Subject: Studies in the News 03-48 (July 29, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

July 1853 - "With a new border on the Pacific Ocean, American businessmen begin contemplating rich commercial trade with Japan and other Asian countries. In July 1853, the U.S. decides to pry open Japan's bamboo gates. A powerful U.S. Navy squadron led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry enters Tokyo Bay. Perry brings with him a letter from President Millard Fillmore. The letter demands that Japan open its ports to U.S. ships and trade. "  Scholastic Update (December 8, 1989) 14.  

1853 - "Access to foreign markets and resources has been a goal of American foreign policy since the colonial period.... Since the 19th century much of the American concern with free access for trading has been focused on East Asia. Perhaps the first major U.S. effort to secure commercial access to the Far East was Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's visit to Japan with four ships in July 1853, and with seven ships in February 1854. Perry's show of force and firm diplomacy opened the door to a very important future of commercial relationships between the two countries. "  Policy Review (Summer 1991) 39.  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Increase in major categories of crime
   Violent crime declining nationally
   Coerced confessions excluded
   Dealers willing to sell guns illegally
   Hate crime statistics in California
   Projects for youth rehabilitation
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Civil liberties and national security
ECONOMY
   Financial services industry
   Poverty in California
   Best performing cities
   Foreign tariff reductions
   Local impact fees and economic data
   Investment firms owe settlement funds to states
   Strategy for the repair of downtown Oakland
EDUCATION
   Special education funding
   Effective teachers promote student learning
   Faculty role in university governance
   Rate of college completion
   Birth control options
   Overview of teachers' attitudes
ENERGY
   Electricity trading rules violated
   FERC enforces energy contracts
   Assessing natural gas and oil resources
   New energy market design
   EPA must reconsider ethanol requirement
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Municipal drinking water
   Forest road ban overturned
   Local resistance to water transfers
   Freshwater supply shortages
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Recommendations for California Veterans Board
   Federal discretionary spending
   Competitive federal grants
   New plain-english jury instructions
   Advertising for legislative issues
   Insurance for pension benefits
   Congressional redistricting and partisan gerrymanders
HEALTH
   Genetic signs of autism
   Autistic spectrum disorders increasing
   Caffeine and kid's health
   Breast cancer treatment
   HMO's profitability and premiums
   Patient satisfaction with California hospitals
   Disputing malpractice lawsuits
   California nursing shortage
HOUSING
   Housing affordability in California
HUMAN SERVICES
   Fostser children adoption
   Promising practices in child welfare
   Transitions to adulthood
INSURANCE
   Business survey on workers' compensation
TRANSPORTATION
   Lack of funds affects transportation projects
   Road expansion and induced travel
   Efficiency and equity in transportation finance
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Perspectives on gangs and society
   Rural community development
   Rejuvenating suburbs
   Public services provided by free market
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME STATISTICS

Crime in California 2002: Advance Release. By the California Department of Justice. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/cjsc/publications/advrelease/ad/ad02/ad02.pdf

["Crime in California has been on the rise steadily since 1999, following eight straight years of declining crime rates.... The annual report ... showed increases in five of six major catagories of crime in 2002 over the year before." San Francisco Chronicle (July 2, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8675]

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Preliminary Uniform Crime Reports January-December 2002. By U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) June 16, 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel03/12month2002.htm.pdf

["Serious crime resumed its downward trajectory last year with seven key offenses declining overall by 0.2 percent and violent crime dropping 1.4 percent from 2001.... While the decreases were modest ... the preliminary data released ... signaled the 10th decline in the bureau's Uniform Crime Index in the past 11 years." Sacramento Bee (June 17, 2003) A7.]

[Request #S8676]

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EVIDENCE

People v. Neal. California Supreme Court. S106440. July 14, 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S106440.PDF

["The court set limits on its own 1998 decision that allowed prosecutors to use statements obtained in violation of a suspect's Miranda rights if their sole purpose is to undermine a suspect's credibility, rather than to prove their guilt. By a unanimous vote, the justices made it clear that the exception does not apply if police use coercion to get the suspect to talk." San Francisco Chronicle (July 15, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8677]

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GUN CONTROL

Buying a Handgun for Someone Else: Firearm Dealer Willingness to Sell. By S. B. Sorenson and D. A. Vittes, University of California, Los Angeles. IN: Injury Prevention, vol. 9, no. 2. (June 2003) pp. 147-150.

Full Text at: ip.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/9/2/147.pdf

["A study says half of firearms dealers questioned in an undercover survey were willing to allow buyers to make 'straw purchases' that could violate federal law.... Professor Sorenson said the study found widespread 'ignorance of the law.' Officials with the gun industry and the government, who have joined in an effort to make dealers aware of their legal responsibilities, said they did not believe that straw purchases were common." New York Times (June 17, 2003) A19.]

[Request #S8678]

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HATE CRIME

Hate Crime in California: 2002. By Ray del Rio and others. Prepared for the California Department of Justice, Criminal Justice Statistics Center and the Statistical Data Center (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2003. 49 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/cjsc/publications/hatecrimes/hc02/preface.pd

["The number of anti-Arab hate crimes in California dropped precipitously last year after spiking in 2001, Attorney General Bill Lockyer reported... The news was good across the board, Lockyer said, with all hate crimes declining by nearly 27 percent statewide in 2002 - down to 1,659 incidents last year from 2,261 in 2001." The Sacramento Bee (July 16, 2003) A3.]

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JUVENILE DETENTION CENTERS

"Turbulent Re-Entry" By Bill Alexander. IN: Youth Today, vol. 12 no. 6 (June 2003) pp. 1-4.

["Project Support was born as a collaboration of OYA (Oregon Youth Authority), the state department of Education and Vocational Rehabilitation and the University of Oregon. Six months after release from OYA, the enrolled youths showed an approximately 65 percent 'engagement rate' by holding jobs and staying in schools.... This study concluded that keeping a youth from reentering the juvenile justice system saved the state $51,000 annually."]

[Request #S8679]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRATION

America’s Challenge: Domestic Security, Civil Liberties, and National Unity After September 11. By Mizaffar A. Chishti and others, Migration Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2003. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/Americas_Challenges.pdf

[“The U.S. government’s harsh measures against immigrants since September 11 have failed to make us safer, have violated our fundamental civil liberties, and have undermined national unity…. Our new security measures must be effective rather than merely dramatic. The government's post-September 11 immigration measures have failed these tests.”]

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ECONOMY

BUSINESS CLIMATE

The Cusp of a Revolution: How Offshoring Will Transform the Financial Services Industry. By Deloitte Research. (Deloitte, New York, New York) 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.dc.com/aboutus/pressroom/pdf/fs_offshore.pdf

["Major financial institutions such as Citibank and GE Finance have been building up offshore [remote] locations for nearly two decades in India, for instance. However, the market and industry pressures outlined above are creating a 'burning platform' for all financial institutions to embrace offshoring as a way of remaining competitive."]

[Request #S8681]

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CALIFORNIA

Overlooked & Undercounted: A New Perspective On the Struggle to Make Ends Meet in California. By Diana Pearce with Rachel Cassidy. Prepared For Wider Opportunities for Women and Californians for Family Economic Self Self-Sufficiency, National Economic Development & Law Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2003.

["This report and its implications spring from a national movement to change the debate about poverty in the United States. After eight years and the development of Self-Sufficiency Standards in 35 states, it was clear that a critical question had yet to be answered. There has always been an interest in knowing how many and which families fall below the income guidelines set by the Self-Sufficiency Standard. This report answers this long asked question for California."]

Executive Summary. 8 p.
http://www.nedlc.org/overlookedexecsumm.pdf

Full Report. 70 p.
http://www.nedlc.org/overandunder.pdf

[Request #S8682]

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CITY RANKINGS

Best Performing Cities. Where America's Jobs Are Created. By Ross Devol and Frank Fogelbach. (The Milken Institute, Santa Monica, California) June 2003. 31 p.

["Among major cities, Los Angeles was ranked sixth.... With the recession and downturn in technology, the big winners this year are those regions that have seen steady growth in traditional areas such as retail and other mainstream industries.... The study is valuable because it looks at actual employment numbers and points out challenges for cities." Daily News of Los Angeles (June 25, 2003) N3.]

[Request #S8683]

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EXPORTS

Foreign Tariff Reductions and California Exports. By Jon D. Haveman, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2003. 83 p.

["Jon Haveman ... measures the total value of new California exports in the event of the complete elimination of worldwide tariffs -- the ostensible goal of the World Trade Organization negotiations. The most important factor in its export growth was the establishment of trade preferences, largely by Mexico. Domestic economic growth and tariff liberalization were the second and third leading contributors to California's export performance in the 1990s."]

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JOB CREATION

Paying For Prosperity: Impact Fees and Job Growth. By Arthur C. Nelson and Mitch Noody. Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2003. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/nelsonimpactfees.pdf

["This report address the controversy around impact fees by reviewing the academic literature concerning the effect of impact fees on employment and the economy generally. In addition, the report presents a new analysis of the relationship between impact fees and job creation by assessing impact fee and economic data, assembled for the period 1993 to 1999, for the 67 counties of Florida."]

[Request #S8685]

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SECURITIES INDUSTRY

States' Collection of Wall Street Funds on Hold. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 03-37. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 15, 2003. 1 p.

["A $1.4 billion settlement between the nation's leading investment firms, state regulators, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and others was reached. Most states have prepared their final settlement documents and sent them to the firms, paving the way for collection of their payments... While states are moving forward with the process, the investment firms recently indicated their reluctance to issue any payments until the U.S. district judge presiding over the case signs off on the agreement."]

[Request #S8730]

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URBAN AREAS

Rebuilding the Urban Structure of the Inner City: A Strategy for the Repair of Downtown Oakland, California. By Peter Bosselmann and Stephan Pellegrini, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California Berkeley. IURD Working Paper Series WP-2003-01. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) 2003. 29 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=iurd

["In this paper, (Peter) Bosselmann uses downtown Oakland to demonstrate an urban design strategy that starts with the history of the city's urban form and its physical patterns. The strategy identifies the areas of vitality and the elements of the public realm that might be repaired if new development is directed and coordinated."]

[Request #S8686]

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EDUCATION

DISABILITIES

IDEA Reauthorization Update. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 03-36. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 15, 2003. 5 p.

["The House of Representatives has passed a bill to reauthorize Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which governs the federal special education program... The Senate bill does not outline any path to full funding; rather it authorizes such sums as may be necessary. Despite repeated calls for mandatory funding from state and local education groups, the bill as written would not require mandatory funding".]

[Request #S8731]

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ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Prepared to Make a Difference: An Executive Summary of the National Commission on Excellence in Elementary Teacher Preparation for Reading Instruction. By National Commission on Excellence in Elementary Teacher Preparation For Reading Instruction. (The Commission, Austin, Texas) 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.reading.org/pdf/commission_summary.pdf

["There is a growing consensus in the United States today that putting a quality teacher in every classroom is the key to addressing the challenges of literacy learning in schools.... Effective teaching makes a difference in student learning. Teachers -- not the instructional method or the materials -- are crucial to promoting student learning.... Researchers agree that effective teachers of reading are knowledgeable, strategic, adaptive, responsive and reflective."]

[Request #S8687]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Challenges for Governance: A National Report. By the Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.usc.edu/dept/chepa/pdf/gov_monograph03.pdf

["Many colleges and universities across the county are dealing with fiscal crises and other pressures by renewing their commitment to strategic planning, clarifying their institutional missions, and reexamining their governance structures. This report is designed to help policymakers, administrators, faculty, and researchers address the challenges of institutional governancy by providing empirical data on the current role of faculty in institutional governance."]

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College Completion: Additional Efforts Could Help Education with Its Completion Goals. By U.S General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2003. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-568

["More than half of all students who enrolled in a 4-year college completed a bachelor's degree within 6 years. Students were less likely to complete if neither parent had completed a degree, they were black, they worked 20 or more hours per week, or they transferred to another college. Students had a greater likelihood of completing if they were continuously enrolled, attended full-time or had more rigorous high school curriculum."]

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SEX EDUCATION

“Condom Availability Programs in Massachusetts High Schools: Relationships with Condom Use and Sexual Behavior.” By Susan M. Blake and others. IN: American Journal of Pubic Health, vol. 93 no. 6 (June 2003) pp. 955-962.

[“Teenagers at high schools where condoms were available were no more likely to have sex than other teens…. [The report] says that students in high schools with condom programs were more likely to use condoms, while students in other high schools were more likely to use other forms of birth control. Overall, there was no difference in pregnancy rates or frequency of sex.” Sacramento Bee (May 29, 2003) A6.]

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TEACHERS

Stand By Me: What Teachers Really Think About Unions, Merit Pay and Other Professional Matters. By Steve Farkas and others, Public Agenda. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2003. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/pdfstore/PDFs/stand_by_me.pdf

["This study examines the attitudes of America's public school teachers -- about their jobs, the challenges they face and the reform proposals that may change what they do. Teachers have a fierce loyalty to their profession, tempered with a sense that society expects far too much of them. Teachers see the flaws in unions and the tenure system, but they believe both are needed to protect them from the risks they face."]

[Request #S8691]

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ENERGY

ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Enron Power Marketing, Inc. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. EL02-113-000. July 15, 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.ferc.gov/home/EL02-113-000_ID.pdf

["Enron Corp. should repay $32.5 million for violating electricity trading rules during the California energy crisis of 2000-01, a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission judge ruled.... The administrative law judge's decision goes to the three-member commission, which can reject, accept or modify it." Los Angeles Times (July 15, 2003) B3.]

[Request #S8692]

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Public Utilities Commission of the State of California v. Sellers of Long Term Contracts to the California Department of Water Resources. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Order on Partial Initial Decisions, Remaining Substantive Issues and Motions. June 26, 2003. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.ferc.gov/electric/bulkpower/EL02-60-06-26-03.pdf

["The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission denied the state's request to modify or cancel more than $12 billion in long-term energy contracts signed at the height of the 2000-2001 energy crisis. FERC Chairman Patrick Wood, said California had failed to prove consumers are paying 'excessively burdensome' power rates because of the contracts. State officials blasted the agency's decision, saying it runs counter to previous findings that manipulation by energy firms drove up the cost of power in long-term contracts." San Francisco Chronicle (June 26, 2003) A1.]

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ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Assessing Natural Gas and Oil Resources: An Example of a New Approach in the Greater Green River Basin. By Tom La Tourrette and others. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2003. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1553/MR1553.pdf

["This report presents a new approach to assessing natural gas and crude oil resources and the results of applying that approach to the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming.... [It] should ... help guide strategic business planning, improve long-term forecasting, and foster dialog among stakeholders."]

[Request #S8694]

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Revised Comprehensive Market Design Proposal: Final Draft. By the California Independent System Operator. (The Operator, Sacramento, California) 2003. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.caiso.com/docs/2003/05/27/2003052716474025345.pdf

["The state's top power managers recommended building emergency power plants in eight cities, and redesigning the state's wholesale energy market to avoid future blackouts and price spikes....The ISO Board of Governors approved and sent the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission a revised comprehensive market design, replacing the one it filed with federal regulators in May last year. The power authority, meanwhile, said California's two largest utilities should be required to contract for backup electricity generated through 'peaker plants' that would be used only on the hottest days or other times of extreme demand." San Diego Union Tribune (June 27, 2003) 1.]

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GASOLINE AND DIESEL

Gray Davis, et al. v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 01-71356. July 17, 2003. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/6237B1B27E6F7B7588256D65007EE477/$file/0171356.pdf?openelement

[“The court ordered the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to reconsider its refusal in June 2001 to grant California a waiver of the ethanol requirement. The court said the EPA had ignored the state's evidence that ethanol would interfere with efforts to reduce one type of air pollution, caused by fine particles of soot…. The EPA could conduct the new study ordered by the court and again deny a waiver to California if it concluded that ethanol would not contribute to smog -- a decision that would invite another state lawsuit. Congress could also intervene by requiring ethanol in all gasoline nationwide, without allowing EPA waivers.” San Francisco Chronicle (July 18, 2003) A25.]

[Request #S8732]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

DRINKING WATER

What’s On Tap? Grading Drinking Water in U.S. Cities. By Erik Olson and others. Natural Resources Defense Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) June 2003. 226 p.

Full Text at: www2.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/pdf/whatsontap.pdf

[“Aging pipes and outdated treatment plants threaten the nation’s drinking water systems, says an environmental group that reviewed 19 cities. Treatment plants, many of them using nearly century-old technology, are simply not up to the task of cleaning up contaminants…. Also, pipes carrying water often are old; in some cities they date back more than a century…. There is good news as well as bad. Overall, drinking water purity has improved slightly in most cities in the past 15 years.” Associated Press (June 13, 2003) 1.]

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FORESTRY

State of Wyoming v. U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. District Court, District of Wyoming. 01-CV-86-B. Order on Plaintiff's Motion for Declaratory Judgment and Injunctive Relief. July 14, 2003. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.ck10.uscourts.gov/wyoming/district/pdfforms/01cv86.pdf

["A federal judge struck down a ban on building roads in a third of America's national forests, saying the Clinton administration rule illegally designated wilderness areas.... Brimmer said the U.S. Forest Service designation of 58.5 million acres of roadless areas nationwide was a 'thinly veiled attempt to designate 'wilderness areas' in violation of the clear and unambiguous process established by the Wilderness Act.' Only Congress can create wilderness areas under the act." Los Angeles Times (July 15, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8697]

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WATER RIGHTS

Who Should Be Allowed to Sell Water in California? Third-Party Issues and the Water Market. By Ellen Hanak, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) July 2003. 196 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/R_703EHR.pdf

["Although significant water trading has occurred in California since the drought of the early 1990s, many localities have restricted water transfers because of the perceived harm to other users and the local economy. Ellen Hanak examines water transfers in California, local resistance to them, and various approaches to resolving water disputes. Drawing on a new database of water transfers as well as interviews with state, county, and water district officials, the report calls for water management at the local level that balances the interests of other residents and the potential gains from transfers."]

[Request #S8698]

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WATER SUPPLY

Freshwater Supply: States' Views of How Federal Agencies Could Help Them Meet the Challenges of Expected Shortages. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2003. 118 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-514Cure

["State water managers expect freshwater shortages in the near future, and the consequences may be severe. Even under normal conditions, water managers' in 36 states anticipate shortages in localities, regions, or statewide in the next 10 years. Drought conditions will exacerbate shortages impacts. When water shortages occur, economic impacts to sectors such as agriculture can be in the billions of dollars. Water shortages also harm the environment... Finally, water shortages cause social discord when users compete for limited supplies."]

[Request #S8699]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

AUDITS AND INVESTIGATIONS

California Veterans Board: Without a Clear Understanding of the Extent of Its Authority, the Board Has Not Created Sufficient Policies Nor Provided Effective Oversight to the Department of Veterans Affairs. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) June 2003. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002-120.pdf

["The audit finds that the board's appeal process needs improvement to ensure that veterans' appeals are handled consistently and appropriately. ... The audit concludes that after a follow-up on certain recommendations made to the department in two recent audits, the department has implemented eight of the fourteen recommendations." StateNet Capitol Journal (July 2, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8701]

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BUDGETING

July 4th Update: Congress Leaves with a Bang. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Budget Brief, 03-06. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 3, 2003. 6 p.

["The House and Senate approved respective 302(b) allocations; in an agreement with the administration to add $5.2 billion to non-defense discretionary spending... The allocations divide the budget authority among 13 appropriation subcommittees... Overall allocations for both House and Senate are $20 billion more than in FY 2003."]

[Request #S8700]

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FEDERAL GRANTS

Competitive Grants Updates. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Competitive Update, 03-10. (FFIS, Washington, DC)July 15, 2003. 8 p.

[Includes: "Technical Assistance and Dissemination to Improve Services and Results for Children with Disabilities--Projects for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind;" "Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program;" "Child Care Research and Evalutation;" "Expanding Existing Surveilance Systems to Include Pfiesteria, Other Harmful Algal Blooms and Marine Toxins;" "Children's Environmental Health Protection State Level Collaboration to Address Childhood Asthma Initiative;" and others.]

[Request #S8702]

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JURIES

Civil Jury Instructions. By the Judicial Council of California, Task Force on Jury Instructions. (The Council, San Francisco, California) July 2003.

["The council's Commission on the Jury System found in 1996 that jury instruction was 'on occasion, simply impenetrable to the ordinary juror.' Its recommendation was to turn the gobbledygook into short, declarative sentences in active voice that would not need a William Faulkner scholar to decipher.... Some existing jury instructions rely on complex legal terms. Others are simply outdated.... The need for clarity has never been greater, especially when a growing number of jurors speak English as a second language." Los Angeles Times (July 18, 2003) B1.]

Press release. 2 p.
http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/presscenter/newsreleases/NR42-03.HTM

Jury Instructions. 1909 p.
http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/documents/civiljuryinst.pdf

[Request #S8703]

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LEGISLATIVE ETHICS

Legislative Issue Advertising In the 107th Congress. By Erika Falk. (The Annenberg Public Policy Center, Pennsylvania)July 2003. 88 p.

Full Text at: www.appcpenn.org/issueads/APPC_IssueAds107th.pdf

["Over $105 million was spent on ... issue advertising ... during the 107th Congress.... Our goal in engaging in this study was to focus attention on the implications of unequal spending on issues of public policy importance. We are also interested in providing a resource for the public, legislators, regulators and journalists about the sources and sponsors of issue advertising.

[Request #S8704]

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PENSION FUNDS

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Single-Employer Insurance Program: Long-Term Vulnerabilities Warrant "High Risk" Designation: Why Area is "High Risk". By the U.S. General Accounting Office (The Office, Washington, DC) July 23, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-1050sp

["GAO has designated Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation’s single-employer pension insurance program as 'high risk,' adding it to the list of agencies or major programs that need urgent attention and transformation to ensure that our national government functions in the most economical, efficient and effective manner possible. The single-employer insurance program insures the pension benefits of over 34 million participants in more than 30,000 private defined benefit plans. Agencies or programs receiving a 'high risk' designation receive greater attention from GAO and are assessed in regular biennial reports."]

[Request #S8705]

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REDISTRICTING

"The United States House of Unrepresentatives: What Went Wrong in the Latest Round of Congressional Redictricting. By Sam Hirsch. IN: Election Law Journal, vol. 2, no. 2 (2003) pp. 179-216.

["This article looks at congressional districting following the 2000 Census and the effect of redistricting on the partisan composition of the U.S. House of Representatives. The author notes that most commentators have focused on the incumbency-protective effects of this round of redistricting while ignoring a pro-partisan bias ... and advodcates that state courts become more aggressive in striking down partisan gerrymanders."]

[Request #S8706]

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HEALTH

AUTISM

"Evidence of Brain Overgrowth in the First Year of Life in Autism." By Eric Courchesne and others. IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 3 (July 16, 2003) pp. 337-344.

["A small head circumference at birth followed by a rapid growth in head size by the age of one may indicate the development of autism, according to this JAMA study. The cause of small head size at birth remains unknown, but the unusually rapid growth 'likely reflects excessive numbers of brain cells, failure of the brain to prune the hundreds of synapses that connect one neuron to another, or both,' according to the authors. Although the study does not eliminate environmental factors as potential causes of the disorder, it 'strengthens the contention that autism is a genetic or biological disorder.'" California Healthline (July 16, 2003).]

[Request #S8710]

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Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Changes in the California Caseload: An Update: 1999 Through 2002. By the Department of Developmental Services. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2003. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.dds.cahwnet.gov/autism/pdf/AutismReport2003.pdf

["Since the 1980s California has experienced dramatic increases in the number of children diagnosed with autism. Autism, once a rare disorder, is now more prevalent than childhood cancer, diabetes and Down Syndrome. The sustained increase in the population of persons with autism ... is causing fundamental changes in the Developmental Services System.... The Increase in prevalence of autism in California is real and requires special attention."]

[Request #S8711]

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CAFFEINE

"Caffeinated Kids." IN: Consumer Reports, vol. 68 no. 7 (July 2003) pp. 28-30.

["The study tested 25 products likely to be consumed by children and found that an 8 ounce serving of Coke, Pepsi or Sunkist orange soda has about 25 milligrams of caffeine -- or about a quarter of the maximum daily limit most nutrition experts recommend for children. Although little research as been done with children and caffeine, most experts say exceeding 100 milligrams a day can cause anxiety, tension and sleeplessness in youngsters. High amounts can even lead to nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea." Los Angeles Times (June 16, 2003) H6.]

[Request #S8712]

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CANCER

"High-Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Rescue for High-Risk Breast Cancer." By Sjoerd Rodenhuis and others. And "Conventional Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in High-Risk Breast Cancer." By Martin S. Tallman. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349 no. 1 (July 3, 2003) pp. 7-26.

["An aggressive and grueling treatment for breast cancer that uses doses of chemotherapy so high that is destroys the patient's bone marrow offers little or no benefit over standard chemo for women who run the risk of a recurrence, two studies show.... In both studies, there was little difference between the two approaches in survival after five or six years or in the rate of cancer recurrence." Sacramento Bee (July 3, 2003) A14.]

[Request #S8713]

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HEALTH CARE

HMO, Profitability and Premiums Rise in 2001 - 2002. By Allan Baumgarten's Managed Care Reviews (Allan Baumgarten, Minneapolis, Minnesota ) June 17, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.allanbaumgarten.com/cfusion/view_news.cfm?id=40

["The trend report from Allan Baumgarten said that, because HMOs are running into resistance on their premium increases, they are shifting more of the costs to consumers in the form of greater copayments and deductibles. HMOs may enjoy a few years of profits, 'but the forces that are driving the medical costs up continue unabated,' and that will make it harder for the health plans to balance profits and premiums in the future." Health Care Policy Report, (June 23, 2003) 842.]

[Request #S8714]

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HOSPITALS

Results from the Patients' Evaluation of Performance (PEP-C) Survey. By California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) 2003. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/quality/PEPCTechReport.pdf

["Kaiser Permanente fared poorly in a patient satisfaction survey of California hospitals that is considered the largest publicly reported and most comprehensive of its kind in the county. About 25 percent of hospitals ... received an above-average rating for overall performance. Fifty-seven percent were perceived as average, while 18 percent received a below-average. In the Bay Area, 10 of the 50 participating hospitals -- or 20 percent -- received a one-star rating, and five of those poor performers were Kaiser hospitals." San Francisco Chronicle (June 25, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8715]

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MALPRACTICE

New 2002 Government Data Dispute Malpractice Lawsuit Crisis: Malpractice Payouts Declined as Insurance Premiums Spiked; 5.2 Percent of Doctors Are Responsible for 55 Percent of Malpractice Payouts. By Public Citizen. (Public Citizen, Washington, DC) 2003.

["New government data show that both the number and amount of payments to medical malpractice victims declined in 2002, casting further doubt on the assertion that lawsuits are responsible for doctors' insurance." Moving Ideas News Listserv (July 9, 2003).]

Press Release. 2 p.:
http://www.citizen.org/pressroom/release.cfm?ID=1480

Total Damages Paid and Number of Payouts. 1 p.:
http://www.citizen.org/documents/MedMal_Update.pdf

[Request #S8716]

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NURSES

California Capacity To Prepare Registered Nurses: A Preliminary Inquiry. By Califoria Postsecondary Education Commission. Prepared for the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 1055 (Chapter 924, Statutes of 1990). (The Commission, Sacramento, California) 2003. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.cpec.ca.gov/CompleteReports/1991Reports/91-13.pdf

["Although there have been shortages of registered nurses in the past, the present shortage is characterized by not only insufficient numbers of nurses to fill current vacancies in health care settings, but also by the surge in demand for nursing services from the workforce.... The magnitude of the shortage had also been understated because estimates of nurse manpower supply requirements have been based on models of projected need, not on public demand."]

[Request #S8717]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

The State of the Nation’s Housing. By Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. (The Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2003. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.jchs.harvard.edu/publications/markets/son2003.pdf

[“Home prices in San Diego County are so high that even a deep recession probably wouldn’t restore affordability to low-and median-income households … according to a study…. It would take a severe decline in jobs to put a dent in the local housing market…. Local housing experts greeted the documents as a grim reminder that homeownership is becoming harder and harder for many area residents to attain.”]

[Request #S8718]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOSTER CARE

Who Will Adopt the Foster Care Children Left Behind. By Rob Geen. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) June 2003. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310809_caring_for_children_2.pdf

["For clues to help state recruitment efforts, researchers examined the characteristics of parents who have adopted children from the foster care system and those of children who are waiting for permanent homes. "]

[Request #S8719]

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WELFARE

"The Gift of Wrapping." By Martha Shirk. IN: Youth Today, vol. 12, no. 6 (June 2003) pp 1-5.

["The story of how wraparound services came to California shows how a single nonprofit agency with a visionary leader can change the child welfare landscape for a whole state. After investigating promising practices for two years, the agency decided to shift its focus from residential treatment to wraparound - - a philosophy of care rather than a service, which begins with an inclusive planning process and focuses on individualized, in-home services and links to natural community supports."]

[Request #S8720]

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YOUTH

Coming of Age in 21st Century America: Public Attitudes towards the Importance and Timing of Transitions to Adulthood. By Tom W. Smith. National Opinion Research Center University of Chicago. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) May 9, 2003. 11 p.

["The transition to adulthood is timeless in that it occurs through the history of human society and time-specific in that its nature and pace shifts and changes. The contemporary American system of transition to adulthood is distinct not only from that in other countries, even other advanced industrial societies, but quite different from the American system only a generation ago."]

[Request #S8721]

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INSURANCE

WORKERS' COMPENSATION

Survey of California Small-Biz Owners: Workers' Comp Rates Taking Economic Toll. By the National Federation of Independent Business/ California. (The Federation, Sacramento, California) July 7, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/goz1

[Spiraling workers' compensation insurance costs are forcing California's small-business owners to fire workers, delay new equipment purchases and raise prices, according to a survey.... The California chapter of the National Federation of Independent Business, which lobbies on behalf of small companies, contacted 4,000 of its 37,000 members." Sacramento Bee (July 8, 2003) D3.]

[Request #S8722]

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TRANSPORTATION

CALIFORNIA

California Department of Transportation: Low Cash Balances Threaten the Department's Ability to Promptly Deliver Planned Transportation Projects. By California State Auditor. (The Department, Sacramento, California) July 2003. 77 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/summaries/2002-126.html

["California's bank accounts for transportation projects are nearly depleted meaning delays or cancellation of numerous projects ... a state auditor's report concludes.... Transportation officials say the lack of cash for transportation programs stems from lower-than-expected revenues from both gas taxes and the federal government." Sacramento Bee (July 4, 2003) A3.]

[Request #S8723]

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COMMUTERS & COMMUTING

"Road Expansion, Urban Growth, and Induced Travel: A Path Analysis." By Robert Cervero. IN: Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 69 no. 3 (Spring 2003) pp. 145-163.

Full Text at: www.planning.org/newsreleases/pdf/Cervero.pdf

["Claims that roadway investments spur new travel known as induced demand, and thus fail to relieve traffic congestion have thwarted road development in the United States. Past studies point to a significant induced demand effect. This research employs a path model to causally sort out the links between freeway investments and traffic increases."]

[Request #S8724]

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FINANCING

Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation Finance. By Martin Wachs, The Brookings Institution. Transportation Reform Series. (The Institution, Washington, DC) 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/es/urban/publications/wachstransportation.pdf

["This brief dissects the arcane and complicated system of transportation funding by describing the relationships that define the federal, state and local roles. It summarizes the most pressing problems facing the transportation network, and argues that expanded reliance on user fees remains the most promising way to promote equity and efficiency in transportation finance."]

[Request #S8725]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 10, Bulletin 20-22. (The Institute, Washington DC) July 11-25, 2003. 25 p.

[Includes: "Central Valley Members Argue For Moving 129th Rescue Wing;" "National Parks Legislation Considered;" "Hearing Examines School Lunch Program;" "Resources Subcommittee Considers CALFED Bills;" "House Subcommittee Reports Commerce, Justice Appropriations; SCAAP Funded At $400 Million;" "House Higher Education Panel Explores Ways to Manage Tuition Hikes;" "Bay Area Representatives Aim to Keep Air Rescue Wing at Moffett;" "House Panel Holds Field Hearing on Community Services Block Grants;" and others.]

[Request #S8726]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

GANGS

Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives. Edited by Louis Kontos and others, Columbia University Press. (The Press, New York, New York) 2003. 352 p.

[Includes: "Towards a Typology of Contempory Mexican American Youth Gang;" "Marginal Youth, Personal Indentity, and the Contemporary Gang Reconstructing the Social World?" "Liberating yet Limiting: The Paradox of Female Gang Membership"; "The Gang Crackdown in the Prison of Massachusetts: Arbitrary Harsh Treatment Can only Make Matters Worse;" and others.]

[Request #S8727]

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ECONOMY

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Investing for Prosperity: Building Successful Communities and Economies in the Sierra Nevada. By Amy Horne. (Sierra Business Council, Truckee, California) June 2003. 148 p.

["A Sierra Business Council poll conducted in August 2000 found that over two-thirds of the business owners supported the tactics outlined in 'Investing,' but felt current efforts fell short.... For the Sierra to fullfill its promise however, communities must safeguard and invest in the region's competitive advantages."]

[Request #S8729]

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HOUSING

COMMUNITY PLANNNING

Halfway to Everywhere: A Portrait of America's First-Tier Suburbs. By William H. Hudnut III. Urban Land Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2003. 175 p.

["America's first-tier suburbs -- those surrounding large central cities -- were often left behind during the extraordinary revitalization of downtowns in the 1990s. In his new book, Hudnut paints a picture of these suburbs -- from their birth through their decline to their rebirth. His portrayal of these metropolitan pivot points provides reasons for hope and strategies for rejuvenation, offering solutions for local officials, policy makers, developers, and citizens who are looking for ways to bring new life to these stressed communities." Publisher's Announcement. NOTE: Halfway ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8728]

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HUMAN SERVICES

URBAN CITIES

The Voluntary City: Choice, Community and Civil Society. Edited by David T. Beito and others, The Independent Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) 2003. 424 p.

["The Voluntary City uses a series of historical case studies to describe how a broadly conceived free market can more efficiently provide public goods than government... The voluntary arrangements of civil society are capable of producing a host of so-called public goods such as aesthetic and functional zoning, roads, planning, and other aspects of urban infrastructure. Civil society can also produce social infrastructure, including education, conflict resolution, crime control, and many of the social services monopolized by the welfare state." Social Policy (March 22, 2003) 53. NOTE: The Voluntary City ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8733]

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