Subject: Studies in the News 03-42 (July 3, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1850-1854 - "Gaston Raousset-Boulbon was born in Avignon, France on December 2, 1817, belonging to one of the most notable families in the Provenze. Raousset-Boulbon did not find favor neither among the royalist nor the republicans. Impoverished and ruined in all aspects, Raousset-Boulbon embarked in 1850 the steamship L'Avon towards California. His flee coincided to the move of thousands of French-people who looked for both: to go out from the war in their country and find well-being in California…. On July 7 (1852), he met (Mexican President) Santa Anna to talk about Boulbon's colonization project in Sonora.... Santa Anna refused the proposals…. Raousset-Boulbon … was considered a rebel…. Raousset-Boulbon granted the company with a flag with the French colors and the text "Indepéndance de Sonora". On 4 November, 1852, there was signed a treaty where the French company was dissolved, but General Blanco guaranteed the security of the French. Gaston Raousset-Boulbon was finally defeated by General José María Yáñez on July 13, 1854, and was shot on August 12, 1854. "  http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/mx-srou.html  

1850-1854 - "Villeraye, Charles Stanislas, Viscount de, French adventurer, born in Provence about 1820. He fought in Spain for the cause of Don Carlos, but squandered his inheritance, and, after taking part in the troubles in southern France during the revolution of 1848, emigrated in the following year to California, where he labored in the gold district with little success. He was among the first to join Count de Raousset-Boulbon, his kinsman, became his secretary, and wrote the articles of incorporation of the "Restauroda" company… . Raousset sent Villeraye to negotiate the withdrawal of the expedition from Sonora, but General Blanco demanded an unconditional surrender. Villeraye was commander of one of the companies of the foreign battalion [and] at the attack on Guaymas, 13 July, 1854, was killed in the midst of the action. "  http://www.tamu.edu/upress/BOOKS/2002/stoutexcerpt  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Response to domestic violence
   Federal gun laws ignored
   Tribal youth initiatives
   Racial profiling guidelines
   Treatment of September 11 detainees
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Domestic partner rights
DEMOGRAPHY
   Expectations regarding home and community
ECONOMY
   Growth of the economy
   Oversight of the real estate appraisal industry
   Immigration and Gateway Cities Region
   Court strikes Holocaust insurance law
   Commercial rents in Southern California
EDUCATION
   12th graders failing exit exams
   Grade level scores on comprehensive exams
   Socioeconomic status and college admissions
   Rulings on affirmative action
   Recent trends in overall school dropout rates
   Incentives and invention in universities
   Changing rules for school leadership
ENERGY
   Schools and energy needs
   Energy security
   California still short on electricity
   Wind power and property values
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Agriculture, science and technology
   Top court resurrects dairy suit
   State air quality implementation plan
   Green building policy for UC
   Field testing GM crops
   Farmers overplanting Bt corn
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Franchise Tax Board audit
   Analysis of 2002 General Election
   Free air time for federal candidates
   Public financing laws comparison
   Court upholds corporate funding ban
   Community emergency response teams
   San Francisco not prepared for emergencies
   Court upholds library Internet filters
HEALTH
   Most expensive operating rooms
   Proposed Medi-Cal reductions
   California nursing homes in jeopardy
   Tobacco policy making in California
HOUSING
   Housing voucher block grant bill
HUMAN SERVICES
   Budget cuts and child care
   American views on hunger
   Low-income parents' views on marriage
   Charitable solicitations
   Collaboration for low-income families
TRANSPORTATION
   Risk-based airport security policy
   Child car seat ratings
   Highway infrastructure
   Highway safety programs
   Rail safety and security
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   California economic growth
   Consumption of soy ingredients helps prevent cancer
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

California's Response to Domestic Violence: A History of Policy Issues and Legislative Actions to Combat Domestic Violence in California. By Kate Sproul, California Senate Office of Research. (The Office, Sacramento, California) June 2003. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/sor/REPORTS/REPORTS_BY_SUBJ/FAMILIES_CHILDREN/DOMESTIC03.PDF

["Increased public and private funding for shelters, better coordination between law enforcement agencies and the courts, and broader education and prevention projects are some of the ways in which California's response to battering could continue to improve....The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the steps already taken in California to address domestic abuse, the continuing dimension of the issue and additional proposals that might be made."]

[Request #S8461]

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GUNS & GUN CONTROL

The Enforcement Gap: Federal Gun Laws Ignored: A Study of Federal Gun Prosecutions from FY2000-FY2002. By Americans for Gun Safety Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) May 2003. 44 p.

Full Text at: w3.agsfoundation.com/media/AGS-enf.pdf

["This report is the first to measure whether 'enforcing the gun laws on the books' is political rhetoric or actual public policy. Using raw data on prosecutions of gun crimes obtained from the U.S. Department of Justice through the Freedom of Information Act, the foundation has analyzed the 22 major federal gun statutes and calculated the number of federal prosecutions for each jurisdiction."]

[Request #S8462]

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JUVENILE JUSTICE

OJJDP's Tribal Youth Initiatives. By Kay McKinney, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice (The Department, Washington, DC) May 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/193763.pdf

["The violent crime rate among American Indians is twice that of the United States as a whole.... This Bulletin describes the efforts of OJJDP to assist tribal communities through such initiatives as the Tribal Youth Program, the Tribal Youth Program Mental Health Project, the Comprehensive Indian Resources for Community and Law Enforcement Project, training and technical assistance, and research and evaluation."]

[Request #S8463]

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LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

Racial Profiling: Fact Sheet. By the U.S. Department of Justice. (The Department, Washington, DC) June 17, 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2003/June/racial_profiling_fact_sheet.pdf

["The new policy, representing the first time that the federal government has imposed across the board guidelines on racial profiling, governs the conduct of 70 federal law enforcement agencies. A narcotics agent, for instance, cannot focus on a specific neighborhood simply because of its racial makeup, the policy states. In national security operations, however, the policy allows agents to use race and ethnicity in 'narrow' circumstances to help 'identify terrorist threats and stop potential catastrophic attacks,' officials said." Sacramento Bee (June 18, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8464]

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TERRORISM

The September 11 Detainees: A Review of the Treatment of Aliens Held on Immigration Charges in Connection with the Investigation of the September 11 Attacks. By the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 239 p.

Full Text at: www.usdoj.gov/oig/special/0603/full.pdf

["Foreigners rounded up in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks spent months in jail without knowing why, encountered obstacles in meeting with their lawyers and were abused physically and verbally, according to a report." Sacramento Bee (June 3, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8465]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

GAYS & LESBIANS

Equal Rights, Fiscal Responsibility: The Impact of AB 205 on California's Budget. By M. V. Lee Badgett and R. Bradley Sears. Williams Project on Sexual Orientations Law and the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.iglss.org/media/files/wppolicystudy.pdf

[“Giving domestic partners most of the rights enjoyed by married couples could save California up to almost $11 million per year…. AB 205 … would let domestic partners file joint state income tax returns, pay and receive child support and seek insurance coverage for each other, among other rights.”]

[Request #S8466]

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DEMOGRAPHY

OLDER AMERICANS

These Four Walls ... Americans 45+ Talk About Home and Community. By Matthew Greewald and Associates, Inc. Prepared for the American Association of Retired Persons (The Association, Washington, DC) May 2003. 121 p.

Full Text at: research.aarp.org/il/four_walls.pdf

["The purpose of this study is to examine people's expectations regarding their home, the community in which they live, and the services that are available in their community that could help them remain independent, comfortable, and safe as they grow older.... We have identified important gaps between factors perceived to be important and the current availability of these factors.... It is important to market information to the 50+ population about services in their community so that if, or when, the need arises they know where to turn for help."]

[Request #S8467]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC POLICY

Minding the Speed Limit. By Carl E. Walsh, University of California, Santa Cruz. FRBSF Economic Letter No. 2003-14. (The Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco, California) May 30, 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2003/el2003-14.pdf

["This letter discusses policies that focus on whether the economy is growing faster or slower than trend output rather than on what the level of output is relative to the level of trend output. Such policies are called 'speed limit policies.' where the growth rate of trend output represents the economy's safe sustained speed limit -- faster growth generates inflation over time, and slower growth leads to increased unemployment."]

[Request #S8468]

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HOUSING FINANCING

Regulatory Programs: Opportunities to Enhance Oversight of the Real Estate Appraisal Industry. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-404 (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 108 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03404.pdf

["GAO looked at the roles of the private, state, and federal entities that oversee the appraisal industry, the challenges Title XI presented to these entities and industry participants; [and] concerns about the effectiveness of the Title XI regulatory structure.... GAO recommends [that] among other things, the Chairman of the Appraisal Subcommittee should develop and apply consistent criteria for determining and reporting states' compliance levels with Title XI."]

[Request #S8469]

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IMMIGRATION

Immigration and the Gateway Cities Region: An Analysis. By the Center for Economic Development, University of Southern California. Prepared for The Gateway Cities Partnership, Inc. (The Partnership, Paramount, California) May 22, 2003. 39 p.

["The foreign-born population of the Gateway Cities Region increased by 21.1 percent, between 1990 and 2000, from 495,884 to 600.465.... Findings will describe the significant impact of immigration in the Region's economy, particularly highlighting the effects of the foreign-born in the area's population and labor force, as well as their role as consumers of education, health care and public services."]

[Request #S8470]

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INSURANCE INDUSTRY

American Insurance Association, et al. v. Garamendi, Insurance Commissioner, State of California. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-722. June 23, 2003. 51 p.

Full Text at: www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/02-722.pdf

["The U.S. Supreme Court overturned a California law designed to help Holocaust survivors collect on insurance policies from the Nazi era, ruling 5-4 that the state was improperly interfering with foreign affairs.... 'The basic fact is that California seeks to use an iron fist where the President has consistently chosen kid gloves,' Justice David Souter wrote for the majority, referring to the administration's position that the claims should be resolved by an international commission. The commission has been criticized by Jewish groups as ineffective." Los Angeles Times (June 24, 2003) B1.]

[Request #S8471]

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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Real Estate Markets in 2003: Southern California Tries to Overcome Strong National Forces. Presented to the UCLA Anderson Forecast. By William Wheaton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (The Author, Boston, Massachusetts) June 5, 2003. 32 p.

["National: Unprecedented decline in demand due to technology substitution, corporate downsizing and slow job growth. Southern California: Behind the US in [commercial] rents and construction with best area in San Diego and most stressed area in suburban Los Angeles."]

[Request #S8472]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

FCAT Fallout: Grads-Not-To-Be Get Bad News. By Jenny LaCoste. IN: The Pensacola News Journal (May 22, 2003) A1.

["This is the first year that high school seniors were required to pass the math and reading portions of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test to earn their diploma. Across the state, nearly 13,000 12th-graders, roughly one out of every 11 Florida seniors, failed the test."]

[Request #S8474]

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Governor Jeb Bush Announces Biggest Improvement Ever on FCAT (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test): Press Release. By Alia Farraj, Office of Governor Bush and Frances Marine, Florida Department of Education (The Department, Tallahassee, Florida) May 15, 2003. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.fldoe.org/news/pr_05_15_03-2.asp

["Governor Jeb Bush today announced that more students scored on grade level in 2003 than ever before on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. The greatest improvements over last year were found in reading at the elementary grades.... The percentage of 4th graders scoring below basic (Level 1) on the FCAT reading has dropped from 32 percent in 1998 to 25 percent this year."]

[Request #S8475]

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AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

Socioeconimc Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Selective College Admissions. By Anthony P. Carnevale and Stephen J. Rose. (The Century Foundation, New York, New York) March 2003. 81 p.

Full Text at: www.tcf.org/Publications/White_Papers/carnevale_rose.pdf

["Many low-income students could do as well in the nation's most selective colleges as their higher-income counterparts, but too few get the chance, according to this review of research and analysis. To give opportunity to a larger pool of high-performing, low-income students, the report concludes that economic affirmative action should be adopted, race-based affirmative action maintained, and financial aid policies reoriented toward need. It also argues that class-rank admissions plans, which target students at the top of their high school class, disproportionately benefit higher-income students (even in very poor areas)." Connect for Kids Weekly Listserv (June 9, 2003).]

[Request #S8473]

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Grutter v. Bollinger, et al. 02-241. And Gratz, et al. v. Bollinger, et al. 02-516. U.S. Supreme Court. June 23, 2003.

["A divided U.S. Supreme Court ruled that colleges can consider applicants' race as a qualification for admission to promote campus diversity. The court said college officials not only can regard minority status as a 'plus' for admission but also can work toward the goal of a 'critical mass' of minorities who could contribute to racial understanding without feeling isolated. On the other hand, the justices struck down another Michigan program in a 6-3 ruling and made it clear that the Constitution's ban on racial discrimination applies not merely to outright quotas but also to numbers-driven systems that give undue weight to an applicant's race." San Francisco Chronicle (June 24, 2003) A1.]

Grutter v. Bollinger. 95 p.
Grutter v. Bollinger

Gratz v. Bollinger. 68 p.
Gratz v. Bollinger

[Request #S8476]

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DROPOUT RATES

The Hidden Crisis in the High School Dropout Problems of Young Adults in the U.S.: Recent Trends in Overall School Dropout Rates and Gender Differences in Dropout Behavior. By Andrew Sum and others, the Center for Labor Market Studies. Prepared for the Business Roundtable (The Roudtable, Washington, DC) 2003. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.brtable.org/pdf/914.pdf

["A new study suggests that the high school dropout rate may be significantly higher than the 11% national average reported by the government... It suggests the dropout rate may be as high as 30%, three times higher than the government estimates." State Net Capitol Journal (May 23, 2003)]

[Request #S8477]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Incentives and Invention in Universities. By Saul Lach, The Hebrew University, and Mark Schankerman, London School of Economics. (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel) May 8, 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: economics.huji.ac.il/facultye/saul/LachScahnkerman.pdf

["We show that economic incentives affect the number and commercial value of inventions generated in universities. Using panel data for 102 U.S. universities during the period 1991-1999, we find that universities which give higher royalty shares to academic scientists generate more quality, research funding and technology licensing inputs."]

[Request #S8478]

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SCHOOL GOVERNANCE

Better Leaders for America's Schools: A Manifesto With Profiles of Education Leaders and A Summary of State Certification Practices. By Thomas B. Fordham Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2003. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.edexcellence.net/manifesto/manifesto.pdf

["The signers of this manifesto want American public education to consider the alternative approach -- open more gates, welcome people from many different directions to enter them, minimize the hoops and hurdles and regulatory hassles, look for talent rather than paper credentials.... To illustrate the kinds of people who can make their way into positions of school leadership when rules change ... this volume profiles six unconventional but outstanding principals and superintendents."]

[Request #S8479]

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ENERGY

ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Effects of Energy Needs and Expenditures on U.S. Public Schools. By Timothy Smith and others, National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2003. 87 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003018.pdf

["This survey provides estimates of Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 energy expenditures, FY 2001 energy budgets and expenditures, and FY 2002 energy budgets; methods used to cover energy budget shortfalls in FY 2001, and possible reasons for those shortfalls. The survey also explored the cost-saving measures that school districts took."]

[Request #S8480]

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Energy Security. By Matthew Brown and others, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April 2003. 113 p.; Appendices.

["This report discusses policy options in two broad categories -- prevention and planning, and response -- and includes recommendations for states as they determine their vulnerabilities and bolster the security of the energy infrastructure within their borders."]

[Request #S8481]

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UTILITIES

California is Still Coming Up Short on Electricity: The State's Power Sector Remains Troubled and is at Risk of a Future Supply Shortfall. By Bay Area Economic Forum. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) May 2003. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/Power4BAEFBook-May22FINAL-2003.pdf

["Despite California's aggressive response to the 2000-2001 energy crisis and the ongoing work of regulators to reach policy consensus, there is still a meaningful risk that future power supplies will come up short."]

[Request #S8482]

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WIND POWER

The Effect of Wind Development on Local Property Values. By George Sterzinger, and others, Renewable Energy Policy Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) May 2003. 81 p.

Full Text at: www.repp.org/report/wind_online_final.pdf

["As the pace of wind project development has increased, opponents have raised claims in the media and at siting hearings that wind development will lower the value of property within view of the turbines. This is a serious charge that deserves to be seriously examined.... This report reviews data on property sales in the vicinity of wind projects and uses statistical analysis to determine whether, and the extent to which, the presence of a wind power project has had an influence on the prices at which properties have been sold."]

[Request #S8483]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE

21st Century Agriculture: A Critical Role for Science and Technology. By the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (The Department, Washington, DC) June 2003. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.usda.gov/news/pdf/agst21stcentury.pdf

["Embracing technology in farming would help end world hunger and poverty, according to a report released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in conjunction with the high-profile agricultural conference in Sacramento." Sacramento Bee (June 23, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8484]

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Hillside Dairy Inc. v. Lyons, et al. U.S. Supreme Court. 01-950. June 9, 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/01-950.pdf

["The U.S. Supreme Court revived a suit against California filed by out-of-state dairy farmers challenging milk-pricing rules that were designed to boost in-state producers.... Dairy farmers in Nevada and Arizona said California was subsidizing its own farmers and interfering with interstate commerce.... The Supreme Court returned the cases to U.S. District Court in Sacramento to consider the validity of the state rules." San Francisco Chronicle (June 10, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8485]

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AIR POLLUTION

Proposed 2003 State and Federal Strategy for the California State Implementation Plan. By the Air Resources Board, California Environmental Protection Agency. (The Board, Sacramento, California) May 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.arb.ca.gov/planning/sip/stfed03/stfed03.htm

["Current levels of air pollution exact a toll on our lives. Recent studies link particulate air pollution to sudden death in infants as well as adults.... This plan is our blueprint for meeting federal air quality standards by the applicable deadlines set in the federal Clean Air Act....[It] is a compilation of region-specific plans that detail how each area will meet the air quality standards."]

[Request #S8486]

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Feasibility Study for a Green Building Policy for the University of California. By Michael Bade, Office of the President. (The Office, Oakland California) May 19, 2003.

["A University of California regents committee took the first steps toward instituting comprehensive green building and clean energy standards for its 10 campuses. If the policy is ultimately approved by the full Board of Regents, it is believed it will be the broadest green building effort embraced by any university system in the nation." Oakland Tribune (June 16, 2003) 1.]

Green feasibility study. 33 p.
http://www.ucop.edu/ucophome/busfin/greenbldgs/gbfeasibility.pdf>

Draft presidential implemetation policy. 4 p.
http://www.ucop.edu/regents/regmeet/june03/102juneattach.pdf

Presentations and other studies. Various pagings.
http://www.ucop.edu/ucophome/busfin/greenbldgs/

[Request #S8487]

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

Raising Risk: Field Testing of Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States. By Richard Caplan, Environment California Research and Policy Center. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) June 2003. 101 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentcalifornia.org/reports/RaisingRisk2003CA.pdf

["The center is among environmental groups that claim poor government oversight of the open-air tests that could allow 'genetic contamination' of the food supply. The report showed 15,400 gene-splicing experiments have been done involving more than 100 crops since 1987, when the Department of Agriculture first started permitting open-air experiments, the anti-biotech group said. The experiments took place at more than 40,000 locations in all but three states." Associated Press (June 18, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8488]

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Planting Trouble: Are Farmers Squandering BT Corn Technology? By Gregory Jaffe, Center for Science in the Public Interest. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2003. 23 p

Full Text at: cspinet.org/new/pdf/bt_corn_report.pdf

["Nearly one-fifth of farms growing the main type of genetically engineered corn, BT corn, are violating government rules aimed at preserving the usefulness of the corn, a consumer group said. The group said that 19 percent of the farms growing BT corn did not plant at least 20 percent of their acres with corn other than the modified variety, as required by the Environmental Protection Agency.... The E.P.A. requires farmers to plant 20 percent of their corn acres with non-BT corn, to serve as a refuge for insects that would otherwise be killed by the toxin." New York Times (June 19, 2003) C5.]

[Request #S8489]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

BOARDS & COMMISSIONS

Franchise Tax Board: Its Performance Measures Are Insufficient to Justify Requests for New Audit or Collection Program Staff. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. 2002-124. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2003. 79 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002-124.pdf

["This report concludes the board's performance measures are not sufficient to justify requests for new audit or collection program staff.... The board does not always describe the differing cost components of its various performance measures, potentially leading to confusion about program results."]

[Request #S8490]

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CALIFORNIA

Polling in the Governor's Race in California. By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California; Mark DiCamillo, Field Research Corporation and others. Prepared for the University of California, Berkeley (The University, Oakland, California) 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=igs

["The November 2002 election in California had the lowest turnout ... in the state's history.... We focus our analysis on the political and economic context of this election [and] insights from a special survey on public attitudes toward the campaigns that was conducted up to the day before the election."]

[Request #S8491]

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CAMPAIGN FINANCE

"Free Air Time: The Continuing Reform Battle." By John S. McCain, U.S. Senator (R: AZ). IN: Election Law Journal, vol. 2, no. 2 (2003) pp. 171-178.

["This article discusses the need for free air time for federal candidates and describes in detail the Political Campaign Broadcast Activity Improvements Act.... Free air time ... will help open up the political market place to those currently priced out of it -- including candidates who are not wealthy."]

[Request #S8492]

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CAMPAIGN FINANCING

Public Financing Laws In Local Jurisdictions. By the Center For Governmental Studies. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2003. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.cgs.org/publications/docs/chart.pdf

[Chart summarizing the laws of all 12 local government jurisdictions in the United States that have public financing programs.]

[Request #S8493]

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ELECTIONS

Federal Election Commission v. Beaumont. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-403. June 16, 2003. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/02pdf/02-403.pdf

["Corporations, even small ones that earn no profits and use their money to promote causes, can be barred from directly funding federal campaigns, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled. The 7-2 decision strongly reaffirms the view that the government can bar the flow of corporate money to politicians and their campaigns. Some legal experts viewed the ruling as good news for defenders of the broad campaign finance law that will be challenged in the high court in September." Los Angeles times (June 17, 2003) A25.]

[Request #S8494]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

FEMA Announces $19 Million for CERT Program. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 03-29. (FFIS, Washington, DC) June 4, 2003. 2 p.

["The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), has announced the availability of $19 million in grants to states for the Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) program... The funding is designed to enable state and local government to train citizens how to respond to emergency situations in their communities."]

[Request #S8495]

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It's A Catastrophe: The State of Emergency Planning in San Francisco. By the Civil Grand Jury for the City and County of San Francisco. (The City, San Francisco, California) June 19, 2003. 33 p.

Full Text at: web.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/courts/Emergency_Services_editorial_final(1).pdf

["Inattention from San Francisco leaders has left the city woefully unprepared to deal with terrorism, earthquakes and other potential disasters, the civil grand jury said.... Grand jury spokeswoman Arlene Singer said that despite the terrorist attack in New York City on Sept. 11, 2001, San Francisco's disaster training is inadequate, drills are too infrequent, equipment is lacking, and communications systems are vulnerable to interruption." San Francisco Chronicle (June 20, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8496]

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FREE SPEECH

United States, et al. v. American Library Association, Inc, et al. U.S. Supreme Court. 02-361. June 23, 2003. 56 p.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/f40s

["The Supreme Court upheld a law requiring schools and libraries that receive federal technology funding to use software intended to filter out pornography. By rejecting a challenge to the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA), the court's 6-3 majority granted Congress the ability to place controls on Internet content in public spaces. The law is Congress's third attempt in seven years to strike a balance between the rights of adults to view constitutionally protected material and the need to protect children from pornography online." San Jose Mercury News (June 24, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8497]

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HEALTH

HOSPITALS

The 100 Most Expensive Operating Rooms. By California Nurses Association. (The Association, Oakland, California) 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.calnurse.org/top100slides/100mostexp.pdf

[“On average, hospitals across the country have a 220 percent markup on their surgery charges, the study says. According to the study, for-profit and large hospital chains had the highest markups. Sixty-one of the top 100 are for-profit hospitals and 44 are owned by the nation's two largest investor-owned systems, Tenet and HCA-The Healthcare Company. Surgery is a very lucrative element within the hospital industry … pushing overall health care inflation.”]

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MEDI-CAL

Governor's Proposed Medi-Cal Reductions Would Harm Enrollees, Providers, and Local Economies. By The California Budget Project (The Project, Sacramento, California) May 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/030505MediCalReductions.pdf

["The Governor proposes to achieve General Fund savings of $1.35 billion in 2003-04 by denying Medi-Cal coverage to as many as 555,000 adults, eliminating 18 benefits, and reducing Medi-Cal provider payments. These changes would require the state to forfeit an additional $1.34 billion in federal funds, thereby doubling the impact on local economies and the state's health care system."]

[Request #S8499]

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California Nursing Homes in Jeopardy: The Impact of a 15 percent cut in Medi-Cal Rates. By Martin Kitchener and Charlene Harrington, University of California, San Francisco. Prepared for the California Healthcare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) May 23, 2003. 8 p.

["35% of facilities did not meet state minimum nurse staffing requirements of 3.2 hours/resident day.... Low wages cause high staff turnover, high turnover jeopardizes continuity and quality of care.... Policy recommendations [include] Increase Medi-Cal reimbursement rates to allow facilities to meet required staffing levels and improve nursing wages and benefits [and others]."

[Request #S8500]

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SMOKING

Tobacco Policy Making in California 2001-2003: No Longer Finishing First. By Jennifer K. Ibrahim and Stanton A. Glantz, University of California, San Francisco (The University, Oakland, California) 2003. 131 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1029&context=ctcre

["The tobacco industry spent nearly $6 million on political activities statewide during the 2001-02 legislative session, up 28 percent from the previous session.... 'The tobacco industry is having a major resurgence in efforts to influence policy-making in California' said Stan Glantz, a UCSF professor who co-authored the report." San Francisco Chronicle (June 6, 2003) B1.]

[Request #S8502]

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HOUSING

LOW INCOME HOUSING

Housing Voucher Block Grant Bill Would Jeopardize an Effective Program and Likely Lead to Cuts in Assisstance for Low-Income Families. By Barbara Sard and Will Fisher. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 14, 2003. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/5-14-03hous.pdf

["On April 29, two similar bills (H.R. 1841 and S. 947) were introduced that would end the existing Housing Choice Voucher program (section 8 voucher program) and replace it beginning in fiscal year 2005 with a block grant to states, which would be called Housing Assistance for Needy Families (HANF).... Analysis indicated that this radical change in the nation's largest low-income housing program is likely to damage substantially a program widely viewed as effective in providing housing assistance to low-income families and elderly and disabled individuals."]

[Request #S8503]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

State Budget Cuts Create a Growing Child Care Crisis For Low-Income Working Families. By Danielle Ewen and Katherine Hart (Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC) March 2003. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.childrensdefense.org/pdf/state_budget_cuts_2003.pdf

["Children's Defense Fund outlines what states did and did not do in 2002 to give children the strong start they need. Areas include overall funding, tax credits, training and compensation, business involvement, child care facilities (including odd-hour and special needs care), Head Start, prekindergarten and early literacy. While some states have been able to take small steps forward, most are cutting child care assistance for working families and limiting or eliminating infant and toddler, prekindergarten and school-age programs, as well as investments in basic health and safety." Connect for Kids (June 16, 2003).]

[Request #S8504]

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HUNGER

Hunger: An Emerging Issue. Results and Analysis of Recent National Public Opinion Polling. By Tom Freedman and others. Prepared for the Alliance to End Hunger. (America's Second Harvest, Chicago, Illinois) June 5, 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.secondharvest.org/newsroom/pressreleases/complete_findings.pdf

["This bi-partisan report finds that Americans care about hunger as an issue much more than current conventional political wisdom would indicate – and that Americans support anti-hunger programs despite severe budgetary pressures at the local, state and federal level. Americans continue to see solutions to the problem of hunger require public, private, and non-profit cooperation, and that they will reward political candidates who put forward new ideas to make programs more effective."]

[Request #S8505]

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LOW INCOME

High Hopes But Even Higher Expectations: The Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples. By Christina Gibson, Duke University, and others. (Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Well-Being, Princeton, New Jersey) June 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: crcw.princeton.edu/workingpapers/WP03-06-FF-Gibson.pdf

["According to the study, most unmarried parents hold positive views towards marriage and say they plan to marry. Yet only a few actually do so by the time their child is a year old.... Because new parents value marriage so highly, they believe they must achieve certain goals before they can get married. It concludes that economic and cultural factors are inextricably linked in the marriage decision, as couples evaluate their financial and emotional readiness for marriage in light of their assessment of the institution’s value."]

[Request #S8506]

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PHILANTHROPY

Attorney General's Summary of Results of Charitable Solicitation by Commercial Fund-Raisers. And Attorney General's Summary of Charitable Solicitations by Commercial Fund-Raisers: Supplemental Report: Donations of Personal Property (Thrift Stores, Vehicle Donation Programs, Etc. By the Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. (The Office, Sacramento, California) May 19, 2003.

["Figures show that the average fund-raising company in California put less than 40 percent of the money raised into the pockets of charities.... Philanthropy experts say that few people realize most of their donations disappear in administrative costs and occasionally in scams by these outside companies." San Francisco Chronicle (May 19, 2003) 1.]

Summary or results. 198 p.
http://caag.state.ca.us/charities/publications/2001cf/2001cf.pdf

Supplemental report. 37 p.
http://caag.state.ca.us/charities/publications/2001cf_supp/2001cf_supp.pdf

[Request #S8507]

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POVERTY

The High Cost of Being Poor: Another Perspective on Helping Low-Income Families Get By and Get Ahead. By The Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/kidscount/databook/pdfs/e_essay.pdf

["According to this essay, leveling the playing field for our most vulnerable families will require unprecedented public and private commitment; national, state and local collaboration; and policies, programs, and resource allocations that are both complementary and reinforcing.... If we are truly to deliver on the fundamental promise that hard work, self-sacrifice, and prudent investment are the building blocks of economic security, then we must promote approaches that demonstrate a new national seriousness about leveling the cost of living for low-income families."]

[Request #S8508]

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TRANSPORTATION

AIRLINE SAFETY

A Risk-Based Airport Security Policy. By Robert W. Poole, and George Passantino, Reason Public Policy Institute. Policy Study 308. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) May 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.rppi.org/ps308.pdf

["This report reviews the two key tools needed for a risk-based security model for U.S. airports. The first is a system for pre-clearing a subset of low-risk passengers, who can then receive expedited processing at airports. The current term for this is a Registered Traveler program. The second is a system for selecting out high-risk passengers for extra scrutiny."]

[Request #S8509]

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AUTOMOBILE SAFETY

NHTSA Announces “Ease of Use” Child Safety Seat Ratings. By the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (The Administration, Washington, DC) June 11, 2003. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.dot.gov/affairs/nhtsa2403.htm

["The federal government issued its first ratings of car seats for children and called for improvements in a life-saving product many parents have trouble installing correctly. Only three models earned a straight-A grade in all five categories.... Traffic accidents are the leading cause of death for children after the first year of life. In 2001, nearly half of the 497 children under age 5 killed in crashes were not strapped into safety seats, or even into adult seat belts, federal statistics show." Los Angeles Times (June 12, 2003) A6.]

[Request #S8510]

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HIGHWAY CONGESTION

Highway Infrastructure: Stakeholders' Views on Time to Conduct Environmental Reviews of Highway Projects. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2003 46 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-534

[“The federal government had a long-term commitment to helping states construct, improve, and repair roads and bridges to meet the nation’s mobility needs. The Federal Highway Administration expects to provide states about $20 billion for highway construction projects in fiscal year 2003.”]

[Request #S8511]

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HIGHWAY SAFETY

Highway Safety: Better Guidance Could Improve Oversight of State Highway Safety Programs. By the U. S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-474. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03474.pdf

["Under the performance-based approach, NHTSA provides advice, training and technical assistance to the states, which are responsible for setting and achieving highway safety goals.... GAO recommends that NHTSA provide more specific written guidance to its regional offices on when it is appropriate to use management reviews and improvement plans to assist states with their highway safety programs."]

[Request #S8512]

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RAILROADS

Rail Safety and Security: Some Actions Already Taken to Enhance Rail Security, but Risk-based Plan Needed. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 83 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03435.pdf

["After the response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, industry and government took steps to improve the safety and security of hazardous material rail transportation. The railroad and chemical industries assessed their facilities' exposure to attack and developed a security plan to address their risks. The Department of Homeland Security's Transportation Security Administration had begun to address nonaviation security by starting development of an overall intermodal transportation system security plan, but has not yet developed specific plans to address the security of individual surface transportation nodes, including rail. Such a plan is needed to determine the adequacy of security measures already in place to protect rail shipments and identify security gaps."]

[Request #S8513]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute For Federal Policy Research. Volume 10, Bulletin 16 - 18 (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 6 - 19 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/b1016.1017. 1018.pdf

[Includes: "California Officials Ask For DOD Cooperatiion on Perchlorate;" "Senate Fails to Kill 2005 Base Closure Round;" "House Subcommittee Examines Port Security;" "Federal Expenditures Data for FY 2002 Released;" "California Share of Contracts Rises, Formula Grant Share Falls;" "Federal Government Will Store Southern California Water;" "PPIC Conducts Statewide Survey on the State Budget;" "House Transportation Fiscal Proposal Boosts U.S. and California Economy According to Report;" "Senate Panel Approves Homeland Security Bill That Advantages Small States Over California;" "California Bay-Delta Actions Announced;" "House Agriculture Committee Reviews Status of Multilateral/Bilateral Agricultural Trade Negotiations;" and others.]

[Request #S8514]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

California Economic Growth: 2003. By the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy (The Center, Palo Alto, California) June 2003.

["The decline in unemployment does not translate into good economic news for Stephen Levy, director and senior economist at the Palo Alto-based Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. Unemployment is down because many people who were looking for work before have stopped looking, he said. Statewide, unemployment stood at 6.6 percent for May, or 1,163,000 people out of work. That's down from 6.8 percent a month earlier. But while unemployment also stood at 6.6 percent in May 2002, there more people working a year ago. 'This is recognition of the fact that the recovery is not here,' said Levy. 'The unemployment rate going down is not a sign of recovery. Job creation is not happening.'" The Alameda Times-Star (June 14, 2003)]

[Request #S8515]

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HEALTH

CANCER

“Soy, Isoflavones, and Breast Cancer Risk in Japan.” By Seiichiro Yamamoto and others. IN: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95 no. 12 (June 18, 2003) pp. 906-913.

[“Japanese women who are frequent eaters of miso soup, a soy-filled staple of Japanese cuisine, and soy ingredients called isoflavones appear to be less likely to develop breast cancer, researchers reported…. The highest rate of breast cancer -- seen in women who ate the least amount of isoflavones -- was still lower than that seen in similarly aged women living in Western countries, the authors report.” Reuters (June 17, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8516]

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