Subject: Studies in the News 03-44 (July 11, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EMPLOYMENT
   Job outlook for college grads
   Medicaid-Buy-In programs
   California working disabled program
   California health insurance premiums rising
   Court knocks mandatory arbitration
   Workforce investment act providing services and partnerships
   Equality in the workplace
   Federally funded employment and training programs
   Workforce Investment Act
   Role of metro areas in the U.S. economy
   Social Security and minorities
   Public service for college graduates
   Funding of state retirement system
   Retirement income intergenerational comparisons
   Extension of federal unemployment benefits
   Unemployment insurance restructuring
   Long-Term unemployment
   Employer costs for employee compensation
   Workforce Investment Act trains fewer people
HUMAN SERVICES
   TANF teen parents
   Job access of autoless adults on welfare
   Welfare reform and compromise
   Job retention and advancement strategies
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, April 25, 2003
   Studies in the News, May 5, 2003
   Studies in the News, May 13, 2003
   Studies in the News, June 17, 2003
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EMPLOYMENT

COLLEGE GRADUATES

Employers Project College Hiring for 2002-03 to Remain at 2001-02 Levels; War Has No Effect on Hiring Plans: Press Release. By the National Association of Colleges and Employers. (The Association, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) April 23, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.naceweb.org/press/display.asp?year=2003&prid=173

["A recent association survey found that more than 42 percent of employers expect to cut college hiring this year, while around 36 percent said they planned to hire more new graduates and 21 percent said they will hire the same number. The service sector is the most likely to hire recent graduates this year, the association said. Manufacturers will make the biggest cuts." San Francisco Chronicle (May 1, 2003) B1.]

[Request #S8531]

Return to the Table of Contents

DISABLED WORKERS

Medicaid and Ticket to Work: States' Early Efforts to Cover Working Individuals with Disabilities. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-587

{"Over 7 million individuals with disabilities rely on medical and supportive services covered by Medicaid. However, if working-age individuals with disabilities desire to increase their self-sufficiency through employment, they could jeopardize their eligibilty for Medicaid coverage.... In an effort to help extend Medicaid coverage ... Congress passed the Ticket to Work and Work Incentive Improvement Act.... As of December 2002, 12 states had implemented Medicaid-Buy-In programs under the authority of the Ticket to Work legislation ... enrolling over 24,000 working individuals with disabilities."]

[Request #S8555]

Return to the Table of Contents

The California Working Disabled Program: Lessons Learned, Looking Ahead. By The Lewin Group. Medi-Cal Policy Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) April 2003. 83 p.

Full Text at: www.medi-cal.org/topics/download.cfm?pg=eligibility&fn=CalWorkingDisabled%2Epdf&pid=91744&itemid=20684

["Across the county, there is a movement to enable individuals with disabilities to fully participate in their communities, including participating in the workforce. In February 2001, the President announced the New Freedom Initiative, a federal-government-wide commitment to improve federal programs serving individuals with disabilities. This initiative includes an ongoing commitment to reduce a barrier to employment faced by individuals with disabilities - the threat of losing their health care coverage - - by encouraging states to implement Medicaid Buy-In programs for disabled workers."]

[Request #S8556]

Return to the Table of Contents

EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

California Employer Health Benefits Survey, 2002. By Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) February 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2003/6070/CA%20EHBS%202003%20Final%20Revised%20030503%20Rotated.pdf

[“Rapidly rising health care costs and a sluggish economy led to an average 13 percent increase in health insurance premiums in California last year, with workers paying more out-of-pocket than they have in years past, according to a study…. Workers' share of the tab climbed an average of 30 percent, to $342 a year for single coverage and $1,806 for family coverage.” Sacramento Bee (March 1, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8532]

Return to the Table of Contents

EMPLOYMENT LAW

Catherine Ingle v. Circuit City Stores, Inc. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 99-56570. May 13, 2003. 23 p.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/c5v0

["Employee advocates made inroads against mandatory arbitration, the system that requires hundreds of thousands of Californians to take workplace grievances to a private panel instead of a jury. A federal appeals court in San Francisco declared that arbitration imposed by an employer is generally unbalanced -- restricting only the worker -- and must be struck down unless an employer can prove that its rules are evenhanded as applied to the employee in the case." San Francisco Chronicle (May 14, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8533]

Return to the Table of Contents

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE PROGRAMS

Workforce Investment Act: One-Stop Centers Implemented Strategies to Strengthen Services and Partnerships, but More Research and Information Sharing Is Needed. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2003. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-725

["To create a more comprehensive workforce investment system the Workforce Investment Act (WIA)of 1998 requires states and localities to coordinate most federally funded employment and training services into a single system, called the one-stop center system. This report examines how selected one-stop centers have used the law's flexbility to implement their own vision of WIA."]

[Request #S8534]

Return to the Table of Contents

INCOME INEQUALITY

Time for Equality at Work. International Labor Conference, 91st Session 2003. Report I (B). By the International Labour Office, United Nations. (The International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland) 2003. 136 p.

Full Text at: www.unicz.it/lavoro/ILO_TEW.pdf

["The most blatant discrimination in the workplace has faded in many nations, but prejudice continues to prevent most women, ethnic minorities and other groups from realizing their potential. The study cites decades of lawmaking ... [to address the issue] ... which remains a constantly evolving moving target ...." Sacramento Bee (May 13, 2003) D3.]

[Request #S8535]

Return to the Table of Contents

JOB TRAINING

Multiple Employment and Training Programs: Funding and Performance Measures for Major Programs. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-589

["Federally funded employment and training programs serve an important role in the nation's economy by helping job seekers ehance their job skills, identify job opportunities and ultimately find employment.... As WIA approaches reauthorization, it is important to re-examine the system's structure to determine if additional changes are indicated."]

[Request #S8536]

Return to the Table of Contents

Workforce Investment Act: Issues Related to Allocation Formulas for Youth, Adults, and Dislocated Workers. By The U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-636 (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-636

["We identified issues associated with the current formulas in three areas: misalignment between some of the formula factors used to allocate funds and the target populations for these programs, time lags in the data used to determine these allocations, and excessive funding volatility associated with the Dislocated Worker program unrelated to fluctuations in the target populations."]

[Request #S8537]

Return to the Table of Contents

LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS

The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy: Employment Outlook. By Global Insight. Prepared for the U.S. Conference of Mayors (The Conference, Washington, DC) June 7, 2003. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.usmayors.org/uscm/news/press_releases/documents/MetroReportEmploymentOutlook06072003.pdf

["Most of the economic activity in the United States occurs within metro area cities and counties. A total of 83.8% of the national employment ... The top 20 metro economies will generate $4 trillion in gross output in 2003 accounting for 36 % of national output ... Average annual job growth in 2003 will only be a scant 0.1% ... If a strong second half recovery does not materialize the top 20 metros will not break even for the year."]

[Request #S8538]

Return to the Table of Contents

MINORITIES

Social Security and Minorities: Earnings, Disability Incidence, and Mortality Are Key Factors That Influence Taxes Paid and Benefits Received. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washinton, DC) April 2003. 76 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03387.pdf

["Differences by race in the relationship between taxes paid and benefits received under Social Security are due mainly to differences in lifetime earnings, the incidence of disability, and mortality among the groups. In the aggregate, Blacks and Hispanics have higher disability rates and lower lifetime earnings, and thus as a group tend to receive greater benefits relative to Whites with low lifetime earning. Higher beneftis, relative to taxes paid are associated with lower earnings or higher disability incidence."]

[Request #S8539]

Return to the Table of Contents

PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

In Search of Public Service. By Paul C. Light, Center for Public Service, The Brookings Institution (The Institution, Washington, DC) June 2003. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/gs/cps/search.pdf

["For those who are particularly concerned about increasing government's success in the war for talent, this report supports the need for quick action to streamline the hiring process and bolster its reputation as a place where young Americans can make a difference in serving the country."]

[Request #S8540]

Return to the Table of Contents

RETIREMENT

2003 Wilshire Report on State Retirement System: Funding Levels and Asset Allocation. By Stephen L. Nesbitt. (Wilshire, Santa Monica, California) March 12, 2003. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.wilshire.com/Company/2003_State_Retirement_Funding_Report.pdf

["When the bear market began in 2000, just 31% of public-employee pension plans nationwide were underfunded.... That figure has grown to 79%.... The bills are coming due, investments have turned sour and counties across the state are struggling with budget gaps. Every day we are hearing about counties having to make cuts in jobs and services ... unless there is an incredible turnaround in the stock market, this is going to be a multiyear problem." Los Angles Times (May 21, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8541]

Return to the Table of Contents

Retirement Income: Intergenerational Comparisons of Wealth and Future Income. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-429

["Baby Boom and Generation X housholds headed by an individual aged 25 to 34 have greater accumulated assests, adjusted for inflation than current retirees had when they were the same age, but also more debt.... Workers from Generation X are estimated to have similar levels of retirement income in real terms at age 62 as their counterparts in the Baby Boom, but Generation X may be able to replace a smaller percentage of their preretirement income.... With regard to pensions, Generation X and the Baby Boom are estimated to have similar levels of pensions income even with a continued shift from defined benefit to defined to contribution pension coverage."]

[Request #S8542]

Return to the Table of Contents

UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS

1.1 Million "Exhaustees" Left Out of Extension of Temporary Federal Unemployment Benefits: Those without Paychecks or Unemployment Checks in Especially Difficult Straits. By Isaac Shapiro and Jessica Goldberg, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/5-22-03ui.pdf

["A bill that extends the Temporary Emergency Unemployment Compensation program through the end of the year ... [is] expected to be signed into law by the President.... There is a large category of umemployed individuals who have already used up all their unemployment benefits and are still without a job.... The extension approved by Congress fails to provide them with additional assistance."]

[Request #S8544]

Return to the Table of Contents

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

"Allowing the States to Innovate." By Bill Conerly. IN: Regulation, vol. 26, no. 1 (Spring 2003) pp. 46-50.

["Does much-maligned, oft-reformed workers' compensation offer a promising model for unemployment insurance restructuring? The workers' compensation (WC) system has some very desirable features, notably flexibility for states to experiment with different industry and regulatory structures.... [Includes] a set of guidelines that would allow a state to make a moderate transition to a competitive unemployment insurance system."]

[Request #S8545]

Return to the Table of Contents

UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

The Broad Reach of Long-Term Unemployment. By Andrew Stettner and Jeffrey Wenger, National Employment Law Project and Economic Policy Institute. EPI Issue Brief #194. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 15, 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/Issuebriefs/ib194/ib194.pdf

["The percentage of the unemployed searching for work for more than six months has increased from 11% in 2000, to 18.3% in 2002, to more than 20% so far in 2003.... Fiscal policies are needed to stimulate demand for goods and services, stem the loss of jobs, and continue to provide social services for those in need.... To that end, we recommend temporary policies that will tie people over until the economy recovers."]

[Request #S8546]

Return to the Table of Contents

WORKERS COMPENSATION

Employer Costs For Employee Compensation. By The U.S. Department of Labor. USDL: 03-130. (The Department, Washington, DC) March 18, 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/news.release/ecec.toc.htm

["In December 2002, employer costs for employee compensation for civilian workers in private industry and state and local government averaged $23.66 per hour worked.... Wages and salaries, which averaged $17.06, accounted for 72.1 percent of these acosts, while benefits, which averaged $6.60, accounted for the remaining 27.9 percent."]

[Request #S8547]

Return to the Table of Contents

WORKFORCE

The Workforce Investment Act: A First Look at Participation, Demographics, and Services. By Abbey Frank, and others, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1049122782.2/doc_WIA_Update1.pdf

["The first year of data on a federally funded worker training program shows a dramatic decline in access to training. The data, from July 1, 2000-June 30, 2001, show that only about one-third as many people completed training under the Workforce Investment Act as compared to the number in 1998 under JTPA, the previous federal job training program. This amounts to about 200,000 fewer individuals."]

[Request #S8548]

Return to the Table of Contents

HUMAN SERVICES

TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

The Education/Training Requirement For TANF Teen Parents. By Center for Law and Social Policy. (CLASP, Washinton, DC) 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1052940241.38/teen_ed_req.pdf

["The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program prohibits states from spending federal funds on assistance to an unmarried custodial minor parent caring for a child 12 weeks of age or older, unless the minor parent has completed high school or its equivalent or participates in appropriate educational activities. A 'minor' under TANF includes those under the age of 18 as well as 18-year-olds who participate full-time in school."]

[Request #S8549]

Return to the Table of Contents

WELFARE

Job Access and Work Among Autoless Adults in Welfare in Los Angeles. By Mizuki Kawabata, The Ralph and Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. Working Paper Series 40. (The University, Los Angeles, California) 2002. 23 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=lewis

["Lack of auto ownership is frequently cited as a major barrier to welfare recipients transition to work. The importance of accessible job opportunities in employment outcomes has not, however, been empirically analyzed for welfare recipients who do not own automobiles. This study analyzes the effect of job accessibility on employment outcomes for autoless adults on welfare in Los Angeles."]

[Request #S8550]

Return to the Table of Contents

WELFARE REFORM

Achieving Compromise on Welfare Reform Reauthorization. By Ron Haskins and Paul Offner. (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) May 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/es/wrb/publications/pb/pb25.pdf

["Congress failed to reach a compromise on reforming the 1996 welfare law last year, yet it can be successful this year. In their policy brief, the authors discuss policy options for work requirements, child-care funding, and marriage on which Democrats and Republicans can agree and pass a bill ."]

[Request #S8551]

Return to the Table of Contents

WELFARE TO WORK

Job Retention and Advancement Strategies. By Courtney Jarchow, National Conference of State Legislatures. Welfare Reform State Policy Choices. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) May 2003. 13 p.

["Studies of families leaving welfare indicate that many employed parents had difficulty retaining a job and, in some cases, spent equal amounts of time employed and unemployed in the years immediately following their time on welfare.... To encourage parents to get a good job, many states rely on case managers. Case managers can help by continuing to work with the recipient after they become employed."]

[Request #S8552]

Return to the Table of Contents


PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Education and Human Services" IN: Studies in the News, 03-27 (April 25, 2003).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2003/0327.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Binding arbitration law struck down; Retirement income data; Social Security Reform;" and others.]

[Request #S8543]

Return to the Table of Contents

"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 03-29 (May 5, 2003)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2003/0329.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Analysis of California jobs estimates;" "Effects of living wages;" "Trends in earning loss from workplace injuries;" "Lost ground and welfare reform;" and others.]

[Request #S8553]

Return to the Table of Contents

"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 03-31 (May 13, 2003)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2003/0331.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Insufficient retirement income;" "Retirement delays due to stock market;" "Dispute resolution for injured workers;" and others].

[Request #S8554]

Return to the Table of Contents

"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 03-39 (June 17, 2003).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2003/0339.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Court backs family leave act;" "California racial and ethnic wage gaps;" "Tech job outlook to remain soft;" "Minimum wage indexing;" "State report card for workers' comp;" and others].

[Request #S8557]

Return to the Table of Contents