. Similar to statewide trends, net assessed value in most cities has grown much faster than taxable sales, and is also less volatile.... Over the last 30 years, the loss of property tax revenues by local governments has resulted in an increasing dependence on sales tax revenues."]

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HEALTH

DISABILITIES

Tennessee, Petitioner v. George Lane et al. Supreme Court of the United States. 02-1667. May 17, 2004. 59 p.

Full Text at: wid.ap.org/documents/scotus/040517lane.pdf

["Court: Disabled People Can Sue States: Disabled people can sue if states ignore a landmark civil rights law that protects their rights, a divided Supreme Court ruled in the case of a paraplegic man who crawled up the steps of a small-town courthouse because there was no elevator for his wheelchair." Associated Press (May 17, 2004) 1.]

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IMMIGRATION & IMMIGRANTS

Science at the Borders: Immigrant Medical Inspection and the Shaping of the Modern Industrial Labor Force. By Amy L. Fairchild. (The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland) 2003. 385 p.

["In this ... study, (Amy) Fairchild ... formulates an argument for the normative impact that the medical tests imposed on all immigrants to the U.S. had to induct them into the laboring class of an industrial state. Following a lengthy discussion of the tests, their nature as public spectacle, their function as an expression of power and as a tool of industry, Fairchild turns to regional analysis of the use of the tests to exclude immigrants based on race, class, labor, and disease." Book News (May 2004) 1. NOTE: Silence at the Borders ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3117]

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SMOKING

New York City Smoking Rate Declines Rapidly from 2002 to 2003: The Most Significant One-Year Drop Ever Recorded: Press Release. By the Office of Communications, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (The Office, New York, New York) May 12, 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/public/press04/pr052-0512.html

[“A City of Quitters? In Strict New York, 11% Fewer Smokers: In the wake of huge tobacco tax increases and a ban on smoking in bars, the number of adult smokers in New York City fell 11 percent from 2002 to 2003, one of the steepest short-term declines ever measured, according to surveys commissioned by the city. The surveys show that after holding steady for a decade, the number of regular smokers dropped by more than 100,000 in a little more than a year, to 19.3 percent of adults from 21.6 percent. The decline occurred across all boroughs, ages and ethnic groups.” New York Times (May 12, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3103]

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UNINSURED

Estimating the Cost of Caring for California's Uninsured. By Gerald F. Kominski and Dylan H. Roby, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) May 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu/pubs/files/CostofCaring_pb_052004.pdf

["Providing health coverage for California's 6.3 million uninsured residents would cost about $7.4 billion and could stablilize residents' health spending, according to this study.... Kominski suggested that the state more efficiently utilize public health insurance programs such as Medi-Cal. He also proposed giving tax benefits to business owners who could not otherwise afford to offer health insurance to their employees.... Study authors noted that the cost of complying with laws like SB 2 'may be more affordable if the state can find mechanisms for redirecting current sources of public and private expenditures on behalf of the uninsured.'" California Healthline (May 12, 2004)1.]

[Request #S3104]

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UNINSURED POPULATION

Characteristics of the Uninsured: A View from the States. By The States Health Access Data Assistance Center, University of Minnesota. (The Center, Twin Cities, Minnesota.) May 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.shadac.umn.edu/events/BRFFS%20final3.pdf

["In California last year, some 3.9 million people ages 18-64 were uninsured, about 17.9 percent of the population, said a new study. The study said that 821,584 uninsured adults in Califonia were unable to get needed medical care in the past year. Researchers pointed to racial and ethnic differences in rates of those without insurance." Sacramento Bee (May 6, 2004)A1.]

[Request #S3105]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Housing Supply and Affordability: Do Affordable Housing Mandates Work? By Benjamin Powell and Edward Stringham, Reason Public Policy Institute. Policy Study. No. 318. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California.) April 2004. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.rppi.org/ps318.pdf

["Devices known as 'inclusionary zoning' are local laws that require builders to set aside a portion of the developments for low-income buyers....The study concludes that inclusionary zoning devices drive up the cost of housing, deprive government of tax revenue and might actually be making worse the problem it is intended to solve." Sacramento Bee (April 27, 2004)A1.]

[Request #S3106]

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PUBLIC HOUSING

A Decade of Hope VI: Research Findings and Policy Challenges. By Susan J. Popkin, Urban Insitute, and others. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2004. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411002_HOPEVI.pdf

["Launched in 1992, the $5 billion HOPE VI program represents a dramatic turnaround in public housing policy and one of the most ambitious urban redevelopment efforts to date. HOPE VI has also helped transform the Department of Housing and Urban Development's approach to housing assistance. This report looks at the extent to which HOPE VI has achieved its intended benefits and what lessons are offered for affordable-housing policy." Urban Institute Update (May 20, 2004)4.]

[Request #S3107]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Social Scientific Data on the Impact of Marriage and Divorce on Children: Testimony. By Margy Waller, Brookings Institution. Presented to the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (The Institution, Washington, DC) May 13, 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/views/testimony/mwaller/20040513.pdf

["While there is much evidence to support the conclusion that children raised in a household with their married biological or adoptive parents do better than children in other family structures, we don’t know much about why this is so. Still, while children raised in single-parent households grow up at greater risk of emotional, social, educational, and employment difficulty, most children from single-parent households do not face these problems. The data that we do have about family structure and the well being of low-income families and children suggest that we should proceed carefully as we attempt to fashion public policy in this arena."]

[Request #S3108]

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FAMILIES

The Benefits of a Healthy Marriage: Testimony. By Theodora Ooms, Center for Law and Social Policy. Presented to the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy, U.S. Senate Committee on Finance. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 5, 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1084545152.3/Ooms_Finance_050504.pdf

["This testimony describes marriage-related activities going on in the states, explains how policymakers might address legitimate concerns about current marriage promotion proposals, and suggests that some common ground in the contentious issue may be found in a 'marriage-plus' perspective." Moving Ideas (May 5, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3110]

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FOSTER CARE

Fostering the Future: Safety, Permanence, and Well-Being for Children in Foster Care. By the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care. (The Commission, Washington, DC) May 2004.

["The nation's troubled foster-care programs could be improved by reforming how child-welfare systems are financed and how they are overseen by the courts, according to this study.... The commission recommends stronger accountability for how taxpayer money is used to protect and support abused and neglected children. The recommendations ... would give states the freedom to decide whether foster care is the right choice for a child, or whether there are other options that might keep a child safe and secure." Los Angeles Daily News (May 17, 2004)A1.]

Executive Summary. 12 p.:
http://pewfostercare.org/research/docs/FinalExecSum.pdf

Full Report. 70 p.:
http://pewfostercare.org/research/docs/FinalReport.pdf

[Request #S3109]

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PUBLIC ASSISTANCE

Stretched Thin: State Budget Threatens California's Health and Human Services Programs. By Scott Graves and Barbara Baran, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2004/0405stretchedthin.pdf

["Budget Squeeze Puts Needy at Risk: Cuts during the past three years have eroded health and welfare services for California's needy and more reductions proposed for the next year will put the system at risk, according to a study. The pattern of 'squeezing' social service budgets rather than eliminating programs or services has put the entire network at risk." Contra Costa Times (May 11, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3111]

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WELFARE REFORM

States and Tribes: Building New Traditions; Welfare Reform on Tribal Lands: Examples of State-Tribal Collaboration. By Andrea Wilkins. (National Conference of State Legistatures, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 12 p.

["As tribal governments exercise their self-governing powers and take more control over program administration and the provision of services within their communities, there is an increasing need for policymakers to learn to interact with tribes as sovereign governments, instead of viewing them as special interest or minority groups contained within a few states.... The development of a collaborative government-to-government relationship between the states and tribes is necessary. Welfare reform, economic deveopment and trust land issues are just a few of the many policy areas this project will focus on in which government-to-government cooperation can be beneficial."]

[Request #S3112]

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INSURANCE

AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE

Pay-As-You-Drive Auto Insurance: Policy Issues Package. By the State Environmental Resource Center. (The Center, Madison, Wisconsin) May 10, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.serconline.org/payd/index.html

["Conventional auto insurance policies ... overcharge low-mileage drivers, who are a lower risk to the insurance companies, in order to provide affordable insurance for high-mileage and high-risk drivers. Because it is a fixed charge, these policies encourage an all-you-can-drive mentality, resulting in more energy use, pollution, and traffic congestion.... Pay-as-you-drive policies charge drivers more, the more they drive their car. They still incorporate traditional rate factors like driver history, location, and vehicle type, but charge on a per-mile or per-minute basis..... It rewards drivers who minimize their driving. It also encourages low-income individuals or families with second cars to own auto insurance, decreasing the number of uninsured drivers on the road."]

[Request #S3113]

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WORKERS' COMPENSATION

Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau Summary of December 31, 2003 Experience. By the Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California. Prepared for the California Insurance Commissioner. (The Bureau, San Francisco, California.) April 30, 2004. 15 p.

Full Text at: wcirbonline.org/index2.asp?section=5&subsection=0&content=wcirb_wire/2004/2004_07.asp

["Sizable Savings Seen in Overhaul: The recent overhaul of California's workers' compensation insurance system could produce significant savings for businesses this year, according to estimates. The Bureau projected that the law would cut short-term workers' comp costs by 13.9 %. The total savings for employers could amount to $3 billion reduction in insurance premiums and other costs over a 12-month period." Los Angeles Times (May 12, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3114]

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TRANSPORTATION

HIGHWAY SAFETY

"Work-Related Roadway Crashes --- United States, 1992--2002." By S. Pratt, Centers for Disease Control. IN: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, vol. 53, no. 12 (April 2, 2004) pp. 260-264.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5312a3.htm

["During 1992--2001, roadway crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the United States, accounting for an average of 1,300 civilian worker deaths each year (22% of all worker deaths). Despite overall declines in the number and rate of occupational fatalities from all causes, annual numbers of work-related roadway deaths increased during the decade, and rates showed little change."]

[Request #S3115]

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RAILROADS

California Public Utilities Commission: It Cannot Ensure that It Spends Railroad Safety Program Fees in Accordance with State Law. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2003-121. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-121.pdf

["Our review of the California Public Utilities Commission revealed that: The commission does not have an effective method to track the time its employees spend on railroad safety activities; The commission cannot ensure that it charges only allowable travel-related expenses to the program; Inaccuracies in its cost allocation plan and table have caused the commission to incorrectly charge indirect costs to the program; [and] Without a system to track direct and indirect costs, the commission cannot establish reliable budgets and set appropriate fees."]

[Request #S3116]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

IMMUNIZATIONS

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. By the Immunization Safety Review Committee. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2004. 175 p.

["The committee also concludes that the body of epidemiological evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. The committee further finds that potential biological mechanisms for vaccine-induced autism that have been generated to date are theoretical only. The committee recommends a public health response that fully supports an array of vaccine safety activities." NOTE: Immunization Safety Review... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3118]

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Immunization Safety Review: Influenza Vaccines and Neurological Complications. By Kathleen Stratton and others. (National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.) 2004. 176 p.

["At least 35,000 people die in the United States every year from influenza infection. The influenza vaccine that was used in 1976 for the expected 'Swine Flu' epidemic (which never materialized) was associated with cases of a nervous system condition called Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS). Ever since that time, public health leaders, doctors and nurses, and the public have wondered whether every year's influenza vaccine can cause GBS or other similars conditions." NOTE: Immunization Safety Review ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3119]

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