Subject: Studies in the News 02-47 (August 21, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Effects of violence and stress
   Youth risk behavior
DEMOGRAPHY
   Residential segregation and diversity
EDUCATION
   Child care center supply in California
   Brain development and early childhood policy
   Improving the quality of early care and education teachers
   Validating educational models in preschool standards
   Starting age for kindergartners
HEALTH
   Asthmatic children in school
   Brain literacy primer
   SCHIP disenrollment and state policies
   Measuring children's health programs
   Effects of early genetic influence on behavior
   Low-birth rates in urban areas
   Children's mental health
   Vaccinations for immigrant children
HUMAN SERVICES
   Federal child care funding
   Child care arrangements
   Cost of quality child care
   Child care subsidy use
STUDIES TO COME
   State health insurance and dental care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

VIOLENCE

"Exposure to Community Violence and Young Adult Crime: The Effects of Witnessing Violence, Traumatic Victimization, and Other Stressful Life Events." By David Eitle and R. Jay Turner. IN: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 39, no. 2 (May 2002) pp. 214-237.

["This study examines the association between witnessing community violence and criminal behavior in a representative sample of young adults.... The results indicate that recent exposure to violence in the community along with a history of receiving traumatic news, direct victimizations in the community, recent life events, and associations with criminal peers increase the risk for young adult criminal offending. The implications of these results are discussed."]

[Request #S5665]

Return to the Table of Contents

YOUTH

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 1993. By the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. IN: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 51, no. SS-4. (June 28, 2002) p. 1-68.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss5104.pdf

["Although survey results revealed that high school students are reacting more responsibly, too many students remain at risk for unnecessary injury and death. Approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons ages 10 to 24 result from only four causes -- motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide and suicide." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (June 27, 2002) [online].]

[Request #S5666]

Return to the Table of Contents

DEMOGRAPHY

POPULATION

"Who's Your Neighbor? Residential Segregation and Diversity in California." By Juan Onesimo Sandoval and others, Public Policy Institute of California. IN: California Counts, vol. 4, no. 1. (August 2002) 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/CalCounts13/calcounts13.pdf

["This edition examines the degree to which the state's increasing diversity was experienced at the neighborhood level.... Using a diversity index that incorporates the complexity of California's population, the authors find that neighborhood segregation -- the extent to which groups live separately from one another -- is generally on the decline."]

[Request #S5667]

Return to the Table of Contents

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

A Stark Plateau -- California Families See Little Growth in Child Care Centers. By Bruce Fuller and others, Policy Analysis for California Education. Policy Brief 02-2. (PACE, Berkeley, California) July 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: pace.berkeley.edu/policy_brief_02-2.pdf

["Although spending for child care has nearly quadrupled since 1996 in California, only one in seven parents is able to find a preschool or center-based care in the state. This study found that the $12 billion investment since 1996 has led to an increase of just under a half-million child care slots." New York Times (July 22, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5668]

Return to the Table of Contents

EARLY EDUCATION

Connecting Brain Development Research to State Early Childhood Policy. By Bina Patel, National Conference of State Legislatures. State Legislative Report. Vol. 27, No. 12. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/legis/slrs/earlychildhood.PDF

["This report covers state legislative activity surrounding recent brain development research in two ways. First, it summarizes recently enacted legislation that specifically incorporates research. Second, it reviews legislative meetings and other government initiatives focused on early childhood and brain development research, as well as the impacts of these efforts."]

[Request #S5669]

Return to the Table of Contents

States' Efforts in Improving the Qualifications of Early Care and Education Teachers. By Debra J. Ackerman, Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. (National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2002. 33 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/Ackerman.pdf

["This paper summarizes research on the importance of well-trained early care and education (ECE) teachers, identifies the barriers to improving teachers’ qualifications, and details states’ initiatives to clear those barriers and improve teacher preparedness. Among the barriers are the lack of state and national certification standards and the widespread acceptance of minimally educated ECE teachers. Other barriers include low salaries and teachers’ family responsibilities that compete with their ongoing training. A number of states are passing regulations to increase the pre-service and ongoing training requirements for ECE teachers. Efforts to overcome these barriers include variations on the Teacher Education and Compensation Helps (T.E.A.C.H.) initiative. The top three monetary strategies in some states to help increase the qualifications of ECE staff are stipends, scholarships, and loan forgiveness programs. The paper includes a table comparing state-by-state efforts to improve qualifications of ECE staff."]

[Request #S5670]

Return to the Table of Contents

EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

Making Validated Educational Models Central in Preschool Standards. By Lawrence J. Schweinhart, High/Scope Educational Research Foundation. (National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2002. 23 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/schweinhart.pdf

["This paper presents some ideas to preschool educators and policy makers about how to make validated educational models central in standards for preschool education-and-care programs that are available to all 3- and 4-year-olds. An educational model is a coherent body of program practices, curriculum content, program and child assessment, and teacher training. Educational models are meant to contribute to all aspects of children’s development. A model is validated if its effectiveness in contributing to children’s development has been scientifically confirmed. Replication of validated educational models is critical if the results these models promise are to be realized on a widespread basis. Regulatory, professional, and outcomes-based standards all have roles in promoting such replication by supporting the role of independent model developers. Standards should support educational models that are comprehensive, well-documented, internally consistent, implementable, effective, supported by effective training, and able and beginning to be broadly disseminated."]

[Request #S5671]

Return to the Table of Contents

SCHOOL READINESS

"At What Age Should Children Enter Kindergarten? A Question for Policy Makers and Parents." By Deborah Stipek. IN: Social Policy Report: A Publication of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. XVI, no. 2. (Spring 2002) pp. 3-17.

Full Text at: www.srcd.org/sprv16n2.pdf

["Research that bears on the issue of school entry policies is summarized in this report. The focus is on the age children should be to enter kindergarten and the potential benefits of delaying school entry for all or some children. There was no evidence suggesting that younger children gained less than older children from early school experience, and some evidence suggested that school experience produced greater gains on most cognitive dimensions. Generally, the findings provide more support for early educational experience to promote academic competencies than for waiting for children to be older when they enter school. The author suggests that the focus should be more on making schools ready for children than on making children ready for school."]

[Request #S5672]

Return to the Table of Contents

HEALTH

ASTHMA

School Children with Asthma: An Introduction. By the Center for Health and Health Care in Schools. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2002. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.healthinschools.org/sh/asthma.pdf

["This issue brief on school-based education programs for asthmatic students examines the problem of asthma in schools, solutions, and programs addressing these issues. Journal articles and websites concerning asthma education are also outlined in the brief." CDF Child Health Information Project (August 2, 2002).]

[Request #S5673]

Return to the Table of Contents

BRAIN

Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists. By Virginia W. Berninger and Todd L. Richards, University of Washington. (Academic Press, San Diego, California) 2002. 373 p.

["This comprehensive primer for educators introduces the structural and functional organization of the brain. Recent research and imaging technologies are used to illustrate how the brain operates in reading, writing, and computing mathematics. This information is used to support select instructional practices and to dispel popular myths on learning styles and maturational readiness for advanced learning." NOTE: Brain Literacy ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5674]

Return to the Table of Contents

CHILDREN

SCHIP Disenrollment and State Policies. By Karen VanLandegehm and Cindy Brach, The Child Health Insurance Research Initiative. (The Initiative, Rockville, Maryland) June 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ahrq.gov/about/cods/chiribrf1/chiribf1.pdf

["This study indicate that states' policies requiring frequent redeterminations of eligibility can lead to spikes in disenrollment for children under the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Results show that redetermination policies requiring families to actively verify their eligibility more frequently (i.e., every 6 months rather than every 12 months) are associated with higher levels of disenrollment." The Future of Children (August 2002).]

[Request #S5675]

Return to the Table of Contents

Child Health Toolbox: Measuring Performance in Child Health Programs Access, Quality, and Health Service Delivery. By the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (The Agency, Rockville, Maryland) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ahrq.gov/chtoolbx/

["This online toolkit offers concepts, tips, and tools for evaluating Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), Title V, and other health care service programs for children. This resource can help policymakers and program directors and staff to answer questions about measuring health care performance in child health programs."]

[Request #S5676]

Return to the Table of Contents

GENETICS

"Long-Term Effects of Early Genetic Influence on Behavior." By Robert Freedman. IN: The New England Journal of Medicine, vol 347, no. 3 (July 18, 2002) pp. 213-215.

["The symptoms of anxiety disorders frequently begin in childhood. However, the full importance of childhood shyness and inhibited behavior as predictors of dysfunction during adulthood and as indicators of the need for treatment in childhood is still unclear. This study reports on experiments that have not yet resulted in a new treatment, but do offer a perspective that may help pediatricians, family practitioners, and child psychiatrists to counsel families about the possible long-term biologic features of their children's condition."]

[Request #S5677]

Return to the Table of Contents

INFANTS

Healthy Cities, Healthy Suburbs: Progress in Meeting Healthy People Goals for the Nation's 100 Largest Cities and Their Suburbs. By Dennis P. Andrulis and others, SUNY Downstate Medical Center. (The Center, Brooklyn, New York) August 2002. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.downstate.edu/urbansoc_healthdata/Urban%20Center%20Website/web%20design2/pdf%20files/IssueBrief.pdf

["A new report finds that low birth weight rates have risen sharply in many urban areas across the country, with suburbs surprisingly outpacing cities. The average rate of increase in suburbs was nearly three times that for cities. According to the most recent data available, none of the nation's 100 largest cities and only two of their suburbs had met the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2000 goal for low birth weight." HandsNet (August 16, 2002).]

[Request #S5678]

Return to the Table of Contents

MENTAL HEALTH

"Children's Mental Health: Special Issue." Edited by Anne Watson Bauer. IN: Childhood Educuation: Infancy Through Early Adolescence, Journal of the Association for Childhood Education International, vol. 78, no. 5 (Annual Theme 2002)

[Includes: "Our Crisis in Children's Mental Health: Frameworks for Understanding and Action"; "Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning"; "The Expanded School Mental Health Framework"; Promoting Resilience in an 'At-Risk' World"; and others. NOTE: Childhood Education ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5679]

Return to the Table of Contents

VACCINES

"Vaccination Coverage of Foreign-Born Children 19 to 35 Month of Age: Findings From the National Immunization Survey 1999-2000." By Tara W. Strine and others, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 110, no. 2. (August 2002) 5 p. [online]

Full Text at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/reprint/110/2/e15.pdf

["Foreign-born children are less likely to be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B -- and more likely to live in conditions where they face increased exposure to these diseases." Connect for Kids (August 19, 2002).]

[Request #S5680]

Return to the Table of Contents

HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Federal Care Funding for Low-Income Families: How Much is Needed? By Jane Koppelman, National Health Policy Forum. NHPF Issue Brief, No. 780. (George Washington University, Washington, DC) July 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.nhpf.org/pdfs/8-780+(web).pdf

[""Congress will settle on a funding level for the CCDF [Child Care and Development Fund] and the TANF [Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant], but the number of families those funds reach will depend on other decisions -- made largely by the states -- such as income-eligibility and program quality. This issue brief provides background on current child care use, arrangements, and cost, as well as research findings on the measurement of quality child care programs." National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, MCH Alert (August 15, 2002).]

[Request #S5681]

Return to the Table of Contents

Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Spring 1997. By Kristin Smith, U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports, P70-86. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) July 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p70-86.pdf

["This report contrasts child care arrangements for pre-school and grade-school age children. These two age groups differ in their needs and activities. While the primary focus of child care for infants and pre-schoolers is on meeting their basic needs, for older children, structured enrichment activities and the incidence of children in self-care situations are of increased importance."]

[Request #S5682]

Return to the Table of Contents

The True Cost of Quality Child Care: Financing Strategies for Silicon Valley. By the Local Child Care Planning Council of Santa Clara County. (The Council, San Jose, California) July 2002. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.cdpi.net/truecostfinal.pdf

["Recent reports on the economic impact of child care empirically demonstrate that child care generates considerable revenues, creates and supports local jobs, and makes vital contribution to the county's, and to California's overall economic health....The analysis presented here is intended to frame the issues to be addressed in a comprehensive policy analysis around generating adequate financing for early childhood care and education."]

[Request #S5683]

Return to the Table of Contents

The Dynamics of Child Care Subsidy Use: A Collaborative Study of Five States. By Marcia K. Meyers and others, National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) July 2002. 60 p.

Full Text at: cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/nccp/DurationStudy.pdf

["This study raises important questions about whether the public child care subsidy system is providing assistance equitably to needy families.... It also suggests that in addition to having trouble accessing subsidy assistance, low income families may be having trouble retaining that assistance. Currently, the assistance families receive is not very continuous, does not last very long, and may be associated with substantial child care turnover."]

[Request #S5684]

Return to the Table of Contents


STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

DENTAL CARE

“The Impact of a State Children's Health Insurance Program on Access to Dental Care.” By M. Modifi and others. IN: Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 133, no.6. (2002) pp. 707-714.

[“SCHIP dental programs that resemble private insurance models and reimburse dentists at close to market rates hold the potential to address problems associated with dental access for low-income children, suggest the authors of this article. The article reports and discusses the findings of a study designed to examine the effect of the North Carolina Health Choice for Children program on enrolled children's access to dental care." National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, MCH Alert (6/28/2002) (online).]

[Request #S5685]

Return to the Table of Contents