Subject: Studies in the News 04-14 (February 27, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Child care and crime rates
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Psychological needs of minority youth
ECONOMY
   Quality online content and underserved communities
EDUCATION
   Reading programs for English language learners
   New early childhood programs
   Quality of early childhood education
   Maximizing public investment in education
   Value of universal pre-kindergarten
   Kindergarten entrance age
   Evidenced-based educational practices
   Best practices in early education
   California teacher standards and universal preschool
   Preschool enrollment and demographics
   Quality measures for preschool
EMPLOYMENT
   Balancing work and children
HEALTH
   Infant mortality rising
   Using Medicaid for children's mental health
   Advertising linked to youth obesity
   Childhood obesity and advertising
   Women's health in California
HUMAN SERVICES
   Fatherhood in the African-American community
   Fathers and child development
   Recommendations for foster care
   Personal voices of foster care
   Supports for low-income families
   State policy options under welfare reform
STUDIES TO COME
   Child care workforce
   Effects of child care on poor children
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILDREN & YOUTH

Preventing Crime With Quality Child Care: A Critical Investment in Colorado's Safety. By David Kass and others. (Fight Crime: Invest In Kids, Washington, DC) January 29, 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/reports/COCCDBG.pdf

["This report is part of a series of similar reports on a number of states. Law enforcement leaders nationwide have taken a hard-nosed look at what really works to prevent youth violence and crime.... Quality educational child care for preschool children and after-school programs for older kids lead to lower rates of crime, drug use, and welfare dependence and to higher rates of high school graduation."]

[Request #S1366]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

MUTLICULTURALISM

Children of Color: Psychological Interventions with Culturally Diverse Youth. By Jewelle Taylor Gibbs and Larke Nahme Huang. (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California) 2003. 501 p.

["This book presents crucial information on culturally sensitive and culturally competent assessment and treatment approaches for young African Americans, Asian Americans, Central Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, biracial-bicultural, and other so-called minority youth. It contains a wealth of new statistical data, demographics, and cutting-edge intervention techniques, contributed by an ethnically diverse group of mental health professionals who are experts in their fields." NOTE: Children of Color ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1368]

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ECONOMY

INTERNET

The Search For High-Quality Online Content for Low-Income and Underserved Communities: Evaluating and Producing What's Needed. By the Children's Partnership. (The Partnership, Santa Monica, California) 2003. 63 p.

Full Text at: www.contentbank.org/research/QualityContent.pdf

["Today, opportunity and success are increasingly tied to the digital world... Yet, despite this explosive growth, more than 50 million Americans are unable to find or use the online information and services they need most, including those with limited-literacy or English skills, or one or more disabilities. This paper examined the field of online content evaluation in a variety of areas to present a set of 'starter guidelines' and recommendations."]

[Request #S1369]

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EDUCATION

BILINGUAL EDUCATION

Effective Reading Programs For English Language Learners: A Best Evidence Synthesis. By Robert E. Slavin, Johns Hopkins University, and Alan Cheung, Success For All Foundation. (Center For Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk, Baltimore, Maryland) December 2003. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.csos.jhu.edu/crespar/techReports/Report66.pdf

["One in five children in U.S. schools comes from a home where English is not the primary language spoken. While many of these kids succeed in reading, too many fall behind. A review of the research finds children in programs that teach reading in their native language and in English at different times in the day do better than those in English-only programs or programs that use only their native languages to teach reading. English language learners have also been found to benefit from instruction in comprehensive reform programs using systematic phonics, one-to-one or small group tutoring programs, cooperative learning programs, and programs emphasizing extensive reading." Connect For Kids Weekly (February 9, 2004).]

[Request #S1373]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Early Childhood Programs for a New Century. By Arthur J. Reynolds and others. (CWLA Press, Washington, DC) 2003. 400 p.

[Includes: "Understanding Efficacy of Early Educational Programs: Critical Design, Practice, and Policy Issues;" "Universal Access to Prekindergarten: A Georgia Case Study;" "Child Care Quality and Children's Success at School;" "Kindergarten in the 21st Century;" "The Three Types of Early Childhood Programs in the United States;" and others. NOTE: Early Childhood Programs ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1374]

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Early Childhood Research Quarterly. By the Department of Individual and Family Studies, University of Delaware. Vol. 18. No. 4. (The Department, Newark, Delaware) 2003. pp. 397-573.

[Includes: "Diversity, Child Care Quality, and Developmental Outcomes;" "Family Dynamics and Child Outcomes in Early Intervention: The Role of Developmental Theory in the Specification of Effects;" "Social Understanding in the First Years of School;" "Predicting Children's Academic Achievement from Early Assessment Scores: A Validity Generalization Study;" and others. NOTE: Early Childhood Research Quarterly ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1375]

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Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age. By Charles Bruner, Child and Family Policy Center, and others. (The Center, Des Moines, Iowa, and Voices for America's Children, Washington, DC) February 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.voicesforamericaschildren.org/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm?ContentID=3359

["Although targeting the youngest learners at ages when the brain develops rapidly pays off, most education money goes to older children. This report finds 13.7 cents of every per-child public education dollar goes to younger kids. Congress is debating a $1.2 billion increase in the Child Care and Development Block Grant's annual appropriation, a move that would increase investments in early learning by $34.57 per young child in America. A $400 million increase in Head Start funding would translate to a $17.29 increase in per young child funding." Connect for Kids (February 23, 2004) Online.]

[Request #S1377]

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Compelling Arguments For Universal Pre-K: [Issue Theme.] By the Piton Foundation. The Term Paper, Vol. 2, No. 2. (The Foundation, Denver, Colorado) November 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.piton.org/Admin/Article/TermPaper_11-03%20final.pdf

["This study of young Denver Public Schools students found that children who participated in a high-quality pre-kindergarten and kindergarten program consistently outperformed their peers several years later on the Colorado Student Assessment Program test. The data strongly suggest that high-quality pre-kindergarten followed by high-quality kindergarten offsets the negative effects of poverty on school performance more effectively than either pre-kindergarten or kindergarten alone." Denver Post (February 9, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S1378]

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The Impact of Changes in Kindergarten Entrance Age Policies on Children's Academic Achievement and the Child Care Needs of Families: Dissertation. By Ashlesha Datar, RAND Graduate School. RGSD-177. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) September 2003. 147 p.

["This dissertation provides new evidence on the causal effect of delaying kindergarten entrance on children's academic achievement in elementary school. It finds that a one-year delay in kindergarten entrance has a positive and significant effect on children's test scores when they begin school, which persists at the end of two years in school." NOTE: The Impact of Changes ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1382]

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EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide. By the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. (The U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC) December 2003. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/rigorousevid/rigorousevid.pdf

["The field of education contains a vast array of educational interventions that claim to be able to improve educational outcomes and, in many cases, to be supported by evidence. However, education practitioners are faced with the challenge of deciding if the evidence is credible and whether an intervention is truly effective."]

[Request #S1371]

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PRESCHOOL

Governors' Forum on Quality Preschool. By the National Governor's Association Center for Best Practice. (The Association, Washington, DC) December 15-16, 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/PreschoolBriefing.pdf

[Includes: "The Case for Quality Preschool: It Can Be Done;" "The Role of State Leaders in Promoting Quality Preschool;" "High Quality Preschool as an Economic Development Strategy;" "State Strategies for Financing Quality Preschool;" "Aligning the Goals of Preschool and K-12;" "Building a High-Quality Preschool Workforce;" and others.]

[Request #S1379]

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Raising Teacher Education and Training Standards for Universal Preschool in California: Assessing the Size of the Task. By Marcy Whitebook, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, and others. (The Center, Berkeley, California) January 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.iir.berkeley.edu/cscce/pdf/teacher_training.pdf

["While standards and compensation are often discussed as separate topics, they are really interdependent, and publicly supported preschool offers an opportunity to confront both challenges hand in hand, so that professional development is directly tied to a coherent wage and career ladder, and an equitable compensation package is incorporated into a state’s 'price tag' of what a universal preschool system will truly cost. This paper assesses how to raise education and training standards of preschool teachers." Childcare Resource and Research Unit's Listserv (February 16, 2004).]

[Request #S1380]

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Preschool and Child Care Enrollment in California. By Elias S. Lopez and Patricia L. de Cos, California Research Bureau, California State Library. Prepared at the Request of Assemblymember Wilma Chan. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) January 2004. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/04/03/04-003.pdf

["California currently has 1.17 million children, aged three to five, who are not yet in kindergarten. Close to half of the state's children in this age group are enrolled in preschool/childcare. This report examines the differences in enrollment rates by several variables including: the age of children, the number of parents in a household, the 'linguistic isolation' of a family (which refers to the inability of persons aged 14 and older in a home to speak English 'very well'), and family income. The last section of the report compares California's enrollment rates to the United States as a whole as well as to other states by ethnic group."]

[Request #S1381]

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State of Preschool: 2003 State Preschool Yearbook. By W. Steven Barnett and others, National Institute for Education Research, Rutgers University. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2003. 91 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/yearbook/pdf/yearbook.pdf

["This study of state spending, enrollment and other quality measures found that few states set high standards or provide adequate funding for preschool programs. Georgia and Oklahoma were praised for establishing the highest access to preschool programs, while New Jersey was cited for providing free preschool to 30 of the state's largest and most disadvantaged districts." ASCD SmartBrief (February 19, 2004).]

[Request #S1383]

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EMPLOYMENT

WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT

Families That Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment. By Janet C. Gornick and Marcia K. Meyers. (Russell Sage Foundation, New York, New York) 2003. 392 p.

["Parents around the world grapple with the common challenge of balancing work and child care. Despite common problems, the industrialized nations have developed dramatically different social and labor market policies -- policies that vary widely in the level of support they provide for parents and the extent to which they encourage an equal division of labor between parents as they balance work and care." NOTE: Families That Work ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1384]

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HEALTH

INFANT MORTALITY

Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2002. By Kenneth D. Kochanek and Betty L. Smith, Division of Vital Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol. 52, No. 13. (National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland) February 11, 2004. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr52/nvsr52_13.pdf

["U.S. infant mortality rates rose in 2002 -- for the first time since 1958. While the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continued to fall, risks associated with low birth weight, preterm births and multiple births may have contributed to the increase." Connect For Children Weekly (February 17, 2004).]

[Request #S1388]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Using Medicaid to Support Young Children's Healthy Mental Development. By Kay Johnson and Neva Kaye. (The Commonwealth Fund and the National Academy, Washington, DC) January 2004. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/programs/child/johnson_medicaidmentalhealth_705.pdf

["Only half of children with social or emotional problems are identified by their primary care physicians and only a fraction receive appropriate care. Five states —- California, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Utah -— will develop models of service delivery and financing that promote healthy mental development of young children under age 5. Such preventive care aims to improve children's developmental outcomes and readiness to learn and to prevent the need for more intensive and expensive remedial care at a later age."]

[Request #S1237]

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OBESITY

Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children: Psychological Issues in the Increasing Commercialization of Childhood. By Dale Kunkel and others. (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC) February 20, 2004.

["According to the American Psychological Association, federal regulators should restrict television advertising aimed at children 8 and younger because research shows youngsters lack the skills to question a commercial's claims as anything but fact. The Association said extensive studies found that young children are unable to comprehend televised advertising messages and, as a result, are likely to consider commercials as 'truthful, accurate and unbiased'. This can lead to unhealthy eating habits as evidenced by today's youth obesity epidemic." Washington Post (February 24, 2004) E01.]

Summary of Findings and Conclusions. 9 p.:
http://www.apa.org/releases/childrenads_summary.pdf

Recommendations. 9 p.:
http://www.apa.org/releases/childrenads_recommendations.pdf

Commercialism in Schools. 11 p.:
http://www.apa.org/releases/childrenads_implications.pdf

Full Report. 35 p.:
www.apa.org/releases/childrenads.pdf

[Request #S1370]

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The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. By the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) February 24, 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/entmedia/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=32022

["While researchers have long assumed that children who watch more TV are more likely to be overweight because they are getting less exercise, a more important factor in childhood obesity could be the billions of dollars the food industry spends on advertisements aimed at children, according to this report. The report, which examined existing studies on television, video games, movies and the Internet, says that advertising, marketing and promotions aimed at children are the 'main mechanism by which media use contributes to childhood obesity.'" California Healthline (February 25, 2004).]

[Request #S1389]

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WOMEN

Women's Health Issues in California: Findings from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. By Roberta Wyn and Victoria D. Ojeda. (UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los Angeles, California) 2003. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu/pubs/files/WomensHealthIssues_Rpt_122003.pdf

["This study found that minority and low-income women in California are more likely to be uninsured and in poorer health than white and higher-income women. Data from a telephone poll of 25,588 women was examined -- to analyze the overall health, insurance coverage and access to care for women in the state ages 18 to 64."]

[Request #S1390]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FATHERHOOD

Black Fathers in Contemporary American Society: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Strategies for Change. By Obie Clayton and others. (Russell Sage Foundation, New York, New York) 2003. 179 p.

["The majority of African-American children live in homes without their fathers, but the proportion of African-American children living in intact, two-parent families has risen significantly since 1995. This book looks at father absence from two sides, offering an in-depth analysis of how the absence of African-American fathers affects their children, their relationships, and society as a whole, while countering the notion that father absence and family fragmentation within the African-American community is inevitable." NOTE: Black Fathers in Contemporary American Society ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1367]

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The Role of the Fathers in Child Development. By Michael E. Lamb. (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey) 2003. 538 p.

["This book brings together contributions from an international group of experts on the role of fathers in child development. It provides the latest material on such topics as: the development of father-child relationships, gay fathers, the effects of divorce on fathers and children, fathers in violent and neglectful families, cross-cultural issues of fatherhood, and fathers in nonindustrialized cultures." NOTE: Role of the Fathers ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1372]

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FOSTER CARE

Children, Families and Foster Care: [Issue Theme.] IN: The Future of Children, vol. 14, no. 1. (Winter 2004) pp. 1-193.

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info.htm?doc_id=203959

["At any given time, over half a million children are in foster care; over 250,000 enter the system every year. Although a necessary lifeline for children who can't safely remain with their families, the system too often fails those it serves. Among the risks for kids: inconsistent medical care and one-size-fits-all service plans, instead of individually tailored approaches. This report recommends better assessment of the physical, mental and educational needs of children in foster care, and better monitoring of how well these needs are met. In also finds that more could be done to support and strengthen foster and kinship care families and to coordinate services for families and children." Connect for Kids Weekly (February 2, 2004) 1.]

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Foster Care: Voices From the Inside. By Gloria Hochman and others. Prepared for The Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care. (The Commission, Washington, DC) February 18, 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.pewtrust.org/pdf/foster_care_voices_021804.pdf

["This report presents the results of three focus groups conducted in September and October 2003 in Washington, D.C., with young adults who had grown up in foster care; in New York City, with parents who had safely reunited with their children after the children had spent time in foster care; and in Denver, with foster and adoptive parents."]

[Request #S1394]

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LOW INCOME

Supports for Low-Income Families: States Serve a Broad Range of Families through a Complex and Changing System. By the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). GAO-04-256. (GAO, Washington, DC) January 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04256.pdf

["The GAO conducted a mail survey of the 50 states for changes that states have made to supports for low income families. Officials reported that they are considering changes that could limit the availability and provision of supports for low-income families. It is probable that the support system will continue to change as the federal and state governments further amend policies."]

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WELFARE REFORM

Child and Youth Well-Being Under Welfare Reform: State Policy Options. By the National Governors Association's Center for Best Practice. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/0104SPOREFORM.pdf

["This issue brief highlights what some states have done since welfare reform to track and study how young welfare recipients are faring, and to create program and policy strategies to reach at-risk children and youth. The brief also describes potential funding streams to support state initiatives to improve child well-being."]

[Request #S1397]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

By a Thread: How Child Care Centers Hold On To Teachers, How Teachers Build Lasting Careers. By Marcy Whitebook, U.C. Berkeley, and Laura Sakai. (W.F. Upjohn Institute, Kalamazoo, Michigan) 2004. 145 p.

["The authors examine how child care programs and their staff subsist in a field characterized by low pay, low status, and high turnover and what the impacts of these factors are on the quality of child care provided. They conclude with three policy recommendations: 1) expand the focus of K-12 education reforms to include preschool years; 2) create national legislation that encourages state and local investments to improve compensation for child care workers; and 3) consider whether child care workers might strengthen their hand when it comes to negotiating compensation packages through formal organization." NOTE: By a Thread ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1268]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

"Child Care in Poor Communities: Early Learning Effects of Type, Quality, and Stability." By Susanna Loeb and others. IN: Child Development, vol. 75, no. 1. (January 2004) pp. 47-65.

["New research shows toddlers and preschoolers in low-income families can benefit from the kinds of child care settings available to them. While previous research has shown positive effects of high-quality care on children's intellectual development, this is one of the first studies to examine the effect of the quality of child care available to the poor. Children display stronger intellectual growth when people caring for them are more sensitive and responsive, and stronger social development when caretakers are educated beyond high school, the study found." Connect For Kids Weekly (February 17, 2004).]

[Request #S1398]

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