Subject: Studies in the News 04-25 (April 15, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Effect of immigrants on wage rates
   Outsourcing, job losses and trade
   Competition for high-tech jobs
EMPLOYMENT
   International trade and job loss
   Mandated employer health insurance
   Employer health benefits
   Employment outlook for Los Angeles
   Collective bargaining and farm labor
   Farmworkers and unionization
   Insourcing jobs to America
   Myths on insourcing
   Science and engineering workforce
   Worker's compensation reform
   California's workers compensation program
   State not enforcing labor laws
   Supply of college-educated workers
   Status of the Labor and Workforce Development Agency
   Advancing low-skilled workers
   Women and equality in the workplace
   OSHA's voluntary compliance strategies
HUMAN SERVICES
   Social services survey
   Federalism and the next phase of welfare reform
   Status of welfare leavers
   Moving welfare recipients into jobs
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, April 2004
   Studies in the News, March 2004
   Studies in the News, February 2004
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News (SITN) is a current compilation of policy-related items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau and State Information & Reference Center to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state employees and other interested individuals, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

IMMIGRATION

Wage Penalties in Brown-Collar Occupations. By Lisa Catanzarite, UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) September 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.sscnet.ucla.edu/csrc/

["Hispanic immigrants piling into the labor market are weighing down the wages of all workers in a broad range of blue-collar occupations in big cities across the country, according to a new study.... When many new Latino immigrants work in a given occupation, the job will pay less than others that require similar skills but employ fewer recent arrivals, the study says.... The study says the best way to protect against this wage penalty is to improve the leverage of immigrants by tightening workplace protection and legalizing illegal immigrants." Wall Street Journal (August 19, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S1744]

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OUTSOURCING

Job Losses and Trade: A Reality Check. By Brink Lindsey, Cato Institute. Trade Briefing Paper. No. 19. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 17, 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.freetrade.org/pubs/briefs/tbp-019.pdf

["Although offshoring does eliminate jobs, it also yields important benefits. To the extent that companies can reduce costs by shifting certain operations overseas, they are increasing productivity. The process of competition ultimately passes the resulting cost savings on to consumers, which then spurs demand for other goods and services. Thus do productivity increases -- whether caused by the introduction of new technology or new ways to organize work -- translate into economic growth and rising overall living standards."]

[Request #S1745]

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Offshore Outsourcing in an Increasingly Competitive and Rapidly Changing World: A High-Tech Perspective. By the American Electronics Association's Board of Directors. (The Association, Washington, DC) March 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.aeanet.org/publications/IDMK_AeA_Offshore_Outsourcing.asp

["A new report by the American Electronics Association blames American schools' failure to give students a strong math and science education as the primary reason behind the trend toward outsourcing technology jobs. The report said technology companies' need for cheap labor and a lack of government funding for R&D were also behind the loss of jobs to foreign workers." ASCD SmartBrief (March 24, 2004).]

[Request #S1751]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISPLACED WORKERS

International Trade and Job Loss in Ohio. By Jon Honeck, Policy Matters Ohio. (Policy Matters, Cleveland, Ohio) February 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.policymattersohio.org/pdf/trade_report.pdf

["This report examines trade adjustment assistance program data to find that international trade was responsible for the loss of one in six of the 199,000 Ohio manufacturing jobs that left Ohio between 1999 and 2003. Though free trade advocates argued that NAFTA and other trade agreements would add jobs to the U.S. economy, 45,734 Ohio jobs lost between 1995 and Octoer 2003 that can be traced to increased imports or relocation of production out of the country." Moving Ideas (March 2, 2004) online.]

[Request #S1748]

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EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

Workers' Perspectives On Mandated Employer Health Insurance. By Claudia L. Schur and others. California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, San Francisco, California) March 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/hlthaff.w4.128v1.pdf

["Large-scale efforts to expand coverage through the workplace have recieved little attention since the mid 1990's. Recently, however, discussion has reemerged.... California recently passed the Health Insurance Act of 2003, the first state-based 'play or pay' legislation in almost a decade.... The law requires that employers pay a fee to a state fund that will provide coverage to their workers, those employers offering qualifying coverage will receive credit against the fee."]

[Request #S1749]

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Employer Health Benefits: 2003: Summary of Findings. By the Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/insurance/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=20688

["Employer-sponsored health benefits reached nearly three out of every five Americans. To provide current information about the nature of employer-provided health beneftis, the Kaiser Family Foundation and the Health Research and Educational Trust conduct an annual national survey of employers of all states."]

[Request #S1750]

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EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

Manpower Employment Outlook Survey: Second Quarter 2004. By Manpower Inc. (Manpower, Milwaukee, Wisconson) 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.manpower.com/mpcom/viewMeos?name=US_2Q04Brochure_FINAL.pdf

["Though unemployment remains at what analysts say is a relatively high 6.1 percent in Los Angeles County, the quarterly Manpower Employment Outlook Survey found that 45 percent of Los Angeles companies expect greater hiring activity in the April-June period, while only 5 percent expect less, one of the state's best gains. For the remainder, 38 percent reported no change, with 12 percent unsure of their hiring plans." Los Angeles Daily News (March 15, 2004) Online.]

[Request #S1752]

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FARM LABOR

Promise Unfulfilled: Why Didn't Collective Bargaining Transform California's Farm Labor Market? By Philip L. Martin, Center for Immigration Studies. Backgrounder. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2004/back104.pdf

["Instead of giving unions a second wind, legalization in 1986 accelerated the vicious spiral of more workers, more labor contractors, and declining farm wages and benefits, by encouraging workers with other U.S. job options to find nonfarm jobs. The revolving door that introduces rural Mexicans to the U.S. labor market turned ever faster in the 1980s and 1990s, and the unionized share of the workforce fell while the unauthorized share rose."]

[Request #S1753]

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Promise Unfulfilled: Unions, Immigration, and the Farm Workers. By Philip L. Martin. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York) 2003. 232 p.

["In 1975, after vigorous campaigning by the United Farm Workers union, the state of California passed the Agricultural Labor Relations Act (ALRA), a pioneering self-help strategy granting farm workers the right to organize into unions. A quarter century later, only a tiny percentage of farm workers in the state belong to unions, and wages remain less that half of those of nonfarm employees." NOTE: Promise Unfulfilled ... is available for a 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1754]

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JOB CREATION

Insourcing Jobs to America. By the Organization for International Investment. (The Organization, Washington, DC) April 7, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ofii.org/

["Jobs Ebb, But Also Flow into California: Globalization taketh away jobs, but it also provides them -- a lot of them, hundreds of thousands in California, according to a trade group. The Golden State ranks first nationally for the most jobs -- 713,500 -- supported by the U.S. operations of foreign-based companies.... The trade group refers to these positions as insourced jobs -- 'the forgotten side of the outsourcing debate.'" Sacramento Bee (April 8, 2004) D1.]

[Request #S1746]

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'Insourcing' Myths: Jobs and Insourcing. And Insourced Investments Lead to Imbalanced Trade. By Robert Scott, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washigton, DC) April 2004.

["Some economists argue that more than 90 percent of those 6.4 million insourced jobs were not so much created as acquired when foreign companies bought American businesses. For example, when Daimler-Benz of Germany took over Chrysler in 1998, Chrysler's 97,000 workers were reclassified as employees of a foreign subsidiary." New York Times (April 11, 2004) C1.]

Insourcing Myths. 2 p.
http://www.epinet.org/printer.cfm?id=1767&content_type=1&nice_name=webfeatures_snapshots_04062004

Insourced Investments. 2 p.
http://www.epinet.org/printer.cfm?id=1768&content_type=1&nice_name=webfeatures_snapshots_04072004

[Request #S1747]

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SKILLED WORK FORCE

The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America's Potential. By the National Science Board, National Science Foundation. NSB 03-69. (The Board, Washington, DC) 2003.

Full Text at: www.nsf.gov/nsb/documents/2003/nsb0369/nsb0369.pdf

["Global competition for science and engineering (S&E) talent is intensifying, such that the United States may not be able to rely on the international S&E market to fulfill unmet skill needs; and the number of native-born S&E graduates entering the workforce is likely to decline unless the Nation intervenes to improve success in educating S&E students from all demographic groups."]

[Request #S1755]

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WORKERS COMPENSATION

Workers' Compensation Reform Within A Universal Health Care System: Roundtable Discussion: Final Report. By the Senate Select Committee on Healthcare for All Americans. 1236-S. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) November 13, 2003. 37 p.

["The discussion highlighted many substantive issues relating to the question of whether and how it would be feasible to integrate the medical portion of Workers' Compensation into a universal health care system.... Any attempt to integrate portions of California's WC system faces significant challenges. Such integration into a universal health care system would be far simpler. Viable models for either proposal do exist and warrant a continuing investigation."]

[Request #S1758]

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California's Workers Compensation Program: Changes to the Medicare Payment System Should Produce Savings Although Uncertainty About New Regulations and Data Limitations Prevent a More Comprehensive Analysis. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) January 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-108.2.pdf

["This report concludes that reforms to the workers' compensation medical payment system ... will produce substantial savings in the form of lower payments for nonhospital outpatient sugical facilities and pharmaceuticals if those refoms are carefully implemented."]

[Request #S1759]

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WORKFORCE

Status of the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency and California Labor Law Enforcement: Hearing. Presented to Assembly Labor and Employment Committee. March 24, 2004.

JC will obtain materials

[Request #S403]

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Labor Supply Pressures and the "Brain Drain": Signs from Census 2000. By Paul D. Gottlieb, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institution. The Living Cities Census Series. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/20040116_Gottlieb.pdf

["An analysis of the location and migration patterns of younger and older workers, especially those with college degrees, for the most populous metropolitan areas in Census 2000 finds that: the proportion of workers who are young and educated is highest in the Northeast region, followed by the Midwest, the South, and the West."]

[Request #S1761]

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Status of the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency and California Labor Law Enforcement: Background Report. Presented to the Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) March 17, 2004; March 24, 2004. And Analysis of the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency's Enforcement of Wage and Hour Laws. By Paul M. Ong and others, Ralph & Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies. Prepared for the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. December 19, 2003. 99 p.

["Testimony by government officials, labor groups, business, and community organizations have clearly demonstrated that because of budgeting and staffing has not kept pace with a growing workforce, the state of California was not doing a good job in enforcing its labor laws.... The Committee's long-term goal is to monitor the Labor Agency's progress and accomplishments and to assist in the pursuit of improving performance."]

[Request #S1756]

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The Next Challenge: Advancing Low-Skilled, Low-Wage Workers [Series]. By Jerry Rubin, Jobs for the Future.(Jobs, Boston, Massachusetts) 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.jff.org/jff/PDFDocuments/nextchallenge.pdf

["Includes: "The Next Challenge: Advancing Low-Skilled, Low-Wage Workers;" "Workforce Intermediaries and Their Roles in Promoting Advancement;" "Earning While Learning; Maintaining Income While Upgrading Skills;" and "Career Ladders: A Guidebook for Workforce Intermediaries;" and others. Moving Ideas (March 2, 2004) 1.

[Request #S1757]

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WORKING WOMEN

Women and Equality in the Workplace A Reference Handbook. By Janet Zollinger Giele and Leslie F. Stebbins. (ABC-CLIO, Inc., Santa Barbara, California) 2003. 335 p.

["Although women have made substantial gains in emloyment, there remains a significant gap in pay, privilege, and leisure time between women and men. Gender equality in employment primarily concerns provision of equal opportunity to women for the same access, pay, benefits, and possibilities for power as men. This book provides an international and historical perspective on how the relative positions of women have changed since 1945." NOTE: Women and Equality in the Workplace is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1762]

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WORKPLACE SAFETY

Workplace Safety and Health: OSHA's Voluntary Compliance Strategies Show Promising Results, but Should Be Fully Evaluated Before They Are Expanded. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-280. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2004. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04378.pdf

["To strengthen OSHA's use of its voluntary compliance strategies, GAO recommends that the Secretary of Labor direct the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health to identify cost-effective methods of assessing the effectiveness of OSHA's voluntary compliance programs and develop a strategic framework that articulates the priorities and resource allocations for the agency's voluntary compliance programs before further expanding the use of these strategies."]

[Request #S1763]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

Results From the First California Health and Social Services Survey. By Elaine Reardon and others, RAND. Prepared for the California Department of Social Services. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2004.

["This report provides an overview of the results from the first wave of the California Health and Social Services Survey as part of the impact analysis of the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program. This survey gathers the kinds of information not readily available in other data sources. The findings include the respondents' knowledge of CalWORKs rules, their attitudes toward the program, earnings and income, household poverty rate, food availability, housing, health care, substance abuse, and family and child well-being." RAND Child Policy Project Update (March 22, 2004).]

Full Document. 87 p.:
http://www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR121/TR121.pdf

Summary. 7 p.:
http://www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR121/TR121.sum.pdf

[Request #S1764]

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WELFARE REFORM

Waive of the Future? Federalism and the Next Phase of Welfare Reform. By Pietro S. Nivola and others, Brookings Institution. Welfare Reform & Beyond. No. 29. (The Institution, Washington, DC) March 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/wrb/publications/pb/pb29.pdf

["Superwaiver legislation ... would authorize federal agencies to approve a state's petition for relief from various statutory and regulatory provisions pertaining primarily to TANF, food stamps, child care, employment and job training services, family services, and public housing.... The superwaiver mechanism -- at least as envisioned by legislators on the House side -- would dispense with a number of traditional constraints on state waiver requests."]

[Request #S1766]

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Welfare to What? By Courtney L. Harrison, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 10. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2004. 2 p.

["Recently, state welfare agencies have studied how those who have left welfare are faring. More than a third of former welfare recipients are not employed.... An approach to serving families who leave welfare is to invest more time in exit planning for the current welfare caseload. Welfare caseworkers may be able to identify government services for unemployed recipients who are at risk of a sanction for not complying with program requirements or who face a time limit."]

[Request #S1767]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Effective Ways to Move Welfare Recipients Into Work. By MDRC (MDRC, New York, New York) 2004. Video.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/announcement_hp_43.html

["The conclusions presented in the video draw extensively from pioneering work done by MDRC in the Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) evaluation which focused on California's statewide program.... These studies examined the effectiveness of mandatory education and training.... The most successful programs use a mixed strategy -- in which some people are urged to get a job quickly and others are assigned to work-focused education or training programs."]

[Request #S1768]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 04-20 - 04-024 (April 2004).

[Includes: "Mexican-born workers risk dying in the U.S.;" "Foster care and federal funding;" "Trends in income and poverty;" "TANF and long-term training;" "Welfare reform on tribal lands;" "Farm laborers win compensation for travel;" and others.]

[Request #S1765]

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"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 04-15 - 04-18 (March 2004).

[Includes: "Latinos filling newly created jobs;" "Jobless denied benefits;" "Unemployment tax avoidance;" "Private employers and public benefits;" "Significant changes in CalWORKs;" "Issues in food stamps;" "In-home supportive services;" "States facing TANF funding shortfalls;" and others.]

[Request #S1769]

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"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 04-13 (February 2004).

[Includes: "Wal-Mart supercenters and local communities;" "Job creation in California;" "Outsourcing software programming jobs;" and others.]

[Request #S1770]

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