Subject: Studies in the News 02-50 (September 3, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Nursing students completion rates
   Juggling work, family, and college
EMPLOYMENT
   Nonprofit employment in California
   Intentional job discrimination
   Flexible work schedules on the rise
   Demand for IT workers
   Research and development trends by county
   Family leave benefits
   Older women in the workforce
   Workers in underground economy
HUMAN SERVICES
   Aging out of foster care
   Chicago young mothers misinformed about TANF eligibility
   TANF children at risk
   Microenterprise development and TANF
   Parents of disabled children unable to leave TANF
   TANF recipients'mental health and violence problems
   Income distribution and welfare
   Welfare dependence
   Welfare reform findings
   Welfare reform and children
   What works in welfare reform
   Welfare reform in Illinois
   Families with multiple barriers
   TANF funded services to low income families
   Employment experiences of former TANF recipients
   Studies of those leaving welfare
   Evaluation of welfare-to-work strategies
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, June 28 2002
   Studies in the News, July 22, 2002
   Studies in the News, August 9, 2002
   Studies in the News, August 28, 2002
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EDUCATION

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Associate Degree Nursing: Model Prerequisites Validation Study. Prepared for California Community College Associate Degree Nursing Programs. By The Center for Student Success (The Center, San Francisco, California) June 2002. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.healthoccupations.org/resources.cfm

["The colleges enroll about 3,800 students into their nursing programs each year. But only about 73 percent complete the programs. That's down from about 85 percent in the early 1990s. The decline coincides with directives from the chancellor's office to reexamine -- and loosen -- admissions criteria.... Now most of the colleges admit students on a first-come first-served basis or by using a lottery that gives every applicant an equal chance of being admitted." Sacramento Bee (June23, 2002)A1.]

[Request #S5770]

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FAMILIES & SCHOOLS

Opening Doors: Student's Perspectives on Juggling Work, Family, and College. By Lisa Matus-Grossman and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, Oakland, California) July 2002. 123 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/opendoors_perspectives/jugglingwork.pdf

["Community colleges have the potential to play an important role in career mobility for low-wage workers.... In presenting findings from Opening Doors to Earning Credentials -- a qualitative study that examines community college access and retention issues for low-wage working parents -- this report captures the voice of the consumer: current, former, and potential students."]

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EMPLOYMENT

CALIFORNIA

Nonprofit Employment in California – By Size of Firm: Working Paper #2002-02. By Applied Research Unit Labor Market Information Division. California Employment Development Department. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.calmis.ca.gov/SpecialReports/Nonprofit-Employment-2002.pdf

["The Nonprofit Employment Data Project is attempting to produce data for numerous states in order to demonstrate the growing economic importance of the nonprofit sector.... The tables and charts in this paper display data in two dimensions -- industry and employer size.... [In California] the largest nonprofit businesses, 250 workers or more, comprised only 2/5 percent of nonprofit businesses, but employed almost 60 percent of all workers, and paid just over two-thirds (66.8 percent) of all wages."]

[Request #S5771]

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DISCRIMINATION

California 1999: Intentional Job Discrimination in Metropolitan Areas. By Alfred W. and Ruth G. Blumrosen, Rutgers University (The University, Newark, New Jersey) 2002. 113 p.

Full Text at: www.eeo1.com/1999_NR/CA1999.pdf

["Non-white Californians recently faced a 25 percent chance of running into discrimination when applying for jobs, especially in customer service-heavy industries such as the medical, restaurant and retail fields.... African-Americans ran the highest risk -- 29 percent -- of being refused employment because of their race, followed by Asians and Latinos, said Rutgers University professors Al and Ruth Blumrosen based on 1999 federal data."]

[Request #S5772]

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FLEXIBLE WORKPLACE

Workers on Flexible and Shift Schedules in 2001: Summary. By the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (The Department, Washington, DC) April 18, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/news.release/flex.nr0.htm

[“About 29 million full-time wage and salary workers had flexible work schedules that allowed them to vary the time they began or ended work, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor reported…. The proportion of workers with such schedules was 28.8 percent, slightly higher than the figure of 27.6 percent recorded when the data were last collected in May 1997 and nearly double the proportion 10 years earlier. “ Bureau of Labor Statistics News (April 18, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5773]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Bouncing Back: Jobs, Skills and the Continuing Demand for IT Workers: Executive Summary. By the Information Technology Association of America. (The Association, Arlington, Virginia) May 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.itaa.org/workforce/studies/02execsumm.pdf

["A new study suggests a rebound in tech hiring could be on the way. Half a million IT jobs got the ax last year, the study reports. But hiring managers surveyed say that over the next 12 months, 1.1 million positions will need to be filled. The report also estimates that 600,000 of those positions will be unfilled because of a lack of trained employees." Investor's Business Daily (June 4, 2002) A9.]

[Request #S5750]

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JOB CREATION

A County Level Analysis of California's R&D Activity 1993-1999. Prepared by Caroly W.B. Lee and Mary L. Walshok, Division of Extended Studies and Public Programs, University of California, San Diego. (The University, San Diego, Californai) April 2002. 121 p.

Full Text at: commerce.ca.gov/ttca/pdfs/detail/dsti/2002_California_RD_Report.pdf

["This report offers California state and regional policymakers a county-by-county, instead of statewide or national, analysis of research and development trends.... California ranks first in both university and industrial R&D. Forty-four billion dollars worth of research is conducted annually in the state, which is 20 percent of the national total. Eight counties received 94 percent of the federal funding."]

[Request #S5774]

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PARENTAL LEAVE

Why Americans Need Family Leave Benefits - And How They Can Get Them. By Betty Holcomb, National Partnership for Women and Families. (The Partnership, Washington, DC) 2002. Various Pagings.

Full Text at: www.nationalpartnership.org/content.cfm?L1=8&L2=1&DBT=Guides&GSID=237

["Millions of men and women still have no guarantee that their job will be held for them when they face a medical crisis. Or even when they have a new baby or adopt a child. These cold facts have sparked the movement to see that more workers are protected and that all workers entitled to leave have some income while they are out on leave."]

[Request #S5775]

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WOMEN

The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both? Draft. By Elizabeth Hill, Center for Human Resource Research, Ohio State University. (The Center, Columbus, Ohio) 2002. 29 p.

["Results show that many 'retired' women are employed, usually part time in occupations with more flexible hours and less physical work.... More educated women and those who have worked a greater proportion of their adult years tend to work at older ages. Job flexibility rather than financial incentives seem more important in the work decisions of retirement-age women."]

[Request #S5776]

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WORK CONDITIONS

Workers Without Rights: Briefing Paper on Los Angeles Informal Economy. By the Economic Roundtable. (The Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) 2002. 24 p.

["A recent report ... concluded that an off-the-books economy in low-wage industries with large immigrant populations is costing the state billions of dollars and faulted lax enforcement for the problem.... What we need is greater enforcement of existing laws. Workers should be earning a living wage in a safe and decent working environment, and those who benefit the most from the exploitation of sweatshop workers should be held accountable." Sacramento Bee (June 3, 2002) A3.]

[Request #S5777]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOSTER CARE

Employment Outcomes for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. By Robert M. Goerge and others, Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) March 2002. 30 p.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/fostercare-agingout02/

["According to this analysis of data in California, Illinois and South Carolina, youth aging out of foster care are under-employed, earn significantly less than their low-income youth counterparts, and have mean earnings below the poverty level." Connect for Kids (August 26, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5796]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Accessing TANF Assistance: A Survey of Low-Income Young Mothers in Chicago. By Helene M. Marcy and Deborah L. Shapiro, Center for Impact Research (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) April 2002. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.impactresearch.org/documents/Teens%20and%20TANF%20complete.pdf

["This research report found that in 2000 and 2001, many young mothers were incorrectly told they were ineligible for TANF, with welfare offices turning them away without their filling out the application that triggers services for teen mothers. Older respondents who were too old to qualify for in-depth case management reported more financial hardship than the younger respondents, particularly in having been evicted and having to borrow money from friends and relatives in order to pay bills or buy food." Connect for Kids (April 29, 2002)]

[Request #S5778]

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Multiple Risks Threaten Children of TANF Recipients With Alcohol or Other Drug, Mental Health, or Domestic Violence Issues. By the California Institute of Mental Health. CalWorks Project: Policy and Practice Brief No. 3. (The Institute, Sacramento, California). June 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cimh.org/downloads/CalWORKsNo3Final.pdf

["This brief presents strong evidence that children of TANF parents who have serious alcohol and other drug, mental health, or domestic violence issues face substantially more threats to their well-being than do children in families which do not face these situations."]

[Request #S5779]

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Microenterprise Development and Self-Employment for TANF Recipients: State Experiences and Issues in TANF Reauthorization. By Nisha Patel and Mark Greenberg, Center for Law and Social Policy. Prepared for the Microenterprise Fund for Innovation, Effectiveness, Learning and Dissemination of the Aspen Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.fieldus.org/publications/claspreport.pdf

["This report discusses how state policies have affected access to and participation in microenterprise training and self-employment for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients.... In addition, it offers recommendations for TANF reauthorization to encourage support for microenterprise initiatives." Electronic Policy Network (June 12, 2002)]

[Request #S5780]

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TANF Recipients as Caregivers for Family Members with Disabilities. By Rachel Haberkern. Welfare Information Network Resources for Welfare Decisions. Vol. 6, No. 5. (The Network, Washington, DC) April 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.welfareinfo.org/TANFrecipientsascaregiversRN.htm

["Many parents responsible for children with serious disabilities are lumped into the "hard-to-serve" category of families who have not been able to leave welfare for work. This report gives an overview of the issue and links to online information." Connect for Kids (April 29, 2002)]

[Request #S5781]

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Mental Health, Domestic Violence and Substance Abuse: Need for and Use of Services Among Adult Female TANF Participants. By the CalWorks Project, California Institute for Mental Health. Policy and Practice Brief No. 1. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) April 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.cimh.org/downloads/CalWORKSNo1.pdf

["More than half of the TANF population has at least one of the Alcohol or Other Drugs, Mental Health, of Domestic Violence issues. Understanding what must be done to help women overcome these barriers to employment is critical to the reauthorization debate."]

[Request #S5782]

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WELFARE

Effects of Government Policies on Income Distribution and Welfare. By Ximing Wu, University of California, Berkeley, and others. (Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley, California) 2002. 45 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewpdf.cgi?article=1023&context=iir

["A variety of parametric and semiparametric models produce qualitatively similar estimates of government policies' effects on income distribution and welfare.... Taxes and the Earned Income Tax Credit are an effective way to redistribute income to the poor and raise welfare. The minimum wage lowers welfare. Social insurance programs have little effect except for Supplemental Security Income, which raises welfare."]

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Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to the Congress 2002. By Gil Crouse and others, Office of Human Services Policy, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (The Department, Washington, DC) June 2002. Various Pagings.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/indicators02/index.htm

["According to (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) Secretary Tommy Thompson the study shows that a sharp reduction in the poverty rate has coincided closely with the historic drop in the number of people dependent on welfare in the years immediately following the landmark 1996 welfare reform law. The Secretary continued, 'These findings underscore the President's goal of reemphasizing the importance of work as we take the next step in welfare reform. It is increasingly clear that the only way for families to break the cycle of dependency and escape poverty is through work.'" HandsNet (June 7, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5784]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform Findings In Brief: State Capacity Study. By Thomas L. Gais, Nelson Rockefeller Institute of Government. (The Institute, Albany, New York) March 1, 2002. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.rockinst.org/publications/federalism/Findings_in_Brief.pdf

["Although the 'front door' of welfare systems has changed substantially, the 'back door' has not. Local welfare systems have little contact with welfare leavers and one result has been low take-up rates of support services for clients who get jobs and leave cash assistance....There is a need for better information for state and local program management."]

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Welfare Reform: What About the Children? By P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Northwestern University, and others. Prepared for the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Policy Brief 02-1. (The University, Baltimore, Maryland) January 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.jhu.edu/~welfare/19382_Welfare_jan02.pdf

["Preschoolers in sanctioned families - families who have had their benefits reduced or eliminated for failure to follow stricter welfare program rules - are among the most vulnerable for emotional and behavioral difficulties. That finding and others contained in the brief suggest an urgent need for services and intervention." Institute for Policy Research News, Northwestern University (Summer 2002) p 1.]

[Request #S5786]

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What Works in Welfare Reform: Evidence and Lessons to guide TANF Reauthorization. By Gordon L. Berlin, The Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (The Corporation, New York, New York). 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/TANF/TANF-Introduction.htm

["The federal welfare reform law is slated for reauthorization later this year.... In practical terms, to keep the 1996 law in effect, Congress must pass reauthorizing legislation by the fall of this year.... Disagreement on three key issues - participation standards, the emphasis to be placed on caseload reduction versus poverty reduction, and strategies for strengthening the marriage provisions - threaten to prolong the debate."]

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Welfare Reform in Illinois: Is the Moderate Approach Working? By Dan A. Lewis, Northwestern University, and others. Prepared for the Illinois Families Study, University Consortium on Welfare Reform (The Consortium, Evanston, Illinois) May 2002. 130 p.

Full Text at: www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/papers/ifsyear2.pdf

["The report shows significant gains in wages, employer-sponsored benefits, and child health care coverage. Though many families experienced instability or hardship, many of the most severe hardships, including homelessness and food insecurity, decreased slightly over the two-year study period." Institute for Policy Research News, Northwestern University (Summer 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5788]

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Families in Transition: Serving Families With Multiple Barriers to Self-Sufficiency, Comparing Outcomes for Graduating and Non-Graduating Leavers. By the Berkeley Policy Associates. Policy Brief. No. 2. (The Associates, Berkeley, California) May 2002. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.bpacal.com/expertise/PolicyBrief_2.pdf

["This policy brief is intended to share knowledge gained from the program's Families in Transition (FIT) experience in working with the hardest-to-serve families.... Two key facets of assisting the hardest-to-serve are.... First, examine how the number and severity of employment barriers affect participants' graduation from FIT and the length of time they spend in the program.... Second, a look at changes in family well-being between program entry and exit, comparing graduates and non-graduates."]

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Welfare Reform: States Provide TANF-Funded services to Many Low-Income Families Who Do Not Receive Cash Assistance. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-564. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2002. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-564

["We estimated that at least 46 percent more families than are counted in the reported TANF caseload are receiving services funded, at least in part, with federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) [and] state Maintenance of Effort funds. This estimate includes many low-income families who are receiving child care funded by TANF and the Child Care and Development Fund."]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Employment Experiences of Former TANF Recipients. By Courtney Jarchow, National Conference of State Legislatures. Welfare Reform Series. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) May 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/statefed/welfare/TANFbrief.pdf

["NCSL compiled the outcomes of tracking studies in 24 states and the District of Columbia to investigate the employment trends of former welfare recipients. NCSL examined three major areas: Employment trends; Types of jobs; and Career advancement and earnings gains."]

[Request #S5792]

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Description of State Leaver Studies. By Courtney Jarchow, and others, National Conference of State Legislatures. Welfare Reform Series. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) May 2002. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/statefed/welfare/leaverbrief.pdf

["Between 1997 and 2001, at least 32 states and the District of Columbia released studies that examined the characteristics of families after welfare. These studies used either administrative data from state cash assistance, child welfare, unemployment insurance and related systems or they conducted a survey of current and/or former welfare recipients.... NCSL established a list of study characteristics that were necessary for the study to be included in the policy series."]

[Request #S5794]

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Moving People From Welfare to Work: Lessons From the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies. By Gayle Hamilton, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education. (The Departments, Washington, DC) July 2002. 79 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/NEWWS_Synthesis/NEWWS_Synthesis.pdf

["Whether through their use of earning supplements, job retention and advancement strategies, time limits, or participation mandates, successful reform approaches must creatively engage welfare clients before they find jobs and must maximize the number who actually obtain employment. This final product helps shed light on ... how various program approaches affect outcomes ranging from employment and welfare receipt to family circumstances and children's well-being."]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Education, Employment and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-37 (June 28, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0237.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Work hours affect college students' success;" "California higher education performance indicators;" "Universities help urban revitalization;" "Californian wages improving;""Changes in California welfare policy;" "Teenage birth trends;" "Welfare reform;" and others.]

[Request #S5789]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-41 (July 22, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0241.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Higher education affordability;" "Employer discrimination;" "Supporting foster parents;" "States' efforts in retaining foster parents;" "Foster care children development checklist;" "Child care funding proposals;" "Cost allocation cuts for food stamps and medicaid;" and others.]

[Request #S5795]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-45 (August 9, 2002)

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/SITN/2002/0245.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Impact of education on income;" "Statistical profile of college students;" "Foreign student program;" "Sexual orientation-based employment discrimination;" "Federal child care funding;" "Welfare reform and work requirements;" and others.]

[Request #S5796]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services" IN: Studies in the News, 02-48 (August 28, 2002).

[Includes: "Improving technological literacy;" "Science and technology education system;" "Retirement security;" "States awarded welfare bonuses;" "Time-limited TANF recipients;" "Moving people from welfare to work;" and others.]

[Request #S5797]

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