Subject: Studies in the News 02-73 (December 9, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EMPLOYMENT
   Dislocated workers as entreprenuers
   Contingent jobs with no benefits
   Public housing residents
   Protecting day laborer rights
   Labor market conditions
   State of California labor
   Monitoring employee internet use
   Social security income
   Retirement planning
   Unemployment insurance reform
   Workers exhaust unemployment benefits
   Recent trends in umemployment
   Welfare reform and the labor market
   Workforce education for Latinos
HUMAN SERVICES
   Public housing immigrant population and employment
   The well-being of long-term welfare recipients
   Cost of federal welfare bill
   Welfare reform and poor families
   Helping welfare recipients keep jobs
   Effects of welfare-to-work on children
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, October 25, 2002
   Studies in the News, November 5, 2002
   Studies in the News, November 22, 2002
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EMPLOYMENT

DISPLACED WORKERS

Dark Cloud, Silver Lining: Business Creation by Dislocated Workers in Minnesota. By Neal Young. Minnesota Department of Trade and Economic Development. (The Department, Saint Paul, Minnesota) September 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.dted.state.mn.us/PDFs/disloc-wkr-rpt.pdf

["When workers are laid-off they want to 'get back on their feet' as quickly as possible. While most do so by finding employment with another company or organization, others decide to start their own business.... A survey provides evidence that these new entrepreneurs are a potentially important mechanism in helping the state's economy 'get back on its feet' toward economic recovery."]

[Request #S6834]

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EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

Contingent or Non-Standard Work: 2002 Policy Summary. By the Center for Policy Alternatives (The Center, Washington, DC) 2002. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cfpa.org/issues/workcompensation/contingent/contingentwork.doc

["Contingent or 'non-standard' workers, comprising upwards of 30 percent of the workforce, lack the benefits and protections extended to full-time employees, including health care, vacation, and unemployment insurance.... Women and people of color are disproportionately employed in contingent jobs with low wages and few or no benefits.... In recent years, states have begun to enact laws extending employment protections and unemployment benefits to contingent workers."]

[Request #S6835]

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JOB TRAINING

The Employment Experiences of Public Housing Residents: Findings from the Jobs-Plus Baseline Survey. By John M. Martinez, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, Oakland, California) September 2002. 81 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/jp_employment/jp_employment_full.pdf

["Public housing residents are commonly thought to be harder to employ than other low-income working-age populations, but detailed evidence on their actual employment experiences and difficulties is scarce. The dearth of information hinders efforts by policymakers and administrators to reduce the high rates of joblessness, and related social problems found in many public housing developments across the county."]

[Request #S6836]

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LABOR

Worker Protection: Labor's Efforts to Enforce Protections for Day Laborers Could Benefit from Better Data Guidance. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-925. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2002. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-925

["Laws Ineffective in Protecting Day Laborer Rights, Report Says: The nation's day laborers, mostly male Hispanic immigrants who typically gather on street corners each morning hoping for work, may be expecially vulnerable to workplace abuses.... The report also said a survey last year likely undercounted the number of day laborers. The federal agency pegged the number at 260,000 nationwide." Gannett News Service (September 27, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6837]

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LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS

The State of the State's Labor Markets. By the Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development Department. (The Division, Sacramento, California) September 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.calmis.ca.gov/specialreports/Labor-Day-Briefing-2002.pdf

["Although California has lost 61,400 jobs over the past year, 11,700 jobs were added last month. Job gains were seen in the government, finance, insurance, real estate and retail and wholesale trade sectors." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (September 14, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6838]

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The State of California Labor. By Christopher Erickson and others. California University Press. (The Press, Berkeley, California) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/ile/scl/2002/index.html

["The rapid growth of economic inequality in California ... during the recent decade is a well-established fact. Yet there is ongoing controversy about the cause of this trend and about the forces perpetuating it.... Our analysis of the quality of jobs generated in California during the long economic expansion from 1992 to 2000 demonstrates that the state's labor market has become increasingly polarized between 'good' and 'bad' jobs ... with less job growth in the middle." NOTE: The State of California Labor ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S6853]

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PRIVACY

Employee Privacy: Computer-Use Monitoring Practices and Policies of Selected Companies. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-717. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2002. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d02717.pdf

["Large Companies Routinely Monitor Employee Internet Use, GAO Finds: Courts generally have found that employees do not have privacy rights with the use of company-owned equipment ... Some legal experts believe that these laws should be more protective of employee privacy by limiting what aspects of employee computer use employers may monitor and how they may do so." Washington Internet Daily (October 29, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6839]

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RETIREMENT

Social Security: The Largest Source of Income for Both Women and Men in Retirement. By Heidi Hartmann and Sunhwa Lee, Institute for Women's Policy Research. IWPR Publication #D455. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/d455.pdf

["The report focuses on four major sources of income for persons aged 50 and older -- earnings, Social Security, pensions, and assets--and shows that during retirement, Social Security is the most universal, the largest, and the longest-lasting source of income for both men and women. As other sources of income are depleted as the years go by, the value of Social Security's safety net increases in importance for both men and women."]

[Request #S6840]

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Legal and Institutional Impediments to Partial Retirement and Part-Time Work By Older Workers. By Rudolph G. Penner and others, The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) November 20, 2002. 111 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410587_SloanFinal.pdf

["Within ten years, millions of skilled baby boomers will begin retiring without a sufficient pool of new workers to replace them. The imminent shortage of experienced workers creates an urgent need to revamp our retirement system." Moving Ideas News (December 4, 2002)]

[Request #S6851]

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UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Model Legislation: Unemployment Insurance for Recently Unemployed: Unemployment Insurance Eligibility for Part-Time Workers Act 2002. By the Center for Policy Alternatives (The Center, Washington, DC) 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cfpa.org/issues/workcompensation/uirecently/ui-recently.doc

["Unemployment insurance (UI) is our nation's first line of defense in economic downturns, but millions of Americans are outside its safety net.... With unemployment benefits claims reaching levels not seen since the recession of the early 1990s, UI reform is an urgent priority in the states.... Suggested state UI reforms include raising weekly UI benefits; adopting alternative base periods; providing equitable coverage of part time workers; adopting extended benefit triggers; and suspending waiting periods for collection of UI."]

[Request #S6841]

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370,000 Workers Exhaust Temporary Federal Unemployment Benefits in September Alone; Total Exhaustees Hit 1.5 Million Mark, With the Pace of Exhaustion Much Faster Than in Last Recession And California Factsheet. By Wendell Primus and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (The Center, Washington, DC) October 29, 2002.

["The new report covers ... changes in the level of long-term employment and in the average duration of unemployment.... The study finds that since the Temporary Federal Unemployment Compensation program began in March 2002, about 1.5 million workers have exhausted those benefits." U.S. Newswire (October 31, 2002) 1.]

Report. 7 p. http://www.cbpp.org/10-29-02ui.pdf
California Factsheet. 7 p. http://www.cbpp.org/10-29-02ui-ca.pdf

[Request #S6842]

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UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

"Recent Trends in Unemployment Duration." By Rob Valletta. IN: FRBSF Economic Letter, vol. 2002 no. 35 (November 22, 2002) pp. 1-4.

[Between late 2000 and early 2002, the national unemployment rate increased by about 2 percentage points, from 3.9% to about 6%, this represents about 2.8 million additional individuals looking for work."]

[Request #S6850]

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WELFARE RECIPIENTS

New Strategies to Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project. By the Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) February 2002. 99 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/era_conferencerpt/era_2000_2001.pdf

[" The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA)evaluation is the most comprehensive effort thus far to learn what works in promoting stable employment and career progression for welfare recipients and other low-income workers.... This first report on the ERA evaluation describes the emerging ERA programs and identifies some early lessons on the design and implementation of relatively large-scale retention and advancement programs."]

[Request #S6843]

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WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT

Workforce Education for Latinos: Politics, Programs, and Practices. By Ana G. Huerta-Macias. (Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, Connecticut) 2002. 137 p.

["This book is about education for Latinos who are at the bottom of the educational and economic ladder.... Little attention is being paid to remedying the political, economic and educational problems, which stem from misguided, and discriminatory policies of government, business, and educational entitities.... This book illuminates some of these issues as relevant to federally subsidized workforce education programs." NOTE: Workforce Education ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S6844]

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HUMAN SERVICES

JOB OPPORTUNITIES & BASIC SKILLS TRAINING (JOBS)

The Special Challenges of Offering Employment Programs in Culturally Diverse Communities: The Jobs-Plus Experience in Public Housing Developments. By Linda Yuriko Kato, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, Oakland, California) September 2002. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/jp_ethnic/jp_ethnic_fullreport.pdf

[“Recent waves of immigration have made public housing populations around the nation increasingly diverse, challenging housing authorities to find new ways of providing employment assistance to residents of different ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds.... This report examines how the challenge was met by administrators and staff at two housing developments participating in the Jobs-Plus Community Revitalization Initiative for Public Housing.]

[Request #S6845]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Work, Income, and Well-Being Among Long-Term Welfare Recipients: Findings From a Survey of California's "Precarious" Families. By Matthew Stagner and others, Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310559_DP02-10.pdf

["This survey of 546 long-term recipients in two California counties demonstrates great diversity in work, income, and dependency. After nearly a decade of attachment to welfare, working non-poor families achieved self-sufficiency and were out of poverty.... Almost two-thirds were working; and over two-fifths were out of poverty."]

[Request #S6846]

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WELFARE

The Cost of the Senate Finance Committee Welfare Bill. By Zoe Neuberger and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 16, 2002. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-16-02tanf.pdf

["The Senate Finance Committee approved bipartisan welfare reauthorization legislation.... The Congressional Budget Office estimates that this legislation would cost $11.5 billion over five years.... Over the next five years, the 'cost' is slightly below the level of federal funding needed for the low-income programs that the bill covers simply to keep pace with inflation."]

[Request #S6847]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform in Cleveland: Implementation, Effects, and Experiences of Poor Families and Neighborhoods. By Thomas Brock and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, Oakland, California) September 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/uc_cleveland/uc_cleveland_fullreport.pdf

["[This study] finds overall improvement in many trends.... Despite improvements, many families remain poor, and a few neighborhoods -- primarily in the central city -- remain highly distressed. Follow-up is needed to determine how welfare reform fares under less auspicious economic circumstances and what effect time limits will have in the long term."]

[Request #S6848]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Helping Welfare Recipients Keep Jobs. By Courtney Jarchow, National Conference of State Legislatutes. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 45. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) November/December 2002.

["Providing support services can keep parents from returning to welfare and improve family well-being. Thirty-four states offer case management services, 16 have education and training programs, and 32 provide other services, such as bonuses, clothing or transportation, to employed parents who leave cash assistance."]

[Request #S6849]

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National Evaluation of Welfare-To-Work Strategies: Impacts of a Mandatory Welfare-To-Work Program on Children at School Entry and Beyond: Findings From the NEWWS Child Outcomes Study. By Sharon M. McGroder and others, Child Trends. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) October 2002. 17 p.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/NEWWS/child-outcomes/brief.htm

["This groundbreaking multi-site study of the long-term impacts of mandatory welfare-to-work programs found few effects on young children of single mothers assigned to one of these JOBS programs. In addition, neither the employment- or education-focused programs emerged as more beneficial or detrimental to children. Nevertheless, impacts were found, indicating that policies seeking to increase employment among low-income single mothers can, in fact, affect their young children."]

[Request #S6852]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-64 (October 25, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0264.htm#EDUCATION

[Includes: "Majority of public schools meet state goals," "Court upholds repeal of bilingual education," "School district turnaround," "Report card on children in California," "Funding provided to promote adoption," and others].

[Request #S5795]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-68 (November 5, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0268.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "States' K-16 education systems," "Economic future tied to classrooms," "Library use and economic hard times," "Students not leaving failing schools," "Santa Monica's living wage law," "Eligible parents stay off TANF," "Lost ground and welfare reform;" and others.]

[Request #S5796]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services" IN: Studies in the News, 02-71 (November 22, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0271.htm#EDUCATION

[Includes: "Class size reduction in California," "Minority enrollments in colleges," "UC admissions policy," "Employment outcomes foster care youth," "Low-income Californians and hunger;" and others.]

[Request #S5797]

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