Subject: Studies in the News 03-40 (June 25, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   State of California's working families
   Community indicators in California
EDUCATION
   California's education reforms
   Impact of California's high school exit exams
   Factors of juvenile delinquency
   Zero-tolerance policies and at-risk students
   Social services bridging birth to school
   Business and early childhood education
   Kindergarten and age issues
   Early education & the business community
   Universal pre-k and federal funding
   Cost-benefits of quality preschool
   Cost of universal preschool
   Language development gap and socioeconomic status
   Learning specialists and struggling students
   National poll of education policy
   Trends and developments in education
   School Readiness Act of 2003 analysis
   Stengthening Head Start proposal
   Long-term impacts of Head Start
   Head Start superwaiver for states
   Education and Hispanic American children
HEALTH
   Understanding SCHIP enrollment
   State data on SCHIP enrollment
   Physical activity among adults
   WIC and health insurance
   Economic information and health care quality
   Addresses from the Infant Mental Health Conference
   Trauma and substance abuse
HUMAN SERVICES
   Child care assistance
   Child care budget crisis
   Child care and low-income families
   Analysis of report on child care aid
   State profiles of child well-being
   International viewpoints of children
   Effects of time-limited welfare on children
   Issues of concentrated poverty
   Community employment initiatives
STUDIES TO COME
   Child development and social policy
   Allocating funds for children's programs
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

INCOME

Boom, Bust, and Beyond: The State of Working California. Working, But Poor: California's Working Families That Fail to Make Ends Meet. By David Carroll, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) May 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/030519WorkingButPoor.pdf

["The number of working poor families in California reached a new high of nearly two million in 2001, according to this report. The report finds that working poor families - those with incomes below twice the federal poverty level despite having at least one worker - are more likely to be Latino, have lower adult educational attainment, lack health coverage, and are more often employed in low waged industries, such as retail trade."]

[Request #S8406]

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SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

California's Regional Collaboratives: Inventory and Analysis of Community Indicator Report: Draft Summary Report. By Trish Kelly and others, California Center for Regional Leadership. (The Center, San Francisco, California) June 2, 2003. 39 p.

["This report is an inventory and preliminary analysis of the growing field of practice on Community Indicators by California's Regional Collaboratives (RCs).... RCs are region-based civic organizations working to improve the state's economy, quality of life, and opportunity for all."]

[Request #S8407]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Show Me the Data. By Brian Stecher and others, EdSource. (EdSource, Palo Alto, California) 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.edsource.org/pdf/Forum03report_Final.pdf

["The state's incomplete data system and a constantly growing and changing set of policies make it difficult to determine exactly how well California's education reforms are working. This report indicates that one of the major missing ingredients is a unique 'student identifier' that would make it possible to see how individual students perform over time. With a unique identifying number assigned to each student for the student's academic career, the state could associate students' test scores with their identifiers year after year and see the effect various programs and schools have on student performance."]

[Request #S8408]

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First Things First: Why We Must Stop Punishing Students and Fix California’s Schools. By Californians for Justice Education Fund. (The Fund, San Jose, California) May 17, 2003. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.caljustice.org/pdf/first_things_first.pdf

["The report addresses conditions in California public schools and the impact of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE). It highlights the inadequacies and inequalities in schools that serve students of color, low-income students, and English Learners. It reveals how the Exit Exam punishes students for the state's own failure to provide an equitable, high quality education."]

[Request #S8409]

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CAMPUS DISCIPLINE

Addressing Truancy, Preventing Delinquency. By Sarah A. Brown, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 11, No. 28. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June/July 2003. 2 p.

["A Los Angeles County Office of Education report on factors contributing to juvenile delinquency concluded that chronic absenteeism is the strongest predictor of delinquent behavior.... Programs that focus on family problems behind truancy have had more success than those that treat truancy as an attendance problem."]

[Request #S8410]

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DISCRIMINATION

Derailed! The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track. By Judith A. Browne, Advancement Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) May 2003. 87 p.

Full Text at: www.advancementproject.org/Derailedtxt.pdf

["Youth of color and students with special needs have been harmed by zero-tolerance policies that have disproportionately pushed them from school into the juvenile justice system. Acts once handled by a principal or parent are now being handled by prosecutors and the police." Connect for Kids (May 27, 2003).]

[Request #S8411]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Building a Bridge from Birth to School: Improving Developmental and Behavioral Health Services for Young Children. By Neal Halfon, UCLA Center for Healthier Children, Families, and Communities, and others. (The Commonwealth Fund, New York, New York) May 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/programs/child/halfon_bridge_564.pdf

["This paper reviews existing guidelines for developmental care of young children, from birth to their entry to school and then assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of providing such care in primary care settings. It recommends that Medicaid, CHIP, and private health plans should reimburse care in four areas: screening and assessment, developmental health promotion, general developmental interventions, and care coordination, including referrals to child service agencies."]

[Request #S8412]

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Business and Early Care and Education: A Review of Engagement Strategies and a Connecticut Case Example. By Janice M. Gruendel and others, Connecticut Voices for Children. (Connecticut Voices for Children, New Haven, Connecticut) June 2003. 15 p.

Full Text at: info.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/CTvoices/kidslink/kidslink2/reports/PDFs/ECEBusiness06.03.PDF

["Forward-looking business leaders care about the early care of young kids, to stabilize a workforce with more full-time young parents and to make sure young children arrive at kindergarten ready to learn. This report describes how business has become more involved in providing family-friendly workforce supports and engaged in child development and school readiness policies and programs." Connect for Kids (June 9, 2003).]

[Request #S8413]

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Access to Kindergarten: Age Issues in State Statutes. By the Education Commission of the States. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) May 2003. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/44/52/4452.doc

["This 50-state document looks at how state lawmakers have addressed kindergarten-related age issues, including compulsory school age, kindergarten entrance age, early entrance to kindergarten and kindergarten exemption."]

[Request #S8414]

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Early Childhood Education: A Call to Action from the Business Community. By the Business Roundtable and the Corporate Voices for Working Families. (The Roundtable, Washington, DC) May 2003. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.brtable.org/pdf/901.pdf

["Declaring that too many children enter school ill-prepared to succeed, this paper urges the states and federal government to make the development of 'high-quality' early childhood education programs a top priority. The business leaders also identify a 'Statement of Principles' for high-quality programs for 3- and 4-year olds, and ask decisionmakers to endorse the principles and incorporate them into their policies." ECPEN listserv (May 7, 2003).]

[Request #S8415]

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Financing Universal Pre-Kindergarten: Possibilities and Technical Issues For States in Using Funds Under the Child Care and Development Fund and Temporary Assistance For Needy Families Block Grant. By Mark Greenberg and Rachel Schumacher, Center for Law and Social Policy. Prepared for The Pew Charitable Trusts. (The Center, Washington, DC) November 7, 2001. Revised May 2003. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1052171885.57/universal_prek.pdf

["In recent years, states and localities have become increasingly interested in providing universal access to pre-Kindergarten (pre-K). The two principal federal funding streams available to states for such an initiative are the Child Care and Development Fund and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant structure. This report summarizes what is clear and what is unclear about the extent to which each of the funding streams could be used in support of universal pre-K initiatives."]

[Request #S8416]

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"Age 21 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers." By Arthur J. Reynolds, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and others. IN: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 24, no. 4 (Winter 2002) pp. 267-303.

["Results from this cost-benefit analysis of the federally funded Chicago Child-Parent Center program could help policymakers determine future funding for such educational programs. Overall, every dollar invested in the preschool program returned $7.14 in individual, educational, social welfare and socioeconomic benefits. Every dollar invested also generated $3.85 to the general public through government and crime-victim savings." University Communications, NEWS@UW-MADISON (May 6, 2003).]

[Request #S8417]

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The Cost of Universal Access to Quality Preschool in Illinois: A Report to Governor George H. Ryan's Task Force on Universal Access to Preschool. By Stacie Carolyn Golin, Institute for Women's Policy Research, and others. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2003. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/preschoolIL.pdf

["This report details the estimated cost of Illinois' proposed universal preschool program over its first ten years. The report is a part of ongoing work to provide research support to early care and education policymakers, advocates, and researchers nationwide."]

[Request #S8418]

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"The Early Catastrophe: The Thirty Million Word Gap by Age Three." By Betty Hart, University of Kansas, and Todd R. Risley, University of Alaska. IN: American Educator (Spring 2003) [online.]

Full Text at: www.aft.org/american_educator/spring2003/catastrophe.html

["A study of language skills in 3-year-olds found that children from professional families used significantly more words than children from low-income households. The study suggests that a language gap develops by age 3 and continues to widen in later years." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (June 12, 2003).]

[Request #S8427]

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EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

Misunderstood Minds: Understanding Kids Who Struggle to Learn. (WGBH Boston, MA) 2002. Video.

["As many as one in five families are coping with children who struggle to learn. Many of these children don't fit any clinical diagnosis, but for some reason, they aren't learning. Learning specialists believe that they now possess a key that will ultimately help struggling students, their parents, and teachers better identify and manage learning problems -- each mind works differently and has it own unique strengths and weaknesses." NOTE: Misunderstood Minds ... is available for a 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8420]

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2002 National Opinion Poll: Education. By David A. Bositis, Joint Center For Political and Economic Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2003. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.jointcenter.org/whatsnew/2002-education-poll.pdf

["While both black and white Americans rank education as one of the most important national problems, their views on the subject differ - sometimes considerably. These racial differences exist alongside of, and are related to, other factors that influence individual views on education policy, including age (notably older adults versus younger ones) and ideology (notably liberals versus conservatives)."]

[Request #S8421]

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EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS

The Condition of Education 2003. By John Wirt and others, National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2003. 327 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003067.pdf

["This report summarizes important developments and trends in education using the latest available data. The indicators represent a consensus of professional judgment on the most significant national measures of the condition and progress of education for which accurate data are available. The print edition includes 44 indicators in six main areas. This edition also includes a special analysis on the reading achievement and classroom experiences of kindergarteners and 1st graders."]

[Request #S8419]

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HEAD START

Head Start Reauthorization: A Preliminary Analysis of H.R. 2210, the "School Readiness Act of 2003." By Rachel Schumacher and others, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2, 2003; Revised June 17, 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1055360073.64/HR2210_analysis.pdf

["This year, Congress is scheduled to reauthorize Head Start, a federal-to-local grant program for the provision of early childhood education and comprehensive services, including health, nutrition, parental involvement, social, and other services, for low-income preschool children and their families. This preliminary analysis provides section-by-section details on what the bill proposes, noting where questions remain about the meaning and intent of the language."]

[Request #S8422]

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Strengthening Head Start: What the Evidence Shows. By the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) June 2003. 56 p.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/StrengthenHeadStart03/report.pdf

["The single most important goal of the Head Start reauthorization should be to improve Head Start and other preschool programs to ensure children are prepared to succeed in school. This paper describes the limited educational progress for children in Head Start and the problems resulting from a fragmented approach to early childhood programs and services. The paper also presents evidence from early childhood research and documents state efforts that have successfully addressed these problems. Finally, the paper explains the President’s proposal for Head Start reauthorization, which builds on the evidence to strengthen the program and, through coordination, improve preschool programs in general to help ensure that children are prepared to succeed in school."]

[Request #S8423]

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Head Start Improves Achievement and Reduces Crime. By Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. (Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, Washington, DC) April 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/reports/HeadStartBrief.pdf

["Quality pre-kindergarten and child care programs, like Head Start, have long-term impacts on the lives of children from disadvantaged families, increasing high school graduation rates and decreasing crime, according to this brief. It finds that current Head Start funding is sufficient to serve only 60 percent of 3- and 4-year-old children in poverty, and Early Head Start serves less than five percent of younger children in poverty." Connect for Kids (May 19, 2003).]

[Request #S8424]

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House GOP Head Start Proposal: The Head Start Super-Waiver. By the Democratic Staff of the Education & Workforce Committee. (U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC) June 2, 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ca-headstart.org/Block%20Grant%20Talking%20Points%20(detailed).pdf

["According to this statement, the new Head Start block grant is not a small demonstration. It’s a 50 state superwaiver of the Head Start program. Poor children will be the first guinea pigs of superwaiver authority, with few quality standards requirements, little oversight and almost no monitoring."]

[Request #S8425]

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LATINOS

From Risk to Opportunity: Fulfilling the Educational Needs of Hispanic Americans in the 21st Century. By the President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans. (The Commission, Washington, DC) March 31, 2003. 91 p.

Full Text at: www.yesican.gov/paceea/finalreport.pdf

["This report offers six recommendations: 1) Set new and high expectations across America for Hispanic American children; 2) Support full implementation and enforcement of the No Child Left Behind Act; 3) Reinforce a high quality teaching profession; 4) Initiate a new coherent and comprehensive research agenda on the educational development of Hispanic Americans; 5) Ensure full access for Hispanic American students to enter college; 6) Increase the accountability and coordination of programs within the federal government to better serve Hispanic American children and their families."]

[Request #S8426]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Getting In, Not Getting In, and Why: Understanding SCHIP Enrollment. By Ian Hill and Amy Westpfahl Lutzky, Health Policy Center, Urban Institute. Occasional Paper No. 66. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2003. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310793_OP-66.pdf

["This report examines state efforts to enroll and retain children in SCHIP (State Children's Health Insurance Program). It specifically analyzes information about the application process for SCHIP and describes various policy strategies that affect the rate of approval and denial of coverage." CDF Child Health Information Project (June 6, 2003).]

[Request #S8428]

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SCHIP's Steady Enrollment Growth Continues: Final Report. By Marilyn Ellwood and others, Mathematica Policy Research. Prepared for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (Mathematica Policy Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts) May 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/PDFs/schipstead.pdf

["This report provides state-level data on annual and quarterly enrollment in SCHIP and Medicaid, from fiscal years 1998 through 2001. It augments the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services annual reports on SCHIP enrollment trends by (1) using information on program characteristics to analyze differences in state enrollment patterns through 2001, (2) reviewing annual and quarterly data to describe growth patterns and program turnover, and (3) estimating the extent to which SCHIP has expanded coverage of low-income uninsured children beyond those covered by Medicaid."]

[Request #S8429]

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EXERCISE

Physical Activity Among Adults: United States, 2000. By Patricia M. Barnes and Charlotte A. Schoenborn, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (CDC, Washington, DC) May 2003. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad333.pdf

["About 19% of Americans ... say they have a high level of activity at work and during their time off. And people who do more walking, lifting or carrying during their regular daily activities are more likely to be active in their leisure time than people who are couch potatoes.... The new survey found that 32% of people say they engage in regular leisure time activities of moderate or vigorous intensity such as walking, running, biking or playing basketball.... But with obesity continuing to increase, "it looks like we need to do more".... Right now, 120 million Americans weigh too much. The government recommends that people do at least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week." USA Today (May 15, 2003) 12D.]

[Request #S8430]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Closing Health Insurance Gaps For Families: WIC Can Help Make it Happen; Findings From a Southern California Pilot Project. By Wendy Jacobson and others. (The Children's Partnership, Santa Monica, California, and California WIC Association, Sacramento, California) May 2003. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.childrenspartnership.org/expresslane/TCP-WICReport.pdf

["This study demonstrates that a well-planned strategy for WIC staff to provide intensive, one-on-one application assistance can help increase health insurance enrollments. The results of such 'stepped-up' efforts far surpass what has resulted from the regular education and referral activities WIC sites have routinely performed. Yet the complexity of insurance program rules and enrollment processes continue to deter families in their intention to seek coverage. It recommends that the state should maximize the potential of WIC as a health insurance gateway by implementing Express Lane Eligibility at WIC agencies."]

[Request #S8431]

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INFANTS

"Using Economic Information in a Quality Improvement Collaborative." By Jeannette Rogowski. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 4 (April 2003) pp. e411-e418.

Full Text at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/reprint/111/4/SE1/e411.pdf

["This article provides an overview of neonatal intensive care unit treatment costs for hospitals that participated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Quality Improvement Collaborative Year 2000 (NICQ 2000) and discusses how economic information can be used in quality improvement efforts. The role of level of care and other factors that influence treatment costs are then explored." RAND Child Policy Project Update (May 22, 2003).]

[Request #S8432]

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MENTAL HEALTH

7th World Congress, World Association for Infant Mental Health: Montreal, Canada: [Special Issue.] IN: Infant Mental Health Journal. Vol. 24, No. 3. (May-June 2003) pp. 193-308.

[Includes: "Diversity: Challenges and Opportunity in Infancy;" "Brain and Behavior Interface: Stress and the Developing Brain;" "Infant Mental Health as We Enter the Third Millennium: Can We Prevent Aggression?;" and others. NOTE: Infant Mental Health Journal is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8433]

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SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Comorbid Disorders. By Paige Ouimette and Pamela J. Brown. (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC) 2003. 315 p.

[Includes: "Childhood Trauma, Postraumatic Stress Disorder, Substance Abuse, and Violence;" "Substance Use Disorder-Postraumatic Stress Disorder Comorbidity: A Survey of Treatments and Proposed Practice Guidelines;" "Comorbidity of Substance Use Disorders and Postraumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents;" and others. NOTE: Trauma and Substance Abuse ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8434]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Child Care: Recent State Policy Changes Affecting the Availability of Assistance for Low-Income Families. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. Prepared for the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. GAO-03-588 (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2003. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-588

["Nearly half the states have reduced child-care subsidies for poor families during the past two years. The states' fiscal problems have prompted agencies to restrict eligibility, stop accepting new families or charge them more for the care. The analysis found that the changes have decreased the availability of subsidized day care for low-income working families." The Washington Post (May 5, 2003) A2.]

[Request #S8104]

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Child Care Facing Budget Cuts. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 03-26. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 23, 2003. 8 p.

["The GAO found that while most states expanded their child care assistance programs after the passage of welfare reform in 1996, nearly half the states have tightened access to subsidized child care in the past two years due to budget shortfalls and other factors... Moreover, governors in 11 states proposed further child care cuts for fiscal year (FY)2004... States have broad discretion in determining income-eligibility standards, setting payment rates for providers and determining the share paid by families...States are not required to serve all families who fall below the state determined income threshold."]

[Request #S8435]

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Threatened Progress: U.S. In Danger of Losing Ground on Child Care for Low-Income Working Families. By Jennifer Mezey, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2003.

["Between 1996 and 2001, federal and state spending on child care tripled and the number of children served more than doubled. However, even during this period of growth and progress, the great majority of eligible children remained unserved. States used increased child care funding to address three goals: (1) meet new welfare work requirements, (2) increase the number of non-welfare families receiving care, and (3) improve the quality of care. States are now in danger of losing ground on all three—due principally to frozen federal funding for child care, dwindling welfare reserves, and the continuing fiscal crises in the states. Even more ground will be lost if restrictive welfare requirements are enacted without sufficient child care funding. The extent to which states can even maintain current services will depend in large part on the willingness of Congress to provide increased federal child care funding."]

[Request #S8436]

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GAO Finds State Child Care Assistance Limits Disproportionally Impact Low-Income, Working, Non-TANF Families and Children. By Jennifer Mezey, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 4, 2003. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1055525340.8/GAO_cc.pdf

["This analysis summarizes a recent report by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) that found that, since January 2001, 23 states have adopted policies that reduce the overall availability of child care assistance for low-income working families. The GAO’s 'findings indicate that entry into and remaining in the child care assistance program may be less possible for families, particularly for families not associated with the welfare system. This analysis concludes that increased federal child care funding is needed to effectuate Congressional intent and ensure that more vulnerable, low-income, working families receive the child care assistance they need to support their families and stay off of public assistance."]

[Request #S8437]

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CHILDREN

State Profiles of Child Well-Being: Kids Count Data Book 2003. By the Annie E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2003. 228 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/kidscount/databook/pdfs/e_entire_book.pdf

["This data book reports that while national trends in child well-being have been positive over the past decade, there is still wide variation among states along several critical indicators. Despite the positive trends of the last decade, the report makes it clear that this progress is fragile, threatened by what the Casey Foundation terms 'the high cost of being poor.' Although more than 2.5 million parents have transitioned from welfare to work in the last decade, these and other low-income working families have to pay more for basic goods such as housing, food and transportation, hindering their efforts to build financial security for their children."]

[Request #S8438]

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The State of the World's Children 2003. By Carol Bellamy, United Nations Children's Fund. (UNICEF, New York, New York) 2002. 136 p.

Full Text at: www.unicef.org/pubsgen/sowc03/sowc03.pdf

["This book reports on child participation - the ‘right’ of every child at every age, the responsibility of governments, organizations and families, and a way to promote tolerance, respect for human rights, an appreciation of diversity and peace. The report showcases examples from every region of the world of how things are different when children’s viewpoints are taken into account. Photos and artwork are by children."]

[Request #S8439]

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"The Effects of a Time-Limited Welfare Program on Children: The Moderating Role of Parents' Risk of Welfare Dependency." By Pamela Morris and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. IN: Child Development, vol. 74, no. 3 (May/June 2003) pp. 851-874.

["This study examined the effect of a time-limited welfare program on school-age children. The pattern of impacts suggests that the most negative effects on children occurred for the oldest children -- those who were adolescents at the beginning of the study and ages 15 through 17 at the time of a 4-year follow up study."]

[Request #S8440]

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POVERTY

Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems: The Dramatic Decline of Concentrated Poverty in the 1990's. By Paul A. Jargowsky, University of Texas at Dallas. (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) May 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/jargowskypoverty.pdf

["While the 1990s brought a landmark reversal of decades of increasingly concentrated poverty, the recent economic downturn and the weakening state of many older suburbs underscore that the trend may reverse once again without continued efforts to promote economic and residential opportunity for low-income families."]

[Request #S8304]

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Lessons and Implications for Future Community Employment Initiatives. By Frieda Molina and Craig Howard, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (MDRC, Oakland, California) 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2003/nji_final_report/nji_full.pdf

["Traditional employment programs have tried to address poverty by focusing on efforts that assist individuals. The Neighborhood Jobs Initiative took a different approach. It sought to alleviate concentrated poverty by raising employment levels of entire neighborhoods to match the level prevailing in their metropolitan regions. The developers hypothesized that such concentrated efforts, if successful, would gradually transform low-income communities, representing a new approach to neighborhood revitalization."]

[Request #S8441]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

First Three Years and Beyond: Brain Development and Social Policy. By Edward F. Zigler and others. (Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut) 2003. 272 p.

["This book draws on the latest research from the social sciences and studies on the brain to demonstrate that sound social policy providing for safe and appropriate early care, education, health care, and parent support is critical not only for the optimal development of children, but also for strengthening families, communities, and the nation as a whole." NOTE: First Three Years and Beyond ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8442]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

One Percent For the Kids: New Policies, Brighter Futures for America's Children. Edited by Isabel Sawhill, Brookings Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) 2003. 200 p.

["This book argues that the life prospects of children can be improved substantially by reallocating one percent of the gross domestic product to children’s programs. Each chapter contains a specific proposal for change, as well as information about the rationale and cost of the initiative. The topics covered include preventing teen childbearing, early care and education, parental leave, income support, health care, preschool and after-school programs, strengthening families, making work pay, and moving families to better neighborhoods." NOTE: One Percent For the Kids ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8443]

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