Subject: Studies in the News 03-80 (December 8, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

December 1853 - "In December, 1853, the U. S. Assay Office was closed to make way for the new San Francisco Mint.... The Assay Office had minted ten and twenty-dollar coins in 1852 and 1853. John Moffat’s ... (private) coins passed at par with federal coinage, the only privately minted coins to do so. Moffat and his three partners began striking five and ten-dollar gold coins in 1849 and continued until the end of 1853. When the company finally closed its doors in December, 1853, its equipment was purchased by the new San Francisco Mint. http://www.coinsite.com/content/articles/TerritorialCalifornia.asp"    

December 1853 - "With the imminent opening of the San Francisco Mint, the U.S. Assay Office ceased operations in December 1853 and no private firms were coining gold. Due to a lack of proper alloy and parting acids, the new mint was not able to meet the needs of an expanding commerce. California merchants and bankers implored John G. Kellogg, the former cashier at the U.S. Assay Office, to open a coining operation to fill the shortages. Kellogg issued almost $6 million worth of $20 gold pieces in 1854 and 1855. Stunningly beautiful dies were designed for a $50 denomination in late 1855."] "  http://www.kagins.com/korner2003-3-in.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Corrections and sentencing policies
   Creative approaches to reducing crime
   County approaches to domestic violence
   Issues for incarcerated parents and their children
   Check and credit card fraud
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Remittances sent from to Latin countries
ECONOMY
   Key areas of economic development
   Southern California home sales
   Placer cities lose appeal over casino
   Information services trends
   Price of free trade
   Charitable contributions by racial group
   University and community research partnerships
EDUCATION
   No Child Left Behind accountability
   Educating children for a safer world
   Financing higher education
   Tax credits for higher education
   Closing the college participation gap
EMPLOYMENT
   Science and engineering workforce
ENERGY
   Future electric restructuring
   New building standards and energy use
   Integrated energy policy report
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   University-industry relationships in biotechnology
   Southern California environmental report card
   Appeals of fuel reduction activities
   Causes of Klamath salmon kill
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Legislature's role in defining marriage
   Results oriented government for the 21st century
   Illinois landmark ethics law approved
   Proposed social security agreement with Mexico
   State Budget proposition analysis
   LAO comments on spending cap
   Fiscal storm signs subsiding
   State fiscal crises
   Punch card performance in 20 counties
HEALTH
   Services for adults with disabilities
   Health care costs continue double digit pace
   Health coverage mandate challenges
   ERISA conflicts with SB 2
   New prescription drug initiative
HOUSING
   Alleviate housing cost with Earned Income Tax Credit
   Minority homeownership
HUMAN SERVICES
   Effects of foster care
   Immigrant children and poverty
   Effective community-based programs
   Assets and access to public assistance
   Welfare and marriage
STUDIES TO COME
   Safety regulations for food
   Interstate comparisons of workers' compensation
   The real environmental crisis
   Measuring the social health of states
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME CONTROL

Tough Times to Be Tough on Crime: An Edited Transcript of A Recent Discussion on Corrections and Sentencing Policy Among Key State Legislators. Edited by Donna Lyons, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/pubs/03SLJunetoughtimes.pdf

["The worst state budget scenarios in a generation have lawmakers scrambling to cut spending, with seemingly everything on the table. At the same time, crime rates, especially those for violent crimes, have dropped substantially, while state general funds continue to pay a hefty tab for tough-on-crime laws."]

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"Crime and Redemption." By Drake Bennett and Robert Kuttner. IN: American Prospect, vol. 14, no. 11 (December 1, 2003) online.

Full Text at: www.prospect.org/print-friendly/print/V14/11/bennett-d.html

["The state fiscal crisis has put an end to the prison boom.... Other approaches are not only much less expensive than incarceration, dollar for dollar, they actually work better.... In California ... state officials estimate that [Proposition 36] will cut their prison population by nearly a quarter and save $250 million over the next three or four years."]

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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

California County Approaches to Domestic Violence. By Alicia Bugarin and Marcus Nieto, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 03-013. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) October 2003. 176 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/

["The California Research Bureau conducted a survey to assess county policies that address domestic violence.... California's counties respond to domestic violence by offering services and graduated punishment to meet specific needs of the victim and the batterer.... [The study] presents detailed findings for seven counties and general survey response information from all responding counties."]

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FAMILIES

Emerging Issues for Incarcerated Parents and Their Children: Hawaii in a National Perspective: White Paper. By Thomas E. Lengyel and Jamie Harris, Department of Research and Evaluation Services, Alliance for Children and Families. (The Alliance, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) October 2003. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.alliance1.org/Research/Emerging_Issues_11-05-03.pdf

["Emergent research is trying to document the social costs of incarcerating a person, setting up the possibility of cost-benefit analysis for the net cost of imprisonment (i.e., lock-up plus social cost).... It appears that the community is losing money ... on mothers with dependent children who are doing time for drug abuse or possession."]

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FRAUDULENT DOCUMENTS

Check and Card Fraud. By Graeme R. Newman, Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, U.S. Department of Justice. Problem-Specific Guides Series No. 21. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2003. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.cops.usdoj.gov/mime/open.pdf?Item=965

["This report covers fraud involving all types of checks and plastic cards, including debit, charge, credit, and 'smart' cards. It reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practices."]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

LATINOS

Remittance Senders and Receivers: Tracking the Transnational Channels. By Roberto Suro, Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) November 24, 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/Remittances%20Senders%20and%20Receivers%20LAC%202003%20Final.pdf

["Study: Latinos To Send $30 Billion From U.S.: The ever-increasing U.S. immigrant population from Latin America will send a record $30 billion back to their homelands this year, according to a study. The biggest stream of dollars comes from Mexican workers.... The dollars from that influx now surpass any revenue source in Mexico; including direct foreign investment oil and tourism." Chicago Tribune (November 25, 2003) C20.]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Index of State Economic Momentum." By Hal Hovey. IN: State Policy Reports, vol. 21, Issue 18 (2003) pp. 2-8.

["The Index ranks states based on their most recent performance in three key areas of economic development: population growth, personal income growth and employment growth.... Improvements in personal income and employment have not stemmed the tide of unemployment, which hit a nine-year high during this quarter. Farm states made some big gains and manufacturing states continue to be hit hard."]

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HOUSING

Continued Southland Sales Surge. By DataQuick. (DataQuick, La Jolla, California) November 19, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.dqnews.com/RRSCA1103.shtm

["Defying the usual fall slowdown, home sales last month in Los Angeles and Orange counties hit the highest level for any October since 1988 as buyers continued to jump into the market for fear of missing out on historically low interest rates. Sales of new and previously owned single-family houses and condominiums in Los Angeles County rose 13% from October 2002. Sales increased by 9% in Orange County, according to La Jolla-based DataQuick Information Systems." Los Angeles Times (November 19, 2003) Online.]

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INDIAN GAMBLING

City of Roseville, et al. v. Gale Norton, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Distict of Columbia Circuit. 02-5277. November 14, 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: pacer.cadc.uscourts.gov/docs/common/opinions/200311/02-5277a.pdf

["Calling the cities' arguments 'nonsensical' and 'ahistorical,' a federal appeals court has thrown out a lawsuit filed by Rocklin and Roseville against the wildly successful Thunder Valley Casino in Placer County.... The plaintiffs argued that the federal government failed to consider the potential negative impacts the casino might have on local communities when it took 49 acres of unincorporated land into trust for the tribe." Sacramento Bee (November 15, 2003) A1.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Consumption Of Information Goods and Services In the United States. By John B. Horrigan, the Pew Internet and American Life Project (The Project, Washington, DC) November 23, 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIP_Info_Consumption.pdf

[The ... report ... was based on a survey of about 1,700 people nationwide.... For some of the most enthusiastic tech users in America, the wireline telephone may be going the way of the transistor radio.... A growing number of young, tech-savvy Americans are abandoning them for mobile phones and the Internet." San Jose Mercury News (November 23, 2003) online.]

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NAFTA

The High Price of 'Free' Trade: NAFTA's Failure has Cost the United States Jobs Across the Nation. By Robert E. Scott, Economic Policy Institue. RPI Briefing Paper #147. (The Institute, Washington, DC) November 17, 2003. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/147/epi_bp147.pdf

["Since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was signed in 1993, the rise in the U.S. trade deficit with Canada and Mexico through 2002 has caused the displacement of production that supported 879,280 U.S. jobs.... NAFTA has also contributed to rising income inequality, suppressed real wages for production workers, weakened workers' collective bargaining powers and ability to organize unions, and reduced fringe benefits. Without major changes in NAFTA to address unequal levels of development and enforcement of labor rights and environmental standards, continued integration of North American markets will threaten the prosperity of a growing share of the U.S. workforce."]

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NOT FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Multicultural Study 2003: Time and Money: An In-Depth Look at 45+ Volunteers and Donors: Executive Summary. By Gail Kutner and Jeffrey Love, Knowledge Management, American Association of Retarded Persons. (The Association, Washington, DC) November 2003. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.research.aarp.org/general/multic_2003_1.pdf

["Charitable Contributions By Racial Group and Ethnicity: When it comes to charity, older African Americans are more likely than those of other racial and ethnic groups to work through their churches to help the needy. Older Asian Americans are more likely to support museums and other cultural institutions.... Those are some of the findings of an AARP survey." Washington Post (November 18, 2003) 1.]

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RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

University + Community Research Partnerships: A New Approach. By the Pew Partnership for Civic Change. (The Partnership, Charlottesville, Virginia) 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.pew-partnership.org/pdf/UCRP_report.pdf

["The publication summarizes the findings from a nineteen-site participatory research initiative that partnered community-based organizations with academics from area colleges and universities. It also highlights the conversation and general themes that arose during a roundtable discussion with representatives from higher education, the philanthropic sector, and the nonprofit community.]

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EDUCATION

ACCOUNTABILITY

California's School Accountability System Under the Federal No Child Left Behind Act. By EdSource. (EdSource, Palo Alto, California) October 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.edsource.org/edu_acc_ayp.cfm

["The purpose of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) ... is to use federal funding as leverage to make sure that all the nation's children are able to read, to write, and to understand math well by the time they graduate from high school.... The state is relying on the API for its additional measurement of student progress. But the NCLB approach to accountability has driven significant changes in California's system."]

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FAMILIES & SCHOOLS

We Are Family: Educating Our Chidren for A Safer World: An Overview for Educators and Parents. By the National Middle School Association. (The Association, Westerville, Ohio) November 2003. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.nmsa.org/

["Roadmap to Achievement for Middle Schools: For middle schools to be successful, the school's organization, curriculum, pedagogy, and programs must be based upon the developmental readiness, needs, and interests of young adolescents. This concept is at the heart of a new report." Public Education Network Weekly (November 7, 2003) 1.]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid for Higher Education: A Compilation of Selected Papers. By Richard A. Voorhees and others, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (The Commission, Boulder, Colorado) 2003. 84 p.

Full Text at: wiche.edu/policy/Changing_Direction/documents/PoliciesInSync.pdf

["This initiative examines how to structure financial aid and financing policies and practices to maximize participation, access, and success for all students and to promote more informed decision-making on issues surrounding financial aid and financing in higher education."]

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The Impact of Federal Tax Credits for Higher Education Expenses. By Terry Long, Harvard Graduate School of Education. (The School, Cambridge, Massachusetts) September 2003. 77 p.

Full Text at: gseacademic.harvard.edu/~longbr/BLong_-_Tax_Credits_(9-03).pdf

["Six years ago, President Clinton signed into law a bipartisan series of tax credits he predicted would open the doors of college to 'a new generation.' Yet a new study argues that the federal Hope tax credit and a companion tax break have failed to increase college enrollment, despite the expectations voiced by elected officials at the time." Education Week (October 23, 2003) Online.]

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Closing the College Participation Gap: A National Summary. By Sandra S. Ruppert, Center for Community College Policy, Education Commission of the States. (The Center, Denver, Colorado) October 2003. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.communitycollegepolicy.org/html/Issues/access/pdf/ECSNationalReportComplete.pdf

["Not enough Americans go to college, according to a study.... The U.S. has slipped behind other economically advanced counties in sending kids to college, and is now tied for 13th. Reasons include rising tuition and falling public aid.... The more people who go to college, the more society benefits, the report said." Denver Post (October 2, 2003) B2.]

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EMPLOYMENT

SKILLED WORKFORCE

The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America's Potential. By the National Science Board, National Science Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) 2003. 91 p.

Full Text at: www.nsf.gov/nsb/documents/2003/nsb0369/nsb0369.pdf

["Wanted: More American Scientists, Engineers: Greater federal assistance is needed to bolster the country's shrinking native-born science and engineering workforce and to encourage more U.S. college students to pursue careers in these fields, according to the National Science Foundation.... The percentage of college-educated scientists and engineers who are working in the United States but were born elsewhere jumped from 14 percent in 1990 to 22 percent in 2000." Chicago Tribune (November 21, 2003) 33.]

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ENERGY

ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Comprehensive View of U.S. Electric Restructuring with Policy Options for the Future. by Matthew Brown and Richard Sedano. Prepared for the National Council on Electricity Policy. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2003. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.ncouncil.org/restruc.pdf

["Retail competition has not ... provided a direct benefit to any but the largest customers. Small customers have not participated in retail markets.... The major goals of wholesale and retail competition are still elusive.... The industry faces ... underinvestment in transmission infrastructure alongside a glut of generation.... There is an urgent need for state policymakers to develop long-term and coordinated plans for the electric industry."]

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy Commission Approves New Building Standards to Help the State Cut Energy Use: Press Release. By the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) November 5, 2003. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/releases/2003_releases/2003-11-05_new_bldng_stnds.html

["Panel Adopts Energy-Savings Building Codes: Many of the new standards are aimed at improving the efficiency of heating, air conditioning, ventilation and lighting systems.... The commission said the estimated energy cost savings over the life of the house would range from $1,540 to $3,700, or more than double the cost of the energy-saving upgrades." Sacramento Bee (November 6, 2003) D3.]

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2003 Integrated Energy Policy Report: Draft Committee Report. By the AdHoc Integrated Energy Policy Report Committtee, California Energy Commission. Docket No. 02-IEP-1. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) September 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/energypolicy/documents/2003-09-17_IEPR_COMMITTEE.PDF

["The report is the first of an annual reporting process examining major energy trends and issues within California's transportation, electricity and natural gas sectors. The report establishes the goals of encouraging energy efficiency and harvesting the benefits; diversifying fuel types; encouraging customer energy alternatives; and improving energy infrastructure." E-newswire (November 19, 2003) 1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

BIOTECHNOLOGY

University-Industry Relationships: Framing the Issues for Academic Research in Agricultural Biotechnology. By David Ervin, Portland State University, and others. Presented at a workshop sponsored by the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (The Initiative, Washington, DC ) November 19, 2003. 59 p.

Full Text at: www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/pew_agbiotech_univ_industry.pdf

["Some believe agreements between universities and industry encourage innovation and early application of new technologies that benefit the agricultural sector, consumers and the environment. Others raise concerns that the greater emphasis on commercial applications diverts academic researchers away from research and technology development that may have significant public benefit but little commercial potential."]

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CALIFORNIA

Southern California Environmental Report Card: 2003. By the UCLA Institute for the Environment. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) October 2003. 40 p.

["The region made major progress in cutting pollution over the past several decades, but the improvement might slow in the future....Southern California earned better grades in other areas of the report. Los Angeles scored a B- for 'smart growth' policies that aim to reduce car travel, increase open spaces and promote environmentally sensitive urban areas. Southern California rated a D for controlling invasive plant species and a B- for present efforts at marine preservation." Ventura County Star (October 22, 2003) A18.]

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ENVIRONMENTAL LITIGATION

Information on Appeals and Litigation Involving Fuels Reduction Activities. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-52. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 24, 2003.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-52

["When we provided preliminary information on the results of the survey on May 14, 2003, we had not yet completed our data reliability checks.... The relationships among the numbers has not materially changed.... Of the 818 decisions involving fuels reduction activities, about 24 percent were appealed... For 73 percent of the appealed decisions, the Forest Service allowed the activities to be implemented without changes."]

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FISH

Klamath River Fish Die-off, September 2002: Report on Estimate of Mortality. And Causative Factors of Mortality. By George Guillen, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (The Service, Arcata, California) November 7, 2003.

["The report said a combination of factors was responsible for the September disease epidemic that wiped out 34,000 chinook and endangered coho salmon in one of the country's largest fish kills. Crowded conditions as the fish were migrating up the Klamath and its tributaries were cited as a reason for the die-off, as was abnormally warm water, caused at least in part by scorching late summer temperatures. But the study also identified extremely low flows as a major factor in the kill." San Francisco Chronicle (November 19, 2003) A4.]

Press release. 1 p
http://news.fws.gov/newsreleases/r1/CF3E8EE5-9427-4AA9-A6B32BB4459C5537.html

Estimate of Mortality. 28 p.
http://sacramento.fws.gov/ea/News_Releases/fishnumberpublic2.pdf

Causative Factors of Mortality. 115 p.
http://sacramento.fws.gov/ea/News_Releases/Causative%20Factors%2011--07-03public.pdf

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

FAMILY LAW

In Defense of Marriage. By Matthew Spalding, Director of the Center for American Studies. (The Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC) November 19, 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Family/wm373.cfm

["The (Massachusetts Supreme) Court stayed the entry of judgment for 180 days 'to permit the Legislature to take such action as it may deem appropriate in light of this opinion.' It leaves intact the legislature’s discretion to regulate marriage.... In a separately filed dissenting opinion, Justice Martha B. Sosman writes that 'The issue is ... for the Legislature to 'reserve judgment' on whether changing the definition of marriage 'can be made at this time without damaging the institution of marriage or adversely affecting the critical role it has played in our society.'"]

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GOVERNMENT REFORM

Results-Oriented Government: Shaping the Government to Meet 21st Century Challenges. By the General Accounting Office. GAO-03-1168T. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2003. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d031168t.pdf

["Through normal evolution and inertia over the years, the United States has a government that is weighed down by organizations with significant performance and management problems as well as duplicative and overlapping missions and functions.... We suggested a range of options that the Congress could use to eliminate redundancy and improve federal operations to meet the challenges the federal government faces at the beginning of the 21st century."]

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LEGISLATIVE ETHICS

"Landmark Ethics Law Approved; State Officials Face New Restrictions." By Ray Long and John Chase. IN: Chicago Tribune (November 21, 2003) p. C1.

["Illinois Lawmakers ... gave final approval to a landmark package of ethics reforms designed to wring out the worst excess from a state government that has been shaken by a series of scandals. The compromise, hammered out after months of bitter feuding and posturing ... would create inspectors general with subpoena powers to hunt for wrongdoing in the offices of all statewide officials as well as the legislature."

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MEXICO

Social Security: Proposed Totalization Agreement With Mexico Presents Unique Challenges. U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-993 (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2003. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-993

["Totalization agreements foster international commerce, protect benefits for persons who have worked in foreign countries, and eliminate dual social security taxes that employers and their employees pay when they operate and reside in countries with parallel social security systems... a totalization agreement with Mexico has raised concerns that [unauthorized workers] would become newly eligible for social security benefits."]

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PROPOSITIONS

Proposition 56: State Budget, Related Taxes, and Reserve: Voting Requirements: Penalties. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) November 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/initiatives/2004/56_03_2004.htm

["This measure reduces from two-thirds to 55 percent the number of votes required to pass the budget bill and other bills -— including tax increase measures -— related to the budget bill.... This measure prohibits the Legislature and the Governor from collecting their salaries and expenses when the budget is late.... The loss of salary and expenses requirement for the Governor and Legislature would reduce costs in any year in which there is a late budget. In such cases, the measure would save the state about $50,000 per day in salaries and expenses until approval of the budget."]

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STATE BUDGET

Comments on the Administration's Spending Limit Proposal. By the Office of the Legislative Analysts. (The Office, Sacramento, California) December 1, 2003. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2003/admin_spending_limit/120103_admin_spending_limit_proposal.pdf

["The nonpartisan legislative analyst advised legislators to closely study the details in the governor's proposals, noting that they have the potential to fundamentally shift the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches of government. The analyst said the cap would lock in future spending at a low rate, and bar legislators from bolstering state programs in a healthy economy." Los Angeles Times (December 2, 2003) B1.]

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STATE BUDGETS

State Budgets Update. By the Fiscal Affairs Program, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) November 19, 2003. Various pagings.

["States Finally Emerging from Red Ink: State government finances are improving, a new survey says, with fewer budget shortfalls, more control over spending and a boost in revenue growth for the first time in years." Grass Catcher (November 21, 2003) 1.]

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STATE FINANCES

State Fiscal Crises: Causes, Consequences, Solutions. Edited by Therese J. McGuire, Northwestern Unviversity and C. Eugene Steuerle, The Urban Institute. Prepared for the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 30, no. 5. Special Supplement (November 3, 2003) pp. 363-448.

[Includes: "Three Characteristics of Tax Structures Have Contributed to the Current State Fiscal Crises;" "Problems and Prospects for State and Local Governments;" "Capital Gains: Its Recent, Varied, and Growing (?) Impact on State Revenues;" "The Impact of Pension Funding on State Government Finances." "Cyclical Variability in State Government Revenue: Can Tax Reform Reduce It?" and others.]

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VOTERS & VOTING

Detailed Analysis of Punch Card Performance in the Twenty Largest California Counties in 1996, 2000, and 2003. By Henry Brady, School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley. (The Author, Berkeley, California) October 17, 2003. 11 p.

Full Text at: ucdata.berkeley.edu/new_web/recall/20031996.pdf

["By 2003, only five of the twenty used punch cards. All the counties that changed from punch cards improved substantially.... Brady's argument is that the biggest problem with punch cards is that they fail to record the vote. There are also sometimes problems with counting the vote, but these problems are much smaller than recording the vote."]

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HEALTH

DISABILITIES

Safety Net or Tangled Web? An Overview of Programs and Services For Adults With Disabilities. By David Wittenburg and Melissa Favreault, The Urban Institute. Occasional Paper; 68. (The Institute, Washington, DC) November 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310884_OP68.pdf

["This report describes 15 major public programs serving low-income, non-elderly adults with disabilities. The authors conclude that the safety net for low-income adults with disabilities is more like a tangled web of conflicting goals and gaps in needed services. Opportunities for temporary cash, training, and rehabilitation support are especially limited for disabled adults ... who experienced their disability outside of work.... The authors discuss promising policy options that take a more coordinated approach in serving the complex needs of adults with disabilities."]

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HEALTH CARE FINANCE

U.S. Employees Should Prepare for Major Health Care Benefit Changes and Increased Cost Sharing. By Suzanne Zagata-Meraz and Rebecca Hayne, Hewitt Associates. (The Associates, Lincolnshire, Illinois) October 13, 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: was4.hewitt.com/hewitt/resource/newsroom/pressrel/2003/10-13-03_hc.htm

["U.S. health care cost increases continued to escalate at a double-digit pace in 2003, but there are indications that rate hikes may begin moderating as early as next year.... For 2004, Hewitt is projecting a 12.6 percent average increase for employers, which is lower than 2003's 14.7 percent rate."]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

"Will California's Employer Health Coverage Mandate Survive Legal Challenges? By Curtis Leavitt. IN: BNA Health Care Policy Report, vol. 11, no. 43 (November 3, 2003) pp. 1396-1397.

["California instituted its 'pay or play' health care system requiring the majority of California employers to either obtain health benefits coverage for their employees or pay a fee to a state-run health care pool.... California's lawmakers have expressed their desire to create a universal health care system. Just when, and if, this first step to such a system ever comes to fruition now rests with the courts."]

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ERISA Implications for SB 2. By Patricia Butler, California Healthcare Foundation. And The Health Insurance Act of 2003: An Overview of SB 2. By the California Healthcare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California). 2003.

["California's recently enacted employee health coverage program [SB 2, has a] potential conflict with ERISA, a Federal employee benefits law that preempts certain types of state laws affecting employer-sponsored health benefits."]

Factsheet. 3 p.:
http://www.chcf.org/documents/insurance/ERISAImplicationsOnSB2FactSheet.pdf"

Overview of SB2. 3 p.:
http://www.chcf.org/documents/insurance/SB2FactSheetCorrected.pdf

[Request #S9734]

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MEDICARE

Estimated Clawbacks from State Savings under the Medicare Drug Bill. FFIS Budget Brief. 03-56. (FFIS, Washington, DC) November 20, 2003. 7 p.

["Federal assumption of presciption drug costs under the Medicare program would relieve Medicaid of substantial costs. However, a large share of these savings would be subject to a 'clawback' provision... States will be required to repay to the federal government a substantial share of estimated Medicaid savings that they otherwise would have spent for 'dual eligible' population... In addition, other provisions of the legislation would impose net new costs and reduce state tax revenues."]

[Request #S9735]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Tax Policy as Housing Policy: The EITC's Potential to Make Housing More Affordable for Working Families. By Michael Stegman and others, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC). October 2003. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/20031104_Stegman.pdf

["Severe housing cost burdens for low-and moderate-income households have risen in recent years.... The authors' proposal to expand the EITC would relieve 510,000 families of severe housing cost burdens.... Policymakers should consider expanding support in the tax code for working families to help a greater number meet the high and rising costs of housing."]

[Request #S9736]

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HOMEBUYING

The Great Divide: Home Purchase Mortgage Lending Nationally and in 115 Metropolitan Areas. By Valerie Coffin, Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN). (The Association, Washington, DC) October 2003. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.acorn.org/fileadmin/Community_Reinvestment/Reports/Great_Divide_2003_Main.pdf

["Higher Rate of Minorities Denied Loans: African-American homebuyers were more than twice--2.38 times--as likely to be denied a conventional loan than whites. Hispanics were rejected 1.63 times more often that white borrowers. And residents of lower-income neighborhoods were almost three times--2.98 times--more likely to be turned for a conventional loan than those in upper-income neighborhoods." Fresno Bee (October 18, 2003)[online.]]

[Request #S9737]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOSTER CARE

Assessing the Effects of Foster Care: Early Results From the Casey National Alumni Study. By Peter J. Pecora and others, Casey Family Programs. (The Programs, Seattle, Washington) October 2003. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.casey.org/Documents/casey_alumni_studies_report.pdf

["Each year some 20,000 kids turn 18 and 'age out' of foster care. Many are able to overcome childhood maltreatment, family instability, school disruptions, and other challenges to become contributing members of their communities across the country. Key to their success is completing a high school education and meaningful access to postsecondary educational opportunities such as college or vocational training." Connect for Kids (November 17, 2003).]

[Request #S9738]

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IMMIGRATION

Children of Immigrants Show Slight Reductions in Poverty, Hardship. By Randy Capps and others, The Urban Institute. Snapshots of America's Families, No. 13. (The Institute, Washington, DC) November 2003. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310887_snapshots3_no13.pdf

["The 2002 National Survey of America's Families shows that the share of low-income children who are children of immigrants increased from 22 percent in 1999 to 26 percent in 2002. The poverty rate for children of immigrants fell from 24 to 22 percent."]

[Request #S9739]

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SOCIAL POLICY

What Makes a Solution? Lessons and Findings from Solutions for America. By Paul Friedman, University of Virginia. Prepared for the Pew Partnership for Civic Change. (The Partnership, Charlottesville, Virginia) 2003. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.pew-partnership.org/pdf/Freedman_Report.pdf

["This report highlights research findings from nineteen Solutions for America sites and identifies common features of effective community-based programs. It also describes the participatory evaluation model that partnered faculty and program staff in the research process."]

[Request #S9740]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

State Policy Choices: Assets and Access to Public Assistance. By the National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. (The Center, New York, New York) October 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.nccp.org/media/afs03-text.pdf

["Most low-income families have few if any assets to help them weather even a short-term loss of employment. Policies designed to assist low-income families can contribute to this problem by penalizing those who accumulate assets. In some states, even small levels of savings or a single car can make families ineligible for TANF cash assistance, food stamps, and public health insurance."]

[Request #S9741]

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WELFARE

Work and Marriage: The Way to End Poverty and Welfare. By Ron Haskins and Isabel Sawhill, Brookings Institution. Policy Brief Welfare and Beyond; 28. (The Institution, Washington, DC) 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/es/wrb/publications/pb/pb28.pdf

["Many advocates for the poor believe that the solution to poverty involves giving people more money.... Providing such assistance has been the dominant strategy for combating poverty in the United States for many years. In this brief, we contrast making cash and related forms of public assistance more generous with strategies that encourage work and marriage. The data suggest that the latter are more effective ways of reducing poverty and demonstrate the wisdom of the increasing attention that has been given to encouraging work and marriage in recent policy discussions."]

[Request #S9742]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Safe Food: Bacteria, Biotechnology, and Bioterrorism. By Marion Nestle. (University of California Press, Berkeley, California) 2003. 366 p.

["Marion Nestle's book deals with food safety in more traditional contexts, and she focuses her discussion of biotechnology on the resistance by the food industry to stronger, more coherent government safety regulations. In passing, she addresses the potential relevance of food biotechnology to poor farmers and consumers in developing countries, but her focus is mainly on the United States." Natural History (October 2003) 58.]

[Request #S9744]

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EMPLOYMENT

WORKERS COMPENSATION

The Anatomy of Workers’ Compensation Medical Costs and Utilization: Trends and Interstate Comparisons, 1996-2000. By Stacey Eccleston and others, Workers Compensation Research Institute, (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2003.

["This report identifies the trends and per-claim costs and utilization of medical care in twelve states (California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Wisconsin ).... Ten of the 12 states fell into a relatively narrow range of 16 to 21 visits per claim. Two states (California and Texas), however, stood out at nearly 30 visits per claim."]

[Request #S9745]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

The Real Environmental Crisis: Why Poverty, Not Affluence, Is the Environment's Number One Enemy. By Jack M. Hollander. (University of California Press, Berkeley, California) 251 p.

["Affluence and the Environment: Hollander refutes the idea reflected in most news stories -- that our affluent lifestyles are chiefly responsible for polluting our cities, skies and oceans. He says this is backward; affluence fosters environmentalism, wealthy countries can afford the luxury of an environmental ethic." The Advocate (Baton Rouge, Louisanna) (August 28, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S9746]

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HEALTH

STATE HEALTH POLICY

Social Health of the States. By the Fordham Institute for Innovation in Social Policy. (The Institute, New York, New York) November 18, 2003.

Full Text at: www.fordham.edu/images/Graduate_Schools/GSSS/state.pdf

["[This report] provides the first assessment of the social health of all fifty states. Measures the well-being of children, youth, adults, and the elderly. [It] presents an overview of each state’s social health, describe how it performs on the individual indicators, and shows how it ranks compared to other states."]

[Request #S9743]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Good Jobs Wanted: Labor Markets in Latin America: IPES 2004. By the Research Department, Inter-American Development Bank. (The Bank, Washington, DC) October 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.iadb.org/res/index.cfm?fuseaction=Publications.View&pub_id=B-2004E

["The 2004 IPES presents an anatomy of Latin American labor markets, a diagnosis of their ills, and prescriptions for treating these ailments." Publisher's announcement.]

[Request #S9747]

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