Subject: Studies in the News 04-32 (May 13, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1854 - "In 1854, when it voted to move the capital to Sacramento, the Legislature also directed that 'the sessions of the Supreme Court shall be held at the Capital of the State.' Three days after the Legislature voted to move the capital to Sacramento -- and to take the Supreme Court with it -- the court convened in San Francisco. By a 2 to 1 vote, the majority rejected the Legislature's determination that Sacramento was the seat of government and instead concluded that the lawful capital was San Jose. "  www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/speech120203.htm  

1854 - " The Governor, John Bigler -- a resident of Sacramento -- filed suit in San Jose in district court, as the superior court was then known, challenging the Supreme Court's order that San Jose was still legally the capital of the state. The trial court ruled in favor of San Jose, and the Governor appealed. While that appeal was pending before this court, Justice Alexander Wells -- the Supreme Court justice from San Jose -- died unexpectedly. The Governor appointed Charles Bryan as the new associate justice in May 1854. And Justice Bryan promptly joined with the dissenter from the previous decision and authored a new 2 to 1 decision upholding the validity of the Legislature's actions in declaring that Sacramento was indeed the capital of California."  www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/speech120203.htm  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Health and human services reform
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Schools and prisons
   Capital punishment
   Cost of fighting crime is higher
   New landscape of imprisonment
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Recent issues in Mexico/U.S. relations
DEMOGRAPHY
   Integration in metropolitan neighborhoods
ECONOMY
   Infrastructure in other countries
   High technology manufacturing and competitiveness
   H-1B visas rise along with offshoring
   Policy agenda to address outsourcing
   Workplace practices and the new economy
   Broadband experiments in the states
EDUCATION
   Arts and education
   Public attitudes on higher education
   College attainment for out-of-school youth
   Refocusing higher education aid
EMPLOYMENT
   Guestworker programs
   Flawed assumptions underlying guestworker programs
   Influx of foreign workers lowers wages
   Court rules on anti-union activity law
   Workers' compensation fraud
ENERGY
   Energy efficiency in the border region
   Long range energy R&D
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   State of the air
   Court rules against smog curbs
   Water privatization
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Conflicts of interest in public policy research
   Competitive grant update
   Coalitions for the metropolitan agenda
   Citizen participation in decision making
   Implications of a split-rate property tax
   Connecting citizens with legislators
   Court upholds gerrymandering
   Competition and congressional redistricting
   States cutting services
   Fiscal survey of states
   Budgeting using revenue semaphores
HEALTH
   Prescription drug importation
   Drug companies spending on research
   Medically uninsured rolls grow
HUMAN SERVICES
   Strengthening marriage and two-parent families
   Food security through food assistance
   Asset poverty in the United States
TRANSPORTATION
   Increased highway deaths
   Funding transportation systems
STUDIES TO COME
   Bilingual education in the U.S.
   Common sense school reform
   Minorities underrpresented in healthcare workforce
   Disappearing Arctic sea reduces available water in west
   Domestic violence and community intervention
   Social science research
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News (SITN) is a current compilation of policy-related items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau and State Information & Reference Center to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state employees and other interested individuals, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

Real Lives, Real Reforms: Improving Health and Human Services. By the Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) May 5, 2004. 148 p.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/173/report173.pdf

["Unless bold reforms are made quickly, California's $60-billion-a-year 'noble commitment' to protect and care for its poor, sick and disabled is in danger of collapse.... The commission issued advisory recommendations for reform that ... would produce millions of dollars in immediate savings and billions in years ahead." Los Angeles Times (May 6, 2004) B1.]

[Request #S2002]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

AFRICAN AMERICANS

Schools and Prisons: Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education. By Marc Mauer and Ryan Scott King, Sentencing Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.sentencingproject.org/pdfs/brownvboard.pdf

["The nation is currently celebrating the 50th anniversary of the historic Brown v. Board of Education decision that ordered the desegregation of public education.... During this period no institution has changed more than the criminal justice system, and in ways that have had profound effects on the African American community.... There are now nine times as many African Americans in prison or jail as on the day of the Brown decision.... In this 50th anniversary, it is time for the nation to reflect on progress in education, but also to assess how the overall status of the black community has been affected."]

[Request #S1998]

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CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Final Report and Recommendations. By the Governor's Council on Capital Punishment. Prepared for Massachusetts Governor Matt Romney. (The Council, Boston, Massachusetts) May 3, 2004. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.mass.gov/Agov2/docs/5-3-04%20MassDPReportFinal.pdf

["A commission has come up with what it considers the first virtually foolproof formula for carrying out the death penalty, and Mr. Romney is expected to use the plan to try to bring back capital punishment to the state, where it was abolished two decades ago. One of the major recommendations is raising the bar for a death penalty sentence from the normal legal standard of guilt 'beyond a reasonable doubt' to a finding of 'no doubt about the defendant's guilt.'" New York Times (May 3, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S1999]

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JUSTICE EXPENDITURE

Justice Expenditure and Employment in the United States, 2001. By Lynn Bauer, Bureau of Justice Statistics, and Steven D. Owens, U.S. Census Bureau. Bulletin. NCJ 202792. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) May 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/jeeus01.pdf

["With Longer Sentences, Cost of Fighting Crime Is Higher: The cost of fighting crime in the United States, for police, prisons and courts, rose to a record $167 billion in 2001, the latest year for which figures are available, according to a study.... That is $20 billion more than was spent on the criminal justice system in 1999, the last time the Department calculated the cost." New York Times (May 3, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2000]

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PRISONS & PRISONERS

The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prisonment. By Sarah Lawrence and Jeremy Travis, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2004. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

["Prisons Skew Census Data, Report Says: The report examines the prison-building pattern in the 10 states (including California) that built the most prisons from 1979 to 2000. Nearly one-third of counties in those states had at least one state-run prison in 2000, up from 13 percent in 1979.... Because the census counts people where they live, small counties with large prisons appear to be much more populous than they actually are, while some urban areas show up as being slightly smaller, creating problems in matters as diverse as political representation to state and federal funding." Washington Post (April 30, 2004) A9.]

[Request #S2001]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRATION

Mexico and the United States: Ambivalent Vistas. By W. Dirk Raat. (University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia) 2004. 296 p.

["NAFTA, the collapse of the peso, the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas, and heightened attention to illegal immigration and the drug trade are just some of the recent issues that are newly interpreted in this updated survey of United States-Mexican relations." NOTE: Mexico and the United States ... is available for 3-day loan]

[Request #S2044]

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DEMOGRAPHY

RACE & ETHNICITY

Living Together: A New Look at Racial and Ethnic Integration in Metropolitan Neighborhoods, 1990-2000. By David Fasenfest and others, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, the Brookings Institution. Living Cities Census Series. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/urban/pubs/20040428_fasenfest.pdf

["Diversity Growing at Home: The number of predominantly white neighborhoods fell by 30 percent overall in the largest metropolitan areas. The study also found that nine of 10 metro areas saw an increase in mixed-race neighborhoods. Whites and blacks became less likely to live in neighborhoods in which their group was the majority." Dallas Morning News (April 28, 2004) 1B.]

[Request #S2003]

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ECONOMY

FOREIGN TRADE & COMMERCE

Do Differences in Countries Capital Composition Matter? By Daniel Wilson, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2004-09. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) April 9, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2004/el2004-09.pdf

["There are enormous differences among countries in terms of what kinds of capital equipment they use. These differences are reflected in patterns of imports for the most part, since, except for a few highly advanced, equipment-producing countries, most countries import the vast majority of their equipment.... This Economic Letter explores the questions that arise in light of such striking differences in the composition of capital equipment among countries."]

[Request #S2004]

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MANUFACTURING

High-Technology Manufacturing and U.S. Competitiveness. By Charles Kelley and others. Prepared for the Office of Science and Technology Policy. TR-136-OSTP. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) March 2004. 139 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR136/TR136.pdf

["The report includes a description of past and current trends of U.S. high-tech manufacturing, a theoretical and empirical economic analysis of traditional and high-tech manufacturing, and an analysis of U.S. research and development statistics."]

[Request #S2005]

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OUTSOURCING

"Jobs that Stay Here -- But not for Americans." By Karl Schoenberger. IN: San Jose Mercury News (May 01, 2004) A1+

["As many as 30 percent in a typical offshoring contract stay onshore, located right on the premises of U.S. technology companies, offshoring experts say.... Yet these jobs aren't available to the local workforce. They are reserved, almost exclusively, for guest workers brought from India on H-1B visas by the outsourcing contractors, according to analysts and industry sources.... H-1B demand has risen sharply in recent months.... That resurgence coincides with the rise in technology offshoring."]

[Request #S2006]

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Outsourcing: A Policy Agenda. By Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh, Foreign Policy in Focus, Interhemispheric Resource Center. Policy Brief. Vol. 9, No. 2. (The Center, Silver City, New Mexico) April 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.fpif.org/pdf/vol9/02outsource.pdf

["The overall goal of U.S. policy on outsourcing should be to attack the factors that make workers -- in the U.S. as well as around the world -- vulnerable to exploitation by increasingly mobile and unregulated global corporations. The approach needs to recognize that raising standards overseas is vital to retaining stable and substantial jobs at home. This requires a multifaceted response encompassing changes in domestic tax, procurement and labor laws as well as in multilateral trade, finance and aid policies." Moving Ideas (April 26, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2007]

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PRODUCTIVITY

Workplace Practices and the New Economy. By Sandra E. Black, University of California, Los Angeles and Lisa M.Lynch, Tufts University. FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2004-10. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) April 16, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2004/el2004-10.pdf

["This Economic Letter looks at how increased managerial focus on employee involvement, quality management, continuous innovation, and incentive-based compensation has boosted labor productivity gains. The research summarized here indicates that the combination of investment in new technology along with workplace innovation has had especially high payoffs to U.S. firms."]

[Request #S2008]

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY

A Nation of Laboratories: Broadband Experiments in the States. Edited by Matthew Bennet, Alliance for Public Technology. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) March 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: apt.org/publica/broadbandreport_final.pdf

["Broadband: Report Praises State Initiatives but Urges National Policy: While some states have made great strides toward providing high-speed Internet access, only a national policy can ensure 'full and equitable' access to advanced telecommunications services.... The report is the 'first comprehensive catalogue' of all state broadband initiatives that the alliance could uncover." National Journal's Technology Daily (March 5, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2009]

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EDUCATION

ART EDUCATION

The Arts and Education: New Opportunities for Research. By the Arts Education Partnership. (The Partnership, Washington, DC) 2004. 43 p.

Full Text at: www.aep-arts.org/PDF%20Files/OpportunitiesResearch.pdf

["A new report urges researchers to bring a variety of new perspectives and methods to bear in examining the impact of arts education on students, teachers and schools. The report points to recent evidence-based research indicating that the arts involve cognitive, affective and social processes with important effects on the learning and development of children and young people, on teachers and teaching and on the culture and climate of schools." Public Education Network (April 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2010]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Public Attitudes on Higher Education: A Trend Analysis: 1993 to 2003. By John Immerwahr. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2004. 23 p.

[The vast majority of Americans continue to believe that getting a college education is more important than it was in the past, that the country can never have too many college graduates, and that we should not allow the price of a higher education to exclude qualified and motivated students from getting a college education."]

[Request #S2011]

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From the Prison Track to the College Track: Pathways to Postsecondary Success for Out-of School Youth. By Lili Allen and others, Jobs for the Future (Jobs for the Future, Boston, Massachusetts) April 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.jff.org/jff/PDFDocuments/prisontrack.pdf

["Jobs For the Future has called on policymakers and educators around the country to get behind a diversity of educational dropout prevention programs that successfully connect out-of-school youth with education and put them on a path to further study and solid employment." Public Education Network (April 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2012]

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STUDENT AID

Refocusing Higher Education Aid on Those Who Need It. By Krista Kafer, Heritage Foundation. Backgrounder. No. 1753. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) April 26, 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Education/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=62473

["While participation in federal higher education programs was greater among low-income students, one quarter of undergraduates from families with incomes over $100,000 also received financial aid.... During the current Higher Education Act (HEA) reauthorization, Congress should restore the HEA's originial intent by awarding taxpayer subsidies and grants to those students who cannot afford higher education." Heritage Foundation Press Release (April 26, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2013]

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EMPLOYMENT

IMMIGRATION

Guestworker Programs: Lessons from the Past and Warnings for the Future. By Vernon M. Briggs, New York School of Labor and Industrial Relations, Cornell University. Prepared for the Center for Immigration Studies. Backgrounder. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2004. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2004/back304.pdf

["The heart of the problem is that guestworker programs seek to reconcile two sharply conflicting goals: the need to protect citizen workers from the competition of foreign workers who are willing to work for wages and in conditions that few citizens would tolerate versus the wishes of some empoyers who rely on labor-intensive production and service techniques to secure a plentiful supply of low-cost workers.... Guestworker programs do nothing to stop further illegal immigration and, in fact, they serve to condone past illegal conducat while encouraging more illegal immigration."]

[Request #S2014]

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Flawed Assumptions Underlying Guestworker Programs. By Mark Krikorian, Center for Immigration Studies. Backgrounder. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2004/back204.pdf

["In the extensive discussion of the proposed guestworker program there has been no detailed examination of the assumptions underlying this or any other guestworker proposal. This paper seeks to remedy that oversight, and will focus on Mexican immigration.... This examination of the 10 assumptions underlying a guestworker program demonstrates that they are without foundation."]

[Request #S2015]

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Increasing the Supply of Labor Through Immigration: Measuring the Impact on Native-born Workers. By George J. Borjas, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Prepared for the Center for Immitgration Studies. Backgrounder. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2004/back504.pdf

["Influx of Foreign Workers Lowers Wages, Study Says: Two decades' growth in the supply of immigrant workers cost native-born American men an average of $1700 in annual wages by 2000, a top economist has concluded.... The findings could influence wide-ranging immigration proposals now being urged by lawmakers and the White House." Sacramento Bee (May 4, 2004) D3.]

[Request #S2016]

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LABOR UNION

AFL-CIO, et al. v. Chamber of Commerce, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 03-55166. April 20, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/2B8C467ADCD0F45988256E7B00832FF0/$file/0355166.pdf?openelement

["A California law prohibiting employers from using state funds for anti-union activity violates federal labor law, a federal appeals court has ruled. The law 'alters the balance of forces in the union organizing process, interfering directly with a process protected by the (National Labor Relations) Act,' the court said. The union-sponsored law ... barred employers who received at least $10,000 from the state in a year -- for example, hospitals and nursing homes in the Medi-Cal program -- from using any of those funds to support or oppose union organizing." San Francisco Chronicle (April 22, 2004) C3.]

[Request #S2017]

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WORKERS COMPENSATION

Workers' Compensation Fraud: Detection and Prevention Efforts Are Poorly Planned and Lack Accountability. By Bureau of State Audits, California State Auitor. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) April 2004. 162 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002-018.pdf

["This report concludes that although employers are assessed annually to pay for efforts to reduce fraud in the workers’ compensation system -- an amount that has averaged about $30 million per year for the past five years -- the fraud commission and the insurance commissioner have not taken adequate steps to measure fraud in the system, develop a strategy to reduce it, or ensure that the fraud assessment funds are distributed to most effectively investigate and prosecute workers’ compensation fraud."]

[Request #S2018]

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ENERGY

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy Efficiency in the Border Region: A Market Approach. By the Western Governors Association. (The Association, Denver, Colorado) April 14, 2004. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/energy/summit/BorderEnergyReport.pdf

["According to the study, manufacturing plants throughout the border region, extending across portions of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California, could save nearly $23 million a year through energy efficiency measures; governmental, educational and health care institutions could save $15 million; and businesses could save $5 million -- for a total of $43 million." eNewswire (May 3, 2004) 1."]

[Request #S2019]

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ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Long Range Energy R&D: A Methodology for Program Development and Evaluation. By James T. Bartis, RAND Science and Technology. Prepared for the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) March 2004. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR112/TR112.pdf

["This report presents a disciplined planning process for developing and evaluating long-term technology development options within the program offices of the U.S. Department of Energy. This planning process provides a means of articulating long-term needs in energy research and development while accounting for the inability to predict the future, especially the distant future."]

[Request #S2020]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

State of the Air: 2004. By the American Lung Association. (The Association, New York, New York) April 2004. Various pagings.

["Nearly half the nation's population lives in areas with unhealthy levels of air pollution, placing 150 million Americans at risk of respiratory illness and lung inflammation and aggravation, a survey has found. Not surprisingly, California again leads the nation in the association's annual assessment, with 13 counties ranking among the nation's 25 worst counties for smog and 12 among the 25 worst for soot." Oakland Tribune (April 29, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2021]

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FEDERAL-STATE RELATIONS

Engine Manufacturers Association, et al. v. South Coast Air Quality Management District, et al. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-1343. April 28, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/28apr20041215/www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/03pdf/02-1343.pdf

["Southern California air quality officials overstepped their authority when they required private trash haulers, bus lines and other companies to purchase low-pollution vehicles for their fleets, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled.... The federal government has primary authority over those pollution sources, and local regulators assert that federal officials are not doing enough to help clean the air in Southern California.... In the decision, eight of nine justices took the industry's side, saying Congress specifically sought to keep local officials from taking such measures when it debated the Clean Air Act." Los Angeles Times (April 29, 2004) A1.]

[Request #S2023]

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WATER POLICY

Watering the West: The Status Quo Versus Water Pricing. By Wayne Lusvardi and Charles B. Warren, Reason Public Policy Institute. IN: Privatization Watch, vol. 28, no. 2 (April 2004) pp. 3; 12.

Full Text at: www.rppi.org/pw324.pdf

["Because the cost of wholesale water is socialized and thus underpriced, consumers may exploit it for 'wasteful' uses such as lawns, golf couses, gardens, and non-native vegetation. Newer command-and-conrol water conservation policies that seek to solve the problem by drought landscaping (xeriscaping) get more to the core of the ongoing urban water crisis. But without economic struture, xeriscaping is bound to offer mere drops in the big regional water policy mud puddle. As with electric power, the most promising solution to the long-term water crisis in California is full-cost pricing."]

[Request #S2024]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Conflicts of Interest in Public Policy Research. By Robert J. MacCoun, Goldman School of Public Policy. Prepared for the Center for the Study of Law and Society, University of California, Berkeley. Working Paper 21. (The Center, Berkeley, California) 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=csls

["In this essay, I discuss the difficulty of sustaining an inquisitorial system of policy research and analysis when it is embedded in a broader adversarial political setting.... I consider whether a more explicitly adversarial system might be preferable to the awkward hybrid that exists today."]

[Request #S2025]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

FFIS Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 04-11. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 4, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/cg/2004/CG04-11.htm

[Includes: "FY 2004 WIC Special Project Grants;" "Steps to a Healthier U.S.: National Organization Partnerships;" " CDC Public Health Research: Centers of Excellence in Health Promotion Economics;" and others.]

[Request #S2026]

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT

The Calculus of Coalitions: Cities and States and the Metropolitan Agenda. By Hal Wolman, George Washington University and others. Prepared for the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institution. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2004. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/urban/pubs/20040422_coalitions.pdf

["Coalitions For The Metropolitan Agenda: The devolution of power from Washington to state capitals has increased the importance of state decision making for cities. The paper argues that in respose to shifting population distributions within states, cities need to build new coalitions to effectively achieve their legislative goals within state legislatures.... Case studies are used to more closely examine coalition-building methods." Brookings Institution Reports (April 29, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S2027]

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POLITICAL PARTICIPATION

"Citizen Participation in Decision Making: Is It Worth the Effort?" By Renee A. Irvin, University of Oregon, and John Stansbury, University of Nebraska. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 64, no. 1 (January/February 2004) pp. 55-65.

["This article ... analyzes key considerations in determining whether community participation is an effective policy-making tool. We list conditions under which community participation may be costly and ineffective and when it can thrive and produce the greatest gains in effective citizen governance.... We arrive at a more informed approach to guide policy makers in choosing a decision-making process that is appropriate for a community's particular needs."]

[Request #S2028]

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PROPERTY TAXES

"Implications of a Split-rate Property Tax." By John H. Bowman and Michael E. Bell. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 32, no. 4 (April 26, 2004) pp. 261-291.

["The purpose of this study is to explore the reallocation of property tax liability that would result from replacing the current property tax applied equally to land and improvements with a property tax falling more heavily on land.... Residential neighborhoods generally would experience reduced tax liabilities under a split-rate tax, with the greatest benefits in newer developments with larger houses and smaller lots."]

[Request #S2029]

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PUBLIC RELATIONS

Connecting Citizens with Legislators. By Bruce Feustel, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 21. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April/May 2004. 2 p.

["The citizen and government connection needs to be encouraged.... Legislators and citizens both say they want a stronger connection, but what is standing in the way? One factor is time.... The good news is that there are some existing public deliberation meetings that legislators can attend and that individual legislator initiatives are being shared. National Issues Forums, AmericaSpeaks, Policy Consensus Initiative and similar organizations welcome legislator involvement.... Legislators might want to schedule more involved citizen discussions during the interim."]

[Request #S2030]

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REDISTRICTING

Vieth, et al. v. Jubelirer, President of the Pennsylvania Senate, et al. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-1580. April 28, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/28apr20041215/www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/03pdf/02-1580.pdf

["A deeply divided Supreme Court refused to restrain state lawmakers from drawing electoral districts in a way that favors their political friends and punishes their political foes.... Partisan gerrymanders have been a fact of life throughout American history, said Justice Antonin Scalia, and there is no way for judges to decide when this inherently political process becomes too political.... The 5-4 ruling is a major disappointment for liberal reformers who had hoped that the court would insist on fairness and equality in the political process." Los Angeles Times (April 29, 2004) A14.]

[Request #S2031]

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From Equality to Fairness: The Path of Political Reform Since Baker v. Carr. By Bruce E. Cain, University of California, Berkeley. Forty Years in the Political Thicket: Evaluating Judicial Redistricting Since Baker v. Carr. By Nathaniel Persily, University of Pennsylvania Law School. And Redistricting Reform: What Is Desirable? Possible? By Thomas Mann, Brookings Institution. Presented to the Brookings Institition / Institute of Governmental Studies Conference on Competition, Partnerhip and Congressional Redistricting. (The Institution, Washington, DC) April 16, 2004.

["Time To Draw The Line: In the 2002 congressional elections, four incumbents who faced non-incumbent challengers met defeat. That was the fewest in American history.... At the moment, most Americans have little control over the redistricting process that deprives them of a meaningful choice at election time, either for Congres or for their state legislators. The decreasing competitiveness in congressional elections is not much disputed.... New technology allows politicians to draw lines with more confidence than ever that they are creating safe Republican or Democratic seats." Washington Post (May 3, 2004) A21.]

Equality to Fairness. 38 p.
www.brook.edu/gs/crc_Cain_MacDonald.pdf

Forty Years in the Political Thicket. 32 p.
www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/gs/crc_Persily.pdf

Redistricting Reform. 26 p.
www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/gs/crc_Mann.pdf

[Request #S2032]

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STATE BUDGETS

Many States Cut Budgets As Fiscal Squeeze Continues. By Elizabeth McNichol and Makeda Harris, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 26, 2004. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/4-22-04sfp.pdf

["While states may still be reeling from budget deficits, they are generally opting to make additional spending cuts rather than raise revenue, according to a report.... 'The decline in expenditures continues to put important government services at risk in many states,' the report says.... While 30 states have raised taxes, only 13 have raised them by more than 5 percent."]

[Request #S2033]

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The Fiscal Survey of States. By the National Governors Association and the National Association of State Budget Officers. (The Association, Washington, DC) April 2004. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/FSS0404.pdf

["States across the country are reporting stronger tax collections this spring for the first time in three years, fueling hopes that the bleakest budget-cutting days of the economic downturn are over, state officials and fiscal experts say.... Governors expect expenditures for their 2005 fiscal years to rise 2.8 percent from 2004, well below the 26-year average of 6.2 percent." New York Times (May 4, 2004) A20.]

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"Fiscal Planning, Budgeting, and Rebudgeting Using Revenue Semaphores." By Gary C. Cornia, Brigham Young University, and others. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 64, no. 2 (March/April 2004) pp. 164-179.

["The revenue semaphores proposed in this article outline procedures by which revenue uncertainty directly influences the planning process. The goal is not to make forecasts more accurate, but to make discussions of budget and revenue alternatives more comprehensive.... The discussion occurs in the context of budget control, management, and policy making."]

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HEALTH

PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Would Prescription Drug Importation Reduce U.S. Drug Spending? Economic and Budget Issue Brief. By the Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 29, 2004. 6 p.

["Reimportation: CBO Says Practice Will Not Lower RX Spending: Allowing the reimportation of lower-cost, U.S.-made prescription drugs from other nations 'would have little impact' on drug spending in the United States, according to the brief. According to the brief, prescription drug prices in other industrialized nations are about '35% to 55% lower than in the United States.' However ... even if reimportation were legalized, the 'intricacies of the worldwide prescription drug market would likely limit the amount of drugs that would reach the United States.'" American Health Line (April 30, 2004) 1.]

Full Text:
ftp://ftp.cbo.gov/54xx/doc5406/04-29-PrescriptionDrugs.pdf

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Drug Bust. By Leif Wellington Haase, the Century Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) April 14, 2004. online

Full Text at: www.tcf.org/4L/4LMain.asp?SubjectID=4&TopicID=0&ArticleID=513

["It's pretty well known that drug companies have been spending more on research and marketing while getting less, in terms of new and innovative prescription drugs. What is less known -- and even more disturbing -- is that antibiotics account for just five of the roughly four hundred compounds now being developed by the world's largest pharmaceutical companies." Moving Ideas (April 26, 2004) 1.]

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UNINSURED

Characteristics of the Uninsured: A View from the States. By the States Health Access Data Assistance Center, University of Minnesota. Prepared for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) May 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.shadac.umn.edu/events/BRFFS%20final3.pdf

["Medically Uninsured Rolls Grow; Costs, Special Interest Infighting Blamed for Shutting Millions Out: Rising insurance costs and fierce infighting by free-spending and influential special interest groups were blamed for adding 2 million to the number of Americans without health insurance, bringing the total to 44 million. In California last year, some 3.9 million people ages 18 to 64 were uninsured, about 17.9 percent of the population." Sacramento Bee (May 6, 2004) D1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FAMILIES

Beyond Marriage Licenses: Efforts to Strengthen Marriage and Two-parent Families: A State-by-state Snapshot. By Theodora Ooms and others, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1082987634.24/beyond_marr.pdf

["This report includes profiles of seven 'high-activity' states and descriptions of at least $90 million in recent federal grants for marriage-related demonstration projects, technical assistance, and research and evaluation." Moving Ideas (April 28, 2004) 1.]

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HUNGER

Ending Hunger in Our Community: Food Security Through Food Assistance. By Celia Hagert, Center for Public Policy Priorities and Cathy Schechter, Orchard Communications, Inc. (The Center, Austin, Texas) March 2004. 73 p.

Full Text at: www.cppp.org/products/reports/endinghunger.pdf

["This ethnographic and research-based report examines the ways in which Texas' system of emergency food assistance (food banks, pantries, Food Stamps, etc) responds to food insecurity across the state. It uses the experience of actual clients and pantry directors to illustrate the problems and successes of various programs.... A set of recommendations for improving the system is included." Moving Ideas (April 29, 2004) 1.]

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POVERTY

Asset Poverty in the United States: Its Persistence in an Expansionary Economy. By Asena Caner and Edward N. Wolff, the Levy Economics Institute, Bard College. Public Policy Brief. No. 76. (The Institute, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York) April 2004. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.levy.org/pubs/ppb/ppb76.pdf

["According to the authors, poverty measures should include wealth as well as income. Their study of asset poverty in the United States between 1984 and 1999 fouses on the lower ind of the wealth distribution and shows that asset poverty rates did not decline dauring the period studied, and that the severity of poverty increased. It also shows that asset poverty is much more persistent than income poverty." Moving Ideas (April 29, 2004) 1.]

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TRANSPORTATION

AUTOMOBILE SAFETY

Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Fatality and Injury Estimates for 2003. By the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. (The Administration, Washington, DC) April 2004.

["Rollover crashes involving sport utility vehicles claimed an increasing number of lives last year, while fatalities in passenger cars went down, the government reported. Overall, 43,220 people were killed on the nation's highways in 2003, an increase of 405 deaths from the previous year, That represented the highest number of deaths since 1990.... Among people in SUVs, there were 456 additional deaths, with rollovers accounting for more than half that increase." Los Angeles Times (April 29, 2004) 1.]

Report. 82 p.:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/PPT/2003EARelease.pdf

Press release. 1 p.:
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/nhtsa/announce/press/pressdisplay.cfm?year=2004&filename=FFARSrls404.html

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INFRASTRUCTURE

"The Gas Tax -- Where the Rubber Meets the Road?" By Michael A. Pagano. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 32, no. 3 (April 19, 2004) pp. 209-211.

["Recent studies demonstrate that the use of roads and highways has reached an all-time high and investments in the transportation infrastructure have not been able to keep pace.... If no changes are made to the transporation tax structure, gridlock and road rage will be all the rage everywhere all the time without exception."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

BILINGUAL EDUCATION

Contested Policy: The Rise and Fall of Federal Bilingual Education in the United States: 1960-2001. By Guadalupe San Miguel. (University of North Texas Press, Denton, Texas) 2004. 168 p.

["Bilingual education is one of the most contentious and misunderstood educational programs in the country. It raises significant questions about this country's national identity, the nature of federalism, power, ethnicity, and pedagogy. It also raises qustions about relations between federal, state, and local governments about instructional methodologies and their relationship to immigrant and native children. How do you teach immigrant children in general and how do you teach English to them in particular?" NOTE: Contested Policy ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

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EDUCATION REFORM

Common Sense School Reform. By Federick M. Hess. (Palgrave MacMillan, New York, New York) 2004. 245 p.

["Cutting through the cant, sentiment, and obfuscation characterizing the current school reform debate, Frederick M. Hess lacerates the conventional 'status quo' reform efforts and exposes the naivete underlying reform strategies that rest on solutions like class size reduction, small schools, and enhanced professional development. He explains that real improvement requires a bracing regime of commonsense reforms that create a culture of competence by rewarding excellence, punishing failure, and giving educators the freedom and flexibility to do their work. He documents that scope of the challenges we face and then provides concrete recommendations for addressing them through reforms to promote accountability, competiton, a twenty-first-century workforce, effective school leadership, and sensible reinvention." NOTE: Common Sense ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

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EMPLOYMENT

WORKFORCE

In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce. By the Institute of Medicine. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. Various pagings. T.C.

Full Text at: www.iom.edu/report.asp?id=18287

["Some U.S. minority populations are underrepresented in health care professions.... According to the report Latinos represent 12% of U.S. residents but 3.5% of doctors, 3.4% of psychologists and 2% of nurses. One-eighth of U.S. residents are African-American but one-twentieth of U.S. physicians and dentists are African-American.... About 19.8% of medical school graduates are Asian or Pacific Islander.... The report recommends that health education institutions and accreditation groups include more minorities on their review boards and consider race, ethnicity and language skills in their admissions processes." Las Vegas Sun (February 5, 2004) 1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

"Disappearing Arctic Sea Ice Reduces Available Water in the American West." By Jacob O. Sewall and Lisa Cirbus Sloan. IN: Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, no. 6 (March 24, 2004) TC.

["The melting Arctic Ocean ice pack could shrink enough over the next half century to change California's climate, reducing rain and snowfall by nearly a third, researchers at the University of California-Santa Cruz have found.... Their report comes several years after other studies predicted half of the Sierra Nevada snowpack would be gone by the end of this century because of global warming caused by increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. 'When you combine them, the outlook for water in the West is truly grim,' said Lisa C. Sloan." San Jose Mercury New (April 16, 2004)C1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

PARENTS

Protecting Children from Domestic Violence: Strategies for Community Intervention. Edited by Peter G. Jaffe and others. (Guilford Press, New York, New York) 2004. 238 p.

["In recent years, the plight of children exposed to domestic violence has received increasing attention, but awareness of the problem has not always translated into public action. This book brings together leading mental health, legal, education, and human service professionals from the United States and Canada to demonstrate how domestic violence and its effects on everyone involved can best be mitigated through community and collaboration. Focusing on multiple forms and violence in the home, including child abuse and partner abuse, this book will inform the daily work and training of a wide range of professionals who serve children and families at risk." NOTE: Protecting Children ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

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RESEARCH

Methods of Meta-analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. By John E. Hunter and Frank L. Schmidt. (Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California) 2004. 582 p.

["Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods.... They review all the meta-analytic methods that have been proposed for cumulating knowledge across studies, including the narrative review, significance counting and the averaging of quantitative outcome measures." NOTE; Methods of Meta-analysis ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

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