Subject: Studies in the News 03-30 (May 7, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Child custody and domestic violence
   Factors of child delinquency
   Development of child delinquency
EDUCATION
   After-school programs and crime
   Importance of kindergarten
   Early childhood intervention programs
   Quality teachers linked to quality preschools
   Head Start outcomes and state control
   Lessons from educational interventions
   Hispanics and education
   Social readiness for school
   School readiness in South Carolina
   School readiness in Maryland
HEALTH
   Policies regarding children with disabilities
HUMAN SERVICES
   Shoring up child care choices
   Funding early intervention programs
   California child care visions
   Kinship care and foster children
   Permanent homes for foster children
   Welfare agencies and kinship care
   Economic downturn and low-income mothers
   Employment of parents with criminal records
   Unwed parent relationships
   Public expenditures and child outcomes
   Skills and welfare reform
STUDIES TO COME
   Ethnic health care use differentials
   Health services use by children of migrant farm workers
   Meeting needs of employees, their children, and employers
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Child Custody & Domestic Violence: A Call for Safety and Accountability. By Peter G. Jaffe and others. (Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California) 2003. 194 p.

["The book focuses on the complexity of the challenges facing judges, lawyers, legislators, and mental health professionals in developing safe and effective strategies for resolving custody disputes." NOTE: Child Custody and Domestic Violence ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S7869]

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JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency. By Gail A. Wasserman, Columbia University, and others. Prepared for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2003. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/193409.pdf

["This bulletin deals with the risk and protective factors that are involved in developing effective early intervention and protection programs for juvenile offenders under the age of 13.... The authors note that there is no single risk factor that may indicate that a juvenile will develop a tendency towards these behaviors, but that early intervention programs have demonstrated some measure of success." The Scout Report (May 2, 2003).]

[Request #S8031]

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Prevalence And Development of Child Delinquency. By Howard N. Snyder, National Center for Juvenile Justice, and others. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC) March 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/193411.pdf

["This Bulletin draws on findings from OJJDP's Study Group on Very Young Offenders to assess treatment, services, and intervention programs designed for juvenile offenders under the age of 13. [It] reviews treatment and services available to such child delinquents and their families and examines their efficacy."]

[Request #S8032]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

Forty Percent Cut in After-School Funding: America's Lost Opportunity to Prevent 41,000 Crimes and Save $2.4 Billion. By James Alan Fox, Northeastern University. (Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, Washington, DC) 2003. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/reports/SheriffsASBrief2-27-03.pdf

["Congress is considering a proposal to cut federal funds for after-school programs by 40 percent, from $1 billion a year to $600 million...This report states that quality after-school programs have been shown to decrease crime, drug use and teen pregnancy, and to increase high school graduation rates and college enrollment of the young people they serve."]

[Request #S8033]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Kindergarten: An Overlooked Educational Policy Priority. By Sara Vechiotti. Social Policy Report. Vol. 17, No. 2. (Society For Research in Child Development, Ann Arbor, Michigan) 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.srcd.org/spr17-2.pdf

["According to this report, kindergarten is a pivotal transitional year in which children learn foundational skills and develop knowledge necessary for academic success in the early grades... Neither states, nor the federal government, collect enough systematic data on kindergarten, especially at a school district or individual school level.... Thus, an accurate picture of the availability, utilization, and content of kindergarten programs at a national or state level is not available."]

[Request #S8034]

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Do You Believe in Magic? What We Can Expect From Early Childhood Intervention Programs. By Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Columbia University, and others. Social Policy Report. Vol. 17, No. 1. (Society For Research in Child Development, Ann Arbor, Michigan) Spring 2003. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.srcd.org/spr17-1.pdf

["This paper presents evaluations of several early intervention programs, all of which provided high quality, center-based early childhood education and family-oriented services, and explores a variety of perspectives....Early interventions need to be intensive, integrated, high-quality and continuing in order to enhance and sustain children's well-being."]

[Request #S8035]

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Better Teachers, Better Preschools: Student Achievement Linked to Teacher Qualifications. By W. Steven Barnett, National Institute for Early Education Research. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) March 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/policybriefs/2.pdf

["This latest policy brief points out that high-quality preschool education depends on effective, high-quality teachers. It presents current educational requirements for preschool teachers by state and reviews evidence on the importance of teacher qualifications. Policy recommendations include requiring four-year degrees and specialized training for preschool teachers and providing preschool teachers with salaries comparable to their K-12 counterparts."]

[Request #S8036]

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“What Can Be Learned from State-Funded Prekindergarten Initiatives? A Data-Based Approach to the Head Start Devolution Debate.” By Walter S. Gilliam and Carol H. Ripple, Yale University. 21 p. IN: The Head Start Debates (Friendly and Otherwise). Edited by Edward Zigler and Sally J. Styfco. (Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut). (In Press.)

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/HeadStartChapter.pdf

[“State-funded preschool programs often fall short of Head Start, according to a new, nationwide study by Yale University that cites states' uneven and often inferior track record in preschool and predicts poor outcomes for Head Start in many states if it is transferred from federal to state control. The study…examines how state-funded programs operate as a predictor of likely outcomes if Head Start were handed over to the states. Earlier this year, President Bush proposed transferring Head Start, a locally run, comprehensive preschool program for poor children, from federal to state control by block granting the program and moving it to the Department of Education…. Currently, the program is run under the Department of Health and Human Services and operates locally within the communities it serves. Head Start is up for reauthorization this year.” U.S. Newswire (April 29, 2003).]

[Request #S8054]

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EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

"Crash Courses: Hard Lessons from Educational Interventions." By Susan J. Bodilly and others. IN: RAND Review, vol. 27, no. 1 (Spring 2003) pp. 22-29.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/spring2003/crashcourses.html

["Innovative attempts to improve education have flourished over the past decade. Unfortunately, many of the attempts have failed to produce all the desired results. Nevertheless, our assessments of two of the attempts have yielded important, if contrasting, lessons for policymakers. In one attempt, chief executives from some of America’s most successful businesses launched a campaign to redesign public schools nationwide. In the other attempt, community groups working with the United Way launched a campaign to improve early care and education for low-income children."]

[Request #S8053]

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LATINOS

Status and Trends in the Education of Hispanics. By Charmaine Llagas, American Institutes for Research, and Thomas D. Snyder, National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2003. 195 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003008.pdf

["The Hispanic population in the United States is growing rapidly and will soon become the largest minority group, surpassing the Black population by 2005. Hispanics have made gains in several key education areas in the past 20 years, but despite these gains, gaps in academic performance between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White students remain. This study examines the current condition and recent trends in the educational status of Hispanics in the United States."]

[Request #S8037]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Promoting Young Children's Social and Emotional Readiness for School. By Steve Christian, National Conference of State Legislatures. State Legislative Report. Vol. 28, No. 6. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 2003. 13 p.

["A number of advocates, researchers, foundations and others interested in early childhood mental health now are emphasizing the importance of prevention and early intervention to promote social and emotional development in very young children.... Legislators can play an important role in focusing attention on the importance of young children's social and emotional readiness for school."]

[Request #S8038]

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First Steps and Further Steps: Early Outcomes and Lessons Learned From South Carolina's School Readiness Initiative: 1999-2002 Program Evaluation Report. By Child Trends. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) 2003. 222 p.

Full Text at: www.scfirststeps.org/docs/CT%20full%20report.pdf

["South Carolina First Steps to School Readiness is a comprehensive early childhood initiative aimed at improving early childhood development by providing services to children ages zero to five and support to their families in an effort to help children reach school ready to learn. This...program is one of only a few statewide, multicomponent early childhood initiatives in the country. This report is the initial program evaluation."]

[Request #S8039]

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Children Entering School Ready to Learn: School Readiness Information: School Year 2002-03 by State and County. By Maryland State Department of Education. (The Department, Baltimore, Maryland) March 2003. 19 p.

Full Text at: marylandpublicschools.org/special%5Freportsanddata/kreport2003/state%20of%20school%20readiness%20report%2003%20text.doc

["This year’s report provides descriptions of the state of school readiness in Maryland. The results vary among local school systems and provide trend data over time as well as information for specific groups of children."]

[Request #S8040]

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HEALTH

DISABILITIES

Improving Part C Early Intervention: Using What We Know About Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities to Reauthorize Part C of IDEA. By Cindy Oser and Julie Cohen, Zero to Three Policy Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) February 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.zerotothree.org/policy/

["The reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act provides an opportunity to close the gap between what we know and what we do for infants and toddlers with or at risk of disabilities. This policy brief recommends: 1) Permanently reauthorize Part C; 2) Provide sufficient funding to identify and serve all infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities or delays; 3) Enhance early identification of infants and toddlers with disabilities; and 4) Improve the overall quality of services."]

[Request #S8041]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Untapped Potential: How States Contract Directly With Providers To Shore Up Child Care Choices For Low Income Families. By Rachel Schumacher and others, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington DC) April 2003. 88 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1049464392.49/untapped_rpt.pdf

["States currently have the flexibility to contract directly with providers to make child care available to low-income families. According to this first national study of state child care contracting policies, states are using contracts to increase the supply of child care in certain high-need areas, to provide child care to special populations, and to improve the quality of child care program standards and services. Although nearly half the states use contracts to shore up child care supply for low-income families, the full potential of contracting has not yet been tapped."]

[Request #S7887]

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The State Child Care Fund: A Promising Source of Funding for Community-Based Early Intervention and Prevention Programs. By Budget Watch Project of Michigan's Children. (The Project, Lansing, Michigan) April 4, 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.michiganschildren.org/pdf/Apr4BB.pdf

["In her first budget proposal as Governor of Michigan, Jennifer Granholm recommended establishing a new funding mechanism for community-based programs for children and families. Specifically, the Governor proposed that incentives be placed in the current Child Care Fund for communities to provide in-home and other prevention and early intervention services. This paper describes her plans."]

[Request #S8042]

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Child Care Workgroup Report. By Nancy Strohl, Child Care Law Center, and Donita Stromgren, California Child Care Resource and Referral Network, and others. (The Center, San Francisco) April 24, 2003. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.childcarelaw.org/Publications/child%20care%20workgroup%20final%20report.pdf

["In September 2002, the Children's Roundtable Child Care Committee initiated a planning process with four focused workgroups ... to develop and implement a vision of the system California's children need and deserve, and to discuss potential funding cuts in this context. The focus groups are: Access, Affordability and Eligibility; Staff Compensation, Retention and Professional Development; Provider Payment and Rate Structure; [and] License-Exempt Care. The attached reports from each group represent a concise summary of long term issues, policy considerations and proposals."]

[Request #S8043]

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FOSTER CARE

Foster Children Placed with Relatives Often Receive Less Government Help. By Rob Geen, The Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310774_A-59.pdf

["Kinship foster parents receive fewer services for the children in their care than non-kin foster parents despite having greater service needs. The three major reasons kin receive fewer services are: workers offer fewer services to kin than to non-kin foster parents; kin request fewer services from caseworkers; and kin face barriers to accessing services.... The authors suggest that agencies need to improve training of caseworkers and kinship caregivers."]

[Request #S8044]

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Finding Permanent Homes for Foster Children: Issues Raised by Kinship Care. By Rob Geen, The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310773_A-60.pdf

["Kinship care has a far-reaching impact on child welfare agencies' permanency planning efforts and the permanency outcomes of foster children. While long-term foster care is discouraged, workers feel much less urgency to terminate parental rights, close a case, or push for adoption when children are living with kin. Many agencies do not encourage kin to adopt and others do a poor job of explaining the need for adoption or how adoption differs from other permanency options. Kin may have legitimate reasons and financial incentives for not wanting to adopt."]

[Request #S8045]

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When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements. By Karin Malm and Rob Geen, The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310772_A61.pdf

["In most states, child welfare agencies use voluntary kinship arrangements on a fairly limited basis when caseworkers believe that children face low risk of abuse or neglect.... None of the states studied has clear policies, procedures, or guidance on when and how to rely on voluntary kinship care."]

[Request #S8046]

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LOW INCOME

Falling Through the Safety Net: Low-Income Single Mothers in the Jobless Recovery. By Jeff Chapman and Jared Bernstein. (Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC) April 11, 2003. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/Issuebriefs/ib191/ib191.pdf

["As the Senate moves forward with TANF reauthorization, it is vital that policymakers understand that the low-wage labor market in 2003 and beyond is fundamentally different than the labor market of the latter 1990s... Rather than focusing reauthorization efforts on ratcheting up work requirements, the debate should focus on fixing the holes in the safety net and ensuring that those who need help the most have access to public assistance."]

[Request #S8047]

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PARENTS

Helping Parents With Criminal Records Find Employment and Achieve Self-Sufficiency. By Rachel M. Haberkern. (The Finance Project, Washington, DC) March 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.financeprojectinfo.org/WIN/helpingparentswithcriminalrecordsIN.htm

["This brief explores questions that state and local officials might ask when considering efforts to support parents with criminal records. It also highlights state and federal programs that have used different strategies to address the needs of these parents."]

[Request #S8048]

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Strengthening Relationships and Supporting Healthy Marriage Among Unwed Parents. By M. Robin Dion and Barbara Duvaney. (Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, New Jersey) April 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/PDFs/bsfisbr1.pdf

["This issue brief, the first in a series from the Building Strong Families project, focuses on program design. The brief is based on a conceptual framework that identifies factors to consider in developing programs and services to strengthen relationships in unmarried parent families. The framework includes issues related to implementation and service delivery, as well as outcomes that should be affected."]

[Request #S8049]

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RESEARCH

Do Public Expenditures Improve Child Outcomes in the U.S?: A Comparison Across Fifty States. By Kristen Harknett, University of California, Berkeley, and others. Working Paper #03-02. (Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Princeton, New Jersey) March 2003. 39 p.

Full Text at: crcw.princeton.edu/workingpapers/WP03-02-Harknett.pdf

["This paper examines the effects of public expenditures on child outcomes across the United States. The outcomes analyzed in the paper include child health and mortality, standardized test scores, child poverty, and adolescent behavior. Building on recent scholarship, the researchers estimate public expenditures on children across more than thirty social programs and tax credits in 1996. The second section of the paper reviews prior research in the field, while the third section describes their data and methods. The authors conclude that the returns on investments in children are both broad and impressive." The Scout Report (April 25, 2003).]

[Request #S8050]

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WELFARE REFORM

Built To Last: Why Skills Matter for Long-Run Success in Welfare Reform. By Karin Martinson and Julie Strawn, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2003.

["Federal welfare funding, through the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)program discourages states from allowing welfare recipients to participate in education and training programs.... These restriction are at odds with recent research findings.... This paper shows that a person's skill makes a difference in the labor market, even for entry-level jobs."]

Full Report. 38 p.:
http://www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1051044516.05/BTL_report.pdf

Policy Brief. 8 p.:
http://www.clasp.org/Pubs/DMS/Documents/1051044227.54/BTL_brief.pdf

[Request #S8051]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

AFRICAN AMERICANS

"Differences in Use of Health Services Between White and African-American Children Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina." By Paula A. Buescher and others. IN: Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 7, no. 1 (March 2003) pp. 45-52.

["This study examines differences in use of health services between white and African American children enrolled in Medicaid and compares use of primary preventive services, diagnosis and treatment of selected common childhood illnesses, and Medicaid expenditures. African American children had consistently lower Medicaid expenditures and lower use of health services than white children. They were also significantly less likely to receive well-child and dental services."]

[Request #S8030]

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MIGRANT & SEASONAL LABOR

"Health Services Use By Children of Migratory Agricultural Workers: Exploring the Role of Need for Care." By Andrea Weathers, Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 5 (May 2003) pp. 956-963.

["This cross-sectional household survey identified migrant families in eastern North Carolina 1) to assess the determinants of health services use among users and nonusers of health services; and, 2) to evaluate the association between health status and health services use. It found that migrant children using health services are distinct from nonusers with regards to sociodemographic factors, enabling resources, and need for care. Health services use is associated with less than very good perceived health, despite resource barriers and sociodemographic disadvantages."]

[Request #S8052]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Sparking Connections: Community-Based Strategies For Helping Family, Friend, and Neighbor Caregivers Meet the Needs of Employees, Their Children and Employers. By Deborah Stahl and others. (Families and Work Institute, New York, New York) 2003.

["This report is part of an initiative that is identifying and demonstrating community-based strategies for helping family, friend and neighbor caregivers meet the needs of working parents, their children and employers. The next step in the initiative is a two-year demonstration and evaluation phase with communities across the country, followed by a dissemination phase to share effective strategies and lessons learned." NOTE: Sparking Connections...will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S8055]

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