Subject: Studies in the News 03-11 (March 3, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EMPLOYMENT
   Staff diversity at University of California
   The state of working California
   Immigrants and labor market conditions
   IT workers' health problems
   Older workers and labor force participation
   Employment assistance for older workers
   Economic status of women in California
HUMAN SERVICES
   Long-term family self-sufficiency plan
   Child care demand and supply under CalWORKs
   Linking family violence services and welfare
   Transforming child welfare and TANF
   TANF reauthorization legislation
   At-risk children in TANF families
   Changes in New York welfare systems
   Research on welfare is important
   Children receiving CWS aid
   Disabled welfare recipients
   Consequences of welfare reform
   Development of welfare policy
   Trade-offs in welfare reform
   Evaluating welfare reform
   Confronting poverty
   Welfare reform and child well-being
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, September 6, 2002
   Studies in the News, October 25, 2002
   Studies in the News, November 5, 2002
   Studies in the News, November 22, 2002
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EMPLOYMENT

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

A Status Report on Career Staff Diversity At The University of California. By UC Office of the President and Greenlining Institute Community Partnership on Diversity. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) January 2003. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.greenlining.org/research/reports/uc-career-status-report.pdf

[“While the University of California’s workforce as a whole reflects the racial composition of the state’s population, UC had failed to diversify the ranks of its presidents, chancellors and other senior managers, who are still overwhelming white and male, a new study had found. The … institute … found that of the 310 senior management positions in the university system, just 14 percent were filled by minorities and 27 percent by women. Diversity among senior managers is important because they are the ones who shape university policy on diversity and affirmative action. San Francisco Chronicle (February 6, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S7381]

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CALIFORNIA

Boom, Bust, And Beyond: The State Of Working California. By The California Budget Project (The Project, Sacramento, California) January 2003. 115 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/r0212SWCfinal.pdf

["California experienced unprecedented job growth during the expansion, adding more than 500,000 jobs between 1999 and 2000 alone. However, the wages and incomes of many workers and their families barely surpassed inflation, despite strong job growth and record low unemployment."

[Request #S7382]

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IMMIGRATION

"Assessing Immigrant Policy Options: Labor Market Conditions and Postreform Declines in Immigrants' Receipt of Welfare." By Magnus Lofstrom and Frank D. Bean. IN: Demography, vol. 39, no. 4 (November 2002) pp. 617-637.

["We analyze the contribution of local labor market conditions to the explanation of relative declines in immigrants' receipt of welfare from 1994 to 2000. The results of a series of models that included labor market-area and state fixed effects indicate that employment and unemployment rates across metropolitan statistical areas and states account for at least one third of the observed relative decrease among immigrants."]

[Request #S7383]

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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH

"The Price of Progress?" By Tod Newcombe. IN: Government Technology, (January 2003) pp. 010-011, 042.

Full Text at: www.govtech.net/magazine/story.phtml?id=36403&issue=1:2003

["With the proliferation of IT throughout government, public-sector workers have grown concerned about health risks from overuse of computers.... Neither government agency breaks down the number of injuries due directly to computer use, but in 1999 the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported about 28,000 cases of carpal tunnel syndrome.... Wrists and backs aren't all that hurt when workers use computers -- vision blurs, and hips, thighs and even ankles throb with pain."]

[Request #S7384]

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OLDER WORKERS

Older Workers: Policies of Other Nations to Increased Labor Force Participation. By United States General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, D.C.) February 2003. 59 p.

Full Text at: http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-307

["In recent years, the challenges of aging populations have become a topic of increasing concern to the developing nations.... The retirement policy reforms in Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are expected to lead to higher labor force participation of older workers.... However, although incentives to work to later ages have been created through reforms to their national and employer provided pension systems, officials from each nation stressed that these policy changes must be accompanied by labor market reforms and economic growth to provide job opportunities to older workers if they are to be effective."

[Request #S7385]

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Older Workers: Employment Assistance Focuses on Subsidized Jobs and Job Search, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access to Other Services. By U.S. General Accounting office. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2003. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-350

["Some economists predict that by 2030, the United States could experience a labor shortage of 35 million workers.... GAO recommends that the Secretary of Labor assess Workforce Investment Act performance measures and make adjustments as necessary to eliminate disincentives to enrolling older workers in the program."]

[Request #S7386]

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WOMEN

Failing To Make Ends Meet: A Report on the Economic Status of Women in California. By Inger P. Brink and Judy Patrick. The Women's Foundation. (The Foundation, San Francisco, California) 2002. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.twfusa.org/fullreport02.pdf

["Women comprise nearly half of California's labor force but are concentrated in traditional, low-wage jobs. In addition, women continue to earn substantially less than their male counterparts, even when their educational attainment levels are the same or when they are employed in the same occupation. Often, what a women earns is shaped as much by race as it is by gender."]

[Request #S7387]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

Countywide Evaluation of the Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan: Countywide Evaluation Report. By Elain Reardon and others, Rand Labor & Population. Prepared for the County of Los Angeles. MR-1533-LTFSS. (Rand, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 139 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1533/

["The Long-Term Family Self-Sufficiency Plan (LTFSS) consists of 46 projects with a unifying goal to promote self-sufficiency among families that are participating in the CalWorks program.... The County ... has worked hard over the first two years of implementation to put procedures and infrastructure in place to deliver services to low-income families.... Nevertheless, many of the projects are not yet providing services or have only recently begun to do so."]

[Request #S7388]

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CHILD CARE

Child Care Demand and Supply Under CalWORKS: The Early Impacts of Welfare Reform for California's Children, 1998-2000. By Diane Hirshberg, University of California, Berkeley. Working Paper Series 02-3. Prepared for the California Department of Social Services. (Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, California) October 2002. 34 p.

Full Text at: pace.berkeley.edu/wp_02-3.pdf

["Prompted by changes in the child-care system and welfare reform, the Department of Social Services asked PACE researchers to look at how new welfare-to-work and child-care capacity building were affecting supply and demand in the child-care system. This paper provides an overview of our findings in response to this request."]

[Request #S7389]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Domestic Violence Prevalence and Effects on Employment in Two California TANF Populations: Working Paper. By Joan Meisel and others, California Institute of Mental Health. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.cimh.org/downloads/WorkingPaperVAW.pdf

["The number of women using the Family Violence Option is an extremely poor indicator of the number of women who could benefit from services for their domestic violence issues.... What is clearly needed is a stronger linkage between these service providers and the welfare system in order to ensure that employment issues are being addressed and improve efforts to identify the many women experiencing very serious abuse but receiving no assistance."]

[Request #S7390]

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A Vision For Eliminating Poverty And Family Violence: Transforming Child Welfare And TANF In El Paso County, Colorado. By Rutledge Hudson, The Center For Law And Social Policy. Publication No. 03-02b. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2003. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1043875845.58/El_Paso_report.pdf

["The report findings are based upon site visits, interviews, review of Department documents, and analysis of other outside reports.... The study provides a comprehensive look at El Paso County's reform efforts and offers lessons for others who hope to accomplish similar reforms." CLASP Policy Brief (January 2003)1.]

[Request #S7391]

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Recycling An Unwise Proposal: State Concerns and New State Fiscal Realities Ignored In House Republican Welfare Bill. By Sharon Parrott and others, Center On Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) February 7, 2003. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/2-7-03tanf.pdf

["House Republicans have proposed a bill with the same formula as last year -- one that imposes expensive mandates, reduces state flexibility, and fails to provide needed additional resources. This is particularly striking in light of the almost unprecedented fiscal crisis now facing states, the cuts states already have made and are now considering in TANF and child care programs."]

[Request #S7392]

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Working Paper: TANF Families in Which There are Alcohol or Other Drug, Mental Health, or Domestic Violence Issues: Child Well-Being After One Year of Welfare Reform. By Daniel Chandler and others, California Institute for Mental Health. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) January 2003. 74 p.

Full Text at: www.cimh.org/downloads/CalWORKsChildren.pdf

[" This study reports on risks that threaten children of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients who have alcohol or drug, mental health, or domestic violence problems." Connect for Kids (February 10, 2003)]

[Request #S7393]

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WELFARE

Recent Changes in New York Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. By Lynne Fender and others, The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310564_SU12.pdf

["New York and the other states ... have made many changes across the spectrum of social safety net programs. This brief concentrates on three important areas of change -- family assistance, child care, and child welfare.... New York reported higher levels than most other states of meaningful collaborative arrangements between child welfare and family assistance."]

[Request #S7394]

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Research on Welfare Programs Important During a Period of Uncertainty. By Barbara B. Blum, Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism. (The Forum, New York, New York) January 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.researchforum.org/newsletter/forum61.pdf

["The failure of Congress to reauthorize legislation for cash assistance and work-related activities occurs during a period of domestic and international turmoil, a period of economic downturn, and political tensions.... As a result, unemployment rates have begun to increase for the first time in 9 years...While the economic environment is daunting, opportunities exist to apply lessons learned from research already completed, to sustain and monitor research now underway, and to identify new areas for research, such as work experience programs and service integration."]

[Request #S7395]

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The Child Welfare System and CalWorks: Overlap in California Child Populations. By the Children's Program Team, California Department of Social Services. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.dss.cahwnet.gov/research/res/pdf/CWS_CalWORKs.pdf

["Statewide, 60 percent of children in the Child Welfare System receive AFDC or CalWorks aid prior to CWS -- about 85 thousand children.... Hispanic children are largest group with CalWorks aid before CWS. American Indian children have highest rate of CalWorks before CWS. Children entering CWS with CalWorks are most likely to be ages 5-9. Children entering CWS without CalWorks are likely to be ages 0-4."]

[Request #S7396]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform: Former Recipients with Impairments Less Likely to Be Employed and More Likely to Receive Federal Supports. By U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2002. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-210

["After leaving TANF, people with impairments were one-third as likely as people without impairments to be employed, according to a statistical model.... Forty percent of leavers with impairments reported receiving cash assistance from Supplemental Security Income, a federal program designed to assist low-income individuals who are aged, blind, or disabled. Leavers with impairments were also more likely to receive non cash support in the form of Food Stamps and Medicaid than their counterparts without impairments."]

[Request #S7397]

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Consequences of Welfare Reform: A Research Synthesis. By Jeffrey Grogger and others, Rand Labor and Population Program. DRU-2676-DHHS. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 332 p.

Full Text at: www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre/welfare_reform/rand_report.pdf

["This synthesis showed that welfare reform can have both positive and negative effects on children and that the effects may vary with the age of the child. The most favorable effects are associated with financial work incentives.... Work requirements do not appear to have strong favorable or unfavorable impacts on children. However, both policies are associated with unfavorable outcomes for adolescents." Rand Labor and Population Research Brief (July 2002) 1.]

[Request #S7398]

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Studies of Welfare Populations; Data Collection and Research Issues. By Michele Ver Ploeg and others. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC)2002. 526 p.

["This book discusses the development of welfare policy, including the landmark 1996 federal law that devolved most of the responsibility for welfare policies and their implementation to the states. After scrutinizing the available research, the National Research Council identifies and describes gaps in what is currently known about the effects of welfare reform." NOTE: Studies of Welfare Populations ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S7399]

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"Conflicting Benefits: Trade-Offs in Welfare Reform." By Jeffrey Grogger and others. IN: Rand Review, vol. 26, no. 3 (Fall 2002) pp. 16-23.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.12.02/benefits.html

[" We suspect that progress will become harder to sustain as welfare recipients begin to reach their time limits in significant numbers. For these reasons, it is important that the federal and state policymakers who design welfare reform policies review and revise them with realistic expectations based on what we already know about the likely consequences."]

[Request #S7400]

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"Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States. By Rebecca M. Blank, University of Michigan. IN: Journal of Economic Literature, (December 2002) pp. 1105-1166.

["This article reviews the major changes in U.S. welfare programs over the 1990s and critiques some of the key methodological approaches and results in areas where a substantial economic research literature has accumulated. Particular focus is on areas where the new research contributes to long-standing debates."]

[Request #S7401]

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Work, Welfare and Politics: Confronting Poverty in the Wake of Welfare Reform. By Frances Fox Piven and Joan Acker and others.(University of Oregon Press, Eugene, Oregon) 2002. 368 p.

[Includes: "Families, Caregiving and Wage Work;" "Struggling to Live and to Learn: Single Mothers, Welfare Policy and Post-Secondary Education in Michigan;" and others. NOTE: Work, Welfare and Politics ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S7402]

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A Decade of Welfare Reform: What We've Learned About Child Well-Being. Labor and Population Program. RAND Research Brief. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB5068/

["In sum, the evidence suggests the impacts of reforms differ with the stage of a child's development. Countervailing forces seem to both promote and diminish a child's healthy behavioral, social, cognitive, and physical development. The resulting impacts of welfare reform policies on child outcomes are likely to depend on the strength of the opposing forces and on the child's stage of development and other circumstances."]

[Request #S7403]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-52 (September 6, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0252.htm

[Includes: "Minimum wage;" "Congressional welfare reform reauthorization proposals;" "Returning to welfare;" "Welfare time limits;" "Faith based initiatives in welfare reform;" "Technical change and wage gap;" and others].

[Request #S7404]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-64 (October 25, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0264.htm

[Includes: "Majority of public schools meet state goals," "Court upholds repeal of bilingual education," "School district turnaround," "Report card on children in California," "Funding provided to promote adoption," and others].

[Request #S7405]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-68 (November 8, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0268.htm

[Includes: "States' K-16 education systems," "Economic future tied to classrooms," "Library use and economic hard times," "Students not leaving failing schools," "Santa Monica's living wage law," "Eligible parents stay off TANF," "Lost ground and welfare reform;" and others.]

[Request #S7406]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services" IN: Studies in the News, 02-71 (November 22, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0271.htm

[Includes: "Class size reduction in California," "Minority enrollments in colleges," "UC admissions policy," "Employment outcomes foster care youth," "Low-income Californians and hunger;" and others.]

[Request #S7407]

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