Subject: Studies in the News 02-30 (May 20, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

May 1852 - "San Francisco in 1852 was alive with people crowding to meet the miners as they came down to sell their 'dust' and to 'have a time.'.... Many were young men of good family, good education and gentlemanly instincts. Their parents had been able to support them during their minority, and to give them good educations, but not to maintain them afterwards..... Many of whom now fill unknown graves; others died wrecks of their former selves, and many, without a vicious instinct, became criminals and outcasts. "  Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant  

May 1852 - "[San Francisco] Gambling houses were conspicuous for their number and publicity. They were on the first floor, with doors wide open. Besides the gambling in cards there was gambling on a larger scale in city lots. These were sold 'On Change,' much as stocks are now sold on Wall Street. Cash, at time of purchase, was always paid by the broker; but the purchaser had only to put up his margin. He was charged at the rate of two or three per cent a month on the difference, besides commissions."  Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Diversity trends in California
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   HIV programs and behavior change
   Effective homeland security strategy
   California's response to terrorism
   Mothers in prison
   Alternatives to incarceration for women
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Political mobilization of naturalized Latinos
   Latinos and information technology
ECONOMY
   Agricultural outlook forum
   Explosive growth in biotechnology
   Evolving cyber security
   Slavery era insurance registry
   City and farm coexistence
   Setting gas prices
EDUCATION
   Historical knowledge lacking in high schoolers
   Arts education's impact on the workforce
   Welfare law discriminates against disabled students
   UC admitting more minorities
   Increase in college expenses hurt students
   Increasing access to public higher education
EMPLOYMENT
   Job discrimination based on sexual orientation
   Off-the-books jobs growing in California
ENERGY
   Ethanol made from Imperial Valley sugar cane
   Enron's compliance with subpoenas
   California's restructuring disaster
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   State of the Air: 2002
   Lung Association report misleads
   Suit objects to review of Sierra logging
   State greenhouse emissions programs
   States taking lead on climate change
   Cell phone disposal toxicity
   Agency report on watershed management partnerships
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Governmental accounting standards board
   Database software deal
   State of the Judiciary address
   California's federal balance of payments
   May revision to Governor's budget
   LAO report on May revisision to state budget
   California's civil service vacancy game
   State agencies exploiting vacant positions
HEALTH
   State Children's Health Insurance Program
   Emergency room visits
   Trend of tiered hospital plans
   CalPERS health care choices
   Medical malpractice insurance crisis
HOUSING
   Immigrant homeownership
   Severe housing shortage
HUMAN SERVICES
   Job retention for CalWORKs participants
   Domestic violence victims in TANF program
   Recommendations for TANF reauthorization
   Effect of welfare reauthorization on California
   President’s welfare reform plan
INTERNATIONAL READER
   International rules on human biotechnology
NATIONAL READER
   State by state comparison on social health
TRANSPORTATION
   Part-time operation of HOV lanes
   World class transit system
STUDIES TO COME
   Vulnerability to terrorism
   Protecting intellectual property
   Urban struggles for sustainability
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

A State of Diversity: Demographic Trends in California's Regions. By Hans P. Johnson, Public Policy Institute of California. California Counts: Population Trends and Profiles. Vol. 3, No. 5. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) May 2002. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/CalCounts12/calcounts12.pdf

["This report finds that ... every region in California realized slower population growth than in the previous decade ... and growing racial and ethnic diversity ... and that regional wealth disparities growth and job and population growth are linked." State Net (May 7, 2002) 7.]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

AIDS

"Levels of Knowledge and Risk Perceptions about HIV/AIDS among Female Inmates in New York State: Can Prison-Based HIV Programs Set The Stage for Behavior Change?" By Kimberly Collica. IN: The Prison Journal, vol. 82, no. 1 (March 2002) pp. 101-124.

["This study investigates levels of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, self-reported precarious behaviors leading to an increased risk for HIV infection, and perceptions of future behavior modification among adult female inmates in the AIDS Counseling and Education (ACE) Program."]

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TERRORISM

Protecting the American Homeland: A Preliminary Analysis. By Michael E. O'Hanlon and others, Brookings Institution Press. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2002. 182 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/fp/projects/homeland/fullhomeland.pdf

["The Bush administration's budget plan for fiscal year 2003, unveiled in February 2002, includes $38 billion in proposed federal homeland security spending.... First, the budget focuses more on preventing recurrences of attacks like those in 2001-through airliners or anthrax-than on reducing vulnerability in our society more comprehensively." Washington Post(April 29, 2002) A3.]

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California's Response to the Emerging Threat of Terrorism: Informational Hearing. By the Senate Select Committee on Anti-Terrorism Policy, California Legislature. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) March 11, 2002. Various pagings.

[Includes: "The Current State of California Anti-Terrorist Efforts;" "How Can We Better Prepare Our Emergency First Responders?" "Inventory and Coordination of Anti-Terrorism Resources;" "Prosecuting Terror at the State and Federal Levels;" and "Overview of CRB Report on Bioterrorism."

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WOMEN

"Reflections on Women's Crime and Mothers in Prison: A Peacemaking Approach." By Polly F. Radosh. IN: Crime & Delinquency, vol. 48, no. 2 (April 2002) pp. 300-315.

["In this article, the work of Richard Quinney and his peacemaking approach to the study of crime is used to examine the circumstances of women's crime and the effect of incarceration on women and children... Prior physical or sexual abuse is among the most consistent recurring themes among incarcerated women.... Quinney's peacemaking approach to crime suggests that nonpunitive response offers more hope for a future without crime, and this approach is suggested as the most appropriate means of responding to women's crime."]

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Unlocking Options for Women: A Survey of Women in Cook County Jail. By the Chicago Coalition for the Homeless. (The Coalition, Chicago, Illinois) April 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.chicagohomeless.org/jailstudy.pdf

["New Study of Women Detained in Cook County Jail Released: Study Indicates Need for alternatives to Incarceration: The majority of women ... are charged with non-violent offenses and are detained many times. The Coalition is advocating for [a bill] which enables Cook County to establish the pilot Residential and Transition Treatment Center for women, and gives judges discretion to sentence women to this program in lieu of time in prison." U.S. Newswire (April 20, 2002) 1.]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

LATINOS

"Citizens by Choice, Voters by Necessity: Patterns in Political Mobilization by Naturalized Latinos." By Adrian D. Pantoja and others. IN: Political Research Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 4 (December 2001) pp. 729-750.

["In this article, we compare the 1996 turnout among cohorts of naturalized and native-born Latino citizens, looking for between-group differences endogenous to recent anti-immigrant rhetoric and events in California.... Newly naturalized Latinos in California behave differently from other Latino citizens of California, and the patterns are not replicated in Florida or Texas."]

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Latinos and Information Technology: The Promise and the Challenge. By the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. Prepared for the IBM Hispanic Digital Divide Task Force. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) February 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.trpi.org/PDF/LatinosandIT.pdf

["The findings of this report are organized into three broad and interrelated topics ... Access to Information Technology in Latino communities, including the basic understanding that access is a quality-of-use issue, rather than counting numbers of computers per capita; Learning technologies across the educational spectrum; [and] IT workforce issues, including the implications of educational attainment and achievement."]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

Agricultural Outlook Forum 2002: Speeches. By Jim Mosely, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and others. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.usda.gov/oce/waob/agforum.htm

["The annual Outlook Forum ... explores the relationships between policy and markets, the challenges of delivering a safe food supply, and the economics of rural development.... Released at the Forum, the 2002 Baseline indicates that slow U. S. and global economic growth and a strong U.S. dollar provide a weak setting for the agricultural sector in the initial years of USDA's long-term, 10-year projections."]

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BIOTECHNOLOGY

"The Biotech Explosion." By Doug Kalish and others. IN: Milken Institute, 2nd Quarter. (Spring 2002) pp. 21-31.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.org/review/2002qtr2/2002qtr2.pdf

["It is certain that advances in understanding the genetic basis of disease will significantly increase the number and efficacy of both diagnostic tools and therapies. And this flood of innovation will affect the cost and delivery of services. Here, we offer some predictions about how this medical economic drama will play out."]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"Evolving Cyber Security." By Jim McKay. IN: Government Technology's Crime & The Tech Effect (April 2002) pp. 6-9.

Full Text at: www.govtech.net/magazine/sup_story.phtml?magid=1505000000000010&id=3030000000005440&issue=4:2002

["Protecting our IT infrastructure has become a priority but the question of how to do it looms.... The House overwhelmingly passed H.R. 3394, the Cyber Security Research and Development Act, a bill that offers $880 million in funding to government agencies for computer and network security research."]

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INSURANCE INDUSTRY

Terrorism Insurance: Rising Uninsured Exposure to Attacks Heightens Potential Economic Vulnerabilities. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-472T. (The Office, Washington, DC) February 27, 2002. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-472T

["Since the September 11th attacks, the key dynamic taking place in the insurance industry has been a shifting of the risk for terrorism-related losses from reinsurers to primary insurers and then to the insured. Reinsurers and insurers have begun shedding their exposure to terrorism risk as insurance contracts come up for renewal, leaving policyholders increasingly exposed to losses from a terrorist attack."]

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Slavery Era Insurance Registry: Report to the California Legislature. By the California Department of Insurance. (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/slavery/caslaveinsregmay02.pdf

["Survey Says Firms Sold Slave Policies: The Department, in a move with political and social implications, released a survey of insurance companies that revealed some firms or their predecessors had sold policies on slaves in the 1800s.... Eight of the insurance companies licensed in California found evidence of slave-era policies, and three of those were able to provide names of slaves and slaveholders." Sacramento Bee (May 2, 2002) A3.]

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LAND USE

Can City and Farm Coexist? The Agricultural Buffer Experience in California. By Sonya Varea Hammond, University of California Cooperative Extension. (Great Valley Center, Modesto, California) March 2002. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.greatvalley.org/programs/agprograms/pdf/buffer_study.pdf

["By examining some recent experiences with agricultural buffers in California, this workbook's goal is to broadly explain the concept and examine some of the decisionmaking steps that have been key to successful implementation in other parts of the state. Rather than providing a one-size-fits-all solution, we opted to identify the key ingredients and methods that have proven effective."]

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PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Gas Prices: How Are They Really Set? Report. By the Majority Staff, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Released in Conjunction with the Subcommittee's Hearings on April 30 and May 2, 2002. (The Subcommittee, Washington, DC) May 2, 2002. 396 p.

Full Text at: www.senate.gov/~gov_affairs/042902gasreport.htm

["Gas Prices Linked to Withheld Supplies: The concentration of oil companies and refineries among a few owner allows producers to manipulate gasoline supplies and force up prices to increase profits, a report concluded.... [Senator Carl Levin, Committee Chair] urged tightening of antitrust laws and a tougher review of oil industry mergers to curtail market abuses by today's dwindling number of industry players." Sacramento Bee (April 30, 2002) A7.]

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EDUCATION

ACCOUNTABILITY

The Nation's Report Card: U.S. History 2001. By Michael S. Lapp. National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2002. 182 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2001/2002483.pdf

["American high school seniors are all but clueless when it comes to understanding essential truths about the nation's past, according to results from a test.... And that is particularly worrisome in a post September 11 climate as Americans are being forced to defend their values and country." The Sacramento Bee (May 10, 2002) A10.]

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ART EDUCATION

The Impact of Arts Education on Workforce Preparation. By the National Governor's Association Center for Best Practices (The Center, Washington, DC) May 1, 2002. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/050102ARTSED.pdf

["Arts education is a cost-effective way to help build the workforce of tomorrow, according to this issue brief. The report shows how arts-based education can build skills, increase academic success and lower the incidence of juvenile crime." Connect for Kids (May 6, 2002)1.]

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DISABILITIES

Fry, et al. v. Saenz, et al. California Court of Appeal, Third Appellate District . C038026. May 8, 2002. Various pagings.

["A state law allowing low-income parents to get welfare benefits for children in high school after age 18 -- but only if they are likely to graduate by 19 -- discriminates against students unable to graduate because of disabilities, an appellate court ruled.... The court said the limitation violated the Americans with Disabilities Act. The appellate panel overruled a Superior Court judge, who had found that the limitation was an essential part of the state welfare law and thus protected from an ADA challenge." San Francisco Chronicle (May 9, 2002) A18.]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Fall 2002 Undergraduate Applications to the University of California: Information Summary. By the Office of the President, University of California. (The Office, Oakland, California) 2002. 17 p.; Tables.

["UC System Admitting More Minorities: Their numbers top the levels seen during the last days of affirmative action.... Of the 48,369 students admitted to this fall's freshman class, 19.1 percent were from Latino, African American or American Indian backgrounds, up from 18.8 percent in 1997, the last year the public university system used race as a factor in admission." Sacramento Bee (April 6,2002) A3.]

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Slamming Shut The Doors to College: The State Budget Crisis & Higher Education: Congressional Report. Prepared by the Democratic Staff of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and others. (The Committee, Washington, DC) May 2, 2002. 44 p.

Full Text at: edworkforce.house.gov/democrats/higheredreport.pdf

["More Federal Aid Sought for Higher Education: Democrats say costs 'spiraling out of control.' The slow economic recovery has led states to trim higher education budgets and raise tuition, putting college out of reach for thousands of low- and middle-income students, according to a report.... The administration's student aid budget would serve 375,000 fewer low-income students, with no increase in funds for several aid programs." San Francisco Chronicle (May 3, 2002) A5.]

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Increasing Access and Promoting Excellence: Diversity in California Public Higher Education. By Marlene Garcia and others. (The California Senate Office of Research, Sacramento, California) May 2002. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/ftp/SEN/COMMITTEE/SELECT/COLLEGE/_home/PUBLICATION/COMMITTEEREPORTS-02.PDF

["Too many high schools in poor communities are failing to offer Advanced Placement courses, the report found. The authors cited this as a major reason that only 25 percent of African American students, 22 percent of Latinos and 23 percent of American Indians complete course requirements for admission to the University of California and California State University systems." Sacramento Bee (May 9, 2002) A3.]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISCRIMINATION

Sexual Orientation-Based Employment Discrimination: State and Federal Status. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-665R. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 19, 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-665R

["Three federal statutes... make it unlawful for an employer to discriminate against an employee on the basis of characteristics such as race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability and age; these laws do not cover discrimination based on sexual orientation.... Thirteen states currently have laws that prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation. The content of these laws varies but they share many signigicant features with one another."]

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UNSKILLED WORKERS

Workers without Rights: Briefing Paper. By the Economic Roundtable. (The Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) April 2002. 10 p.

Full text at: ftp://ftp.economicrt.org/workers_without_rights/workers_without_rights.doc

["Off-the-Books Jobs Growing in Region: Labor: Lax Enforcement and Illegal Immigration Are among Factors Fueling Underground Economy, Study Says: Cash-pay, off-the-books work is thriving in the region, fed by new business practices, illegal immigration and lax labor law enforcement.... That keeps thousands of low-skilled workers employed, but the jobs are generally unstable and low-paying, and they cheat the state out of taxes and worker compensation insurance premiums." Los Angeles Times (May 6, 2002) 1.]

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ENERGY

On the Economic Feasibility of Sugar Cane-to-Ethanol Operations in the Imperial Valley. By Dr. Paul G. Sebesta, University of California Desert Research and Extension Center, and Dr. Michael Bazdarich, University of California, Riverside, Economic Forecasting Center. (The Centers, Riverside, California) December 3, 2001. 47 p.

Full Text at: phoenix.ucr.edu/forecast/files/ivsugarcane.pdf

["Dozens of Imperial Valley alfalfa and cotton farmers are mulling whether to grow the unlikely tropical grass for conversion into the gasoline additive ethanol.... A recent feasibility study conducted by the University of California indicates that the region ultimately could meet as much as 10 percent of the state's ethanol demand, producing between 75 million and 100 million gallons of the additive each year." San Diego Union Tribune (April 30, 2002) C1.]

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UTILITIES

Review of Enron's Compliance with Subpoenas: Hearing. By the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Price Manipulation of the Wholesale Energy Market, California Legislature. 1126-S. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) February 12, 2002. X p.

["The specific issues we will be addressing: the potential inadequacy of Enron's actual production of documents to their depository; Enron's failure to produce any witness at the deposition regarding the issue of the destruction of documents; [and] the potential destruction of documents and its relationship to the subpoena that was served on Enron last June."]

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"The Trouble With Electricity Markets: Understanding California's Restructuring Disaster." By Severin Borenstein. IN: Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 16, no 1 (Winter 2002) pp. 191-211.

["Real-time retail pricing and long-term contracting can help to control the soaring wholesale prices recently seen in California and can buy time to address other important structural problems that need to be solved to create a stable, well-functioning electricity market. These problems include creating a workable structure for retail competition, determining the most efficient way to set locational prices and transmission charges, implementing a coherent framework for investing in new transmission capacity and optimizing the procurement of reserve capacity."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR QUALITY

State of the Air: 2002. By the American Lung Association. (The Association, New York, New York) May 2002. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.lungusa.org/air2001/download/SOTA02_california5.pdf

["An unhealthy haze of brown smog blankets 34 of the state's 58 counties too many days a year, and four of the state's most populated areas are more polluted than any other region in the country, according to an American Lung Association report. California retained its dubious distinction of having the worst smog pollution in the nation, with six metropolitan areas on the top 10 list, including the top four spots." Associated Press (April 30, 2002) 1.]

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How the American Lung Association's "State of the Air 2002" Report Misleads the Public about Air Pollution and Health. By Joel Schwartz, Reason Public Policy Institute. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) April 30, 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.rppi.org/043002.html

["ALA Air Report Off Base, Analyst Says: The report is highly misleading, according to Joel Schwartz.... The report greatly inflates ozone levels in many counties when compared to actual data.... It used a grading system that is far more stringent than the Environmental Protection Agency's new 8-hour ozone standard, which was deemed adequate to protect human health.... Schwartz concludes that the ALA's alarmist report could do more harm than good." Electricity Daily (May 6, 2002) 1.]

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FORESTRY

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, a non-profit corporation v. California Department of Forestry & Fire Protection, and DOES 1 to 5, Petition for Writ of Mandate and Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief. Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco. May 2, 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.peer.org/california/05-02-02_Sierra_Complaint.pdf

["Suit Slams Reviews of Sierra Logging: The lawsuit claims that state forestry officials have known for years that the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board doesn't have the staffing to fully review timber plans, but have approved them anyway. Such reveiws are important, environmentalists say, because timber operations, particularly building of roads, can release sediment and other pollutants into streams." Sacramento Bee (May 3, 2002) 1.]

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GLOBAL WARMING

State and Local Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Programs. By the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. (The Center, Arlington, Virginia) [April] 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.pewclimate.org/states/all.cfm

[Includes: "California's Renewable Energy Program" and "California's Zero-Emission Vehicle Incentive Program."]

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Statehouse and Greenhouse: The States Are Taking the Lead on Climate Change. By Barry G. Rabe. IN: Brookings Review, vol. 20, no. 2 (Spring 2002) pp. 11-13.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/press/REVIEW/spring2002/rabe.htm

["Ironically, while Washington has continued to stumble on the global warming issue, a number of states have launched constructive efforts to lower emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases.... The states have passed more than three dozen laws -- many during the past two years -- establishing specific strategies."]

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POLLUTION

Waste in the Wireless World: The Challenge of Cell Phones. By Bette K. Fishbein, Inform. (Inform, Inc., New York, New York) May 2002. 109 p.

Full Text at: www.informinc.org/cpfront.pdf

["Mobile Phones Pose Waste Problem: U.S. consumers will throw out more than 500 million mobile phones by 2002, creating a huge pile of waste containing dangerous pollutants.... Cell phones have large amounts of highly polluting metals including lead solder used on the internal circuit board, and arsenic and cadmium. Another example is the flame retardants that create toxic dioxins when incinerated in garbage dumps." San Jose Mercury News (May 9, 2002) 4.]

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WATER POLICY

Addressing the Need to Protect California's Watersheds: Working in Partnerships, Report to the Legislature. By Maria Rea, California Resources Agency, and others (The Agency, Sacramento, California) April 11, 2002. 79 p.

Full Text at: resources.ca.gov/watershedtaskforce/AB2117LegReport_041102.pdf

["The Resources Agency and Cal/EPA assembled a Joint Task Force to examine 10 exemplary local and grassroots watershed organizations. Its conclusions include suggestions on how to improve and develop partnerships between local groups and government, and approaches to providing support and improved guidance for grassroots groups." News Release, Governor's Office (April 12, 2002)1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ACCOUNTABILITY

"The Great GASB: States and Localities Now Have to Account for the Real Value of Everything from City Halls to Drainage Systems." By Michele Mariani. IN: Governing, vol. 15, no. 7 (April 2002) pp. 42-44.

["The Governmental Accounting Standards Board's (GASB) (known informally by the way its acronym is pronounced, Gasby) ... objective was to make state and local financial reports more valuable to readers.... The 50 states, along with municipal governments with $100 million or more in annual revenues ... must implement the reporting changes, including infrastructure values, at the end of their 2002 fiscal year."]

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AUDITS AND INVESTIGATIONS

Enterprise Licensing Agreement: The State Failed to Exercise Due Diligence When Contracting With Oracle, Potentially Costing Taxpayers Millions of Dollars. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) April 2002. 109 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001128.pdf

["Instead of saving $16 million, the state could spend as much as $41 million more on the database software then it would have without the six-year licensing agreement." The Sacramento Bee (April 17, 2002) A1.]

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COURTS

State of the Judiciary. By Chief Justice Ronald M. George. Presented to a Joint Session of the Legislature of the State of California. (Judicial Council of California, San Francisco, California) March 12, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/soj031202.htm

["George Repeats Call for State to Own County Courthouses: 'The current governance structure is unworkable,' (Judge) George said in his seventh annual State of the Judiciary speech. 'The counties are responsible for facilities and staff authorized before 1998 and the state for those authorized after that year,' 'This split in responsibilities guarantees that future needs will remain unmet unless a change occurs.'" Sacramento Bee (March 13, 2002) A4.]

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FEDERAL / STATE RELATIONS

California’s Balance of Payments with the Federal Treasury FY 1981-2000. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/pubs/Bop2001.pdf

["In 2000, California sent nearly $30 billion more to Washington in federal taxes than the state received back in federal spending. This 29.3 billion total was an all-time record for any state, surpassing the previous mark -- also set by California in 1999 -- of$23.1 billion. The state's exchange with Washington was thus more than $6 billion further into the red than just one year prior."]

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STATE BUDGET

Governor's Budget, 2002-03: May Revision. By the Department of Finance (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 14, 2002. 108 p.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/html/bud_docs/MayRevise02w.pdf

["Governor Gray Davis proposed raising taxes on smokers and motorists to help overcome what has grown into a $23.6-billion budget shortfall, saying there was no other way to protect schools.... But although they probably will account for most of the Capitol's budget debate in coming weeks, they represent only a share of Davis' plan to fill the budget shortfall." Los Angeles Times (May 15, 2002) A1.]

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Overview of the 2002-03 May Revision. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) May 16, 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/may_revise/0502_may_revision.pdf

["California will end the next fiscal year without a reserve and will continue to face the prospect of annual shortfalls of $7 billion or more under Governor Gray Davis' budget proposal, according to a nonpartisan state analyst. Legislative Analyst Elizabeth Hill described Davis' revised 2002-03 budget as a credible plan to dig the state out of a $23.6-billion shortfall." Los Angeles Times (May 17, 2002) B9.]

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STATE EMPLOYEES

The Civil Service Vacancy Game: Abusive Practices Or Underlying Structural Problems? By The California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) 2002. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/adobe/2002/bb020501.pdf

["High vacancy levels across state departments have been a source of controversy during recent administrations. If positions are vacant, what is happening to the money provided to the departments to pay the salaries for those positions? Some have argued that managers are deliberately keeping positions vacant so they can spend the money at their discretion. Those on the other side of the issue, however, argue that inadequate department budgets force managers to keep positions vacant so they can use the resulting savings to run their programs. This brief attempts to sort out this complex issue."]

[Request #S5040]

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Vacant Positions: Departments Have Circumvented the Abolishment of Vacant Positions, and the State Needs to Continue Its Efforts to Control Vacancies. By California State Auditor. (Auditor, Sacramento, California) March 2002. 74 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001110.pdf

[“State agencies are exploiting loopholes to keep so-called ghost employees on the government payroll and are spending the unused salaries, a new audit suggests…. In one finding of the state audit, a review of five large agencies in the 2000-01 fiscal year, vacancies beyond normal attrition totaled 2,400 jobs with combined salaries of $116 million.” The Los Angeles Times (March 13, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5041]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

SCHIP: Money Matters. By Leah N. Oliver and Martha P. King, National Conference of State Legislatures. Item 6688. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2002. 40 p.; Appendices.

["Under SCHIP, approximately $40 billion is available over 10 years for states to provide new health coverage for millions of children.... Under federal guidelines, states may develop a unique program to serve the individual needs of their population. This report focuses on several state funding issues regarding SCHIP implementation and maintenance efforts."]

[Request #S5042]

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EMERGENCY CARE

"Trends in the Use and Capacity of California's Emergency Departments, 1990-1999." By Susan Lambe, University of California, San Francisco, and others. IN: Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 39, no. 4 (April 2002) pp. 389-396.

["Critical Patients Filling Up ERs: In the state, their visits rose 59 percent from 1990 to '99, while number of emergency departments fell, study shows. The study clearly indicates a dramatic increase in patients who need emergency care, which leaves little capacity in the emergency department to care for people with less-urgent problems." Orange County Register (March 29, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5043]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

"Hospital Choice Grows Costlier." By Don Lee. IN: Los Angeles Times (May 5, 2002).

["New plans pushed by major insurers in the state require co-payments for costlier medical centers. In one plan, daily fees can be $400 a day.... Health insurers say tiered pricing will narrow the big and often inexplicable variation in hospital charges, while preserving choice for patients. But it is far from clear whether this will be widely accepted or effective in slowing the pace of rising medical costs. Only a couple of insurers in other states have recently tried something like this, with mixed result."]

[Request #S5044]

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The 2002-2003 Health Care Environment: The CalPERS Purchasing Experiment: Fact Sheet. By the Office of Public Affairs, CalPERS. And Update: 2003 HMO Rates: CalPERS Board Closed Session. By the Board of Administration, CalPERS. (California Public Employees’ Retirement System, Sacramento, California) April 2002.

["Hospital Choice Grows Costlier: Health insurers say tiered pricing will narrow the big and often inexplicable variation in hospital chages, while preserving choice for patients.... CalPERS rejected the tiered pricing plan, instead accepting an average 25% hike in its HMO premiums next year, about a third of which will be passed on to its 1.2 million members." Los Angeles Times (May 5, 2002) A1.]

Fact Sheet. 4 p.
http://www.calpers.ca.gov/whatsnew/press/2002/0417special/Revised-Health-Rate-Q-A.pdf

Closed Session. 24 p.
http://www.calpers.ca.gov/whatsnew/press/2002/0417special/Closed-4-16-FINAL.pdf

[Request #S5045]

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MALPRACTICE

"Medical Malpractice Insurance: States Search for Solutions to a Cyclical Crisis." IN: State Health Notes, vol. 23, no. 369 (April 8, 2002) pp. 1+.

["Rates for medical malpractice insurance are again on the rise, especially for high-risk specialties -- in some cases more than 100 percent. States, which have been down this road before, are gearing up to find solutions to a hard-to-ignore crisis."]

[Request #S5046]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Homeownership in the Immigrant Population. By George J. Borjas, Harvard University. Working Paper No. 02-01. (Research Institute for Housing America, Mortgage Bankers Association of America, Washington, DC) March 2002. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.housingamerica.org/docs/WP02_01.pdf

["While 67 percent of native-born households owned their own homes in 2000, 47 percent of all immigrant households were homeowners. The difference of 20 percentage points was up from about 15 points in 1990 and 12 points in 1980.... The gap increased, according to the study ... due to the growth in the number of immigrants and the rise in the percentage of poorer immigrants." San Jose Mercury News (March 30, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5047]

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Rebuilding the Dream: Solving California's Affordable Housing Crisis. By Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) June 5, 2002. 98 p.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/165/report165.pdf

["This report finds that the increasing housing shortage is so dramatic that it affects every demographic group in the state, and threatens to thwart California's economic potential. The report notes that the greatest burden falls on the low-income residents, those who cannot afford a home, or who live in substandard or overcrowded conditions. According to the report, the state has failed to build enough affordable housing for more than a decade. The report lists specific and practical recommendations that will help to increase the supply and reduce the costs of all housing -- particularly affordable housing." Calfiornia Policy Forum NewsWire(May 14, 2002)1.]

[Request #S5048]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

Job Retention and Advancement Services for CalWORKs Participants: Initial Survey of County Practices. By Jacqelyn Anderson and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Prepared for the California Policy Research Center, University of California. CPRC Brief. Vol. 14, No. 1. (The Center, Berkeley, California) January 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/jobscalworksbrf.pdf

["This Brief focuses on the results of a statewide ... survey of each county welfare department and workforce agency in California.... The survey ... was used to collect information on barriers that clients face in keeping jobs and advancing in careers; the type and scale of job-retention and advancement services; the perceived effectiveness of these services; and collaboration with other agencies and service providers."]

[Request #S5050]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Helping Domestic Violence Victims in the TANF Program. By Stephanie Walton, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL State Legislative Report. Vol. 27, No. 9. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 2002. 15 p.

["This Report illustrates the connection between poverty and domestic violence and describes provisions of the welfare reform act that address the needs of women who are exposed to violence. It shows how some states have used TANF money to fund local domestic violence services and highlights innovative programs in several states that assist these women in gaining independence and safety."]

[Request #S5051]

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TANF Reauthorization: Recommendations and Implications for Healthy Families America. By Sara Zuiderveen. (Prevent Child Abuse America, Chicago, Illinois) 2002. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.healthyfamiliesamerica.org/downloads/tanf.pdf

["This document presents a short summary of TANF goals and the current political climate surrounding TANF reauthorization, an outline of the major policy recommendations and corresponding implications for HFA, a plan of action for states regarding reauthorization activities, a review of several states that currently receive TANF funds, and a listing of welfare reform related resources."]

[Request #S5052]

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WELFARE REFORM

President’s Welfare Reform Reauthorization Plan: Fiscal Effect on California. By the Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office, Sacramento, California) April 15, 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/welfare_reform/0402_welfare_reform.pdf

["President Bush's plan proposes substantial changes to the existing federal welfare system. This plan, if enacted by Congress, would increase the effective work participation rate requirement for California by a factor of almost 10. In order to have a reasonable chance to meet the President's work participation mandate, we estimate the state would incur total additional net costs of approximately $2.8 billion over the next five federal fiscal years."]

[Request #S5053]

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Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Welfare Reform. By Alan Weil, The Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310484.pdf

["This primer on welfare reform draws primarily upon Assessing the New Federalism research, includes analysis of the National Survey of America's Families, the Welfare Rules Database, and site visit findings. The brief presents summary information on the welfare caseload, work and earnings, work support programs, poverty and child well-being, family structure, and population subgroups." HandsNet (May 10, 2002)1.]

[Request #S5054]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Gene Regime. By Francis Fukuyama, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. IN: Foreign Policy (March/April 2002) [online.]

Full Text at: www.foreignpolicy.com/issue_marapr_2002/fukuyama.html

["If international rules on human biotechnology are to be taken out of the trade realm and put into an alternative institutional framework, careful thought will have to be given to its design. Formal, top-down international regulation faces formidable enforcement hurdles and has a poor record of success. Coming up with different, more creative approaches to designing international institutions is a crucial item on the agenda for a new century."]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

The Social Health of the States. 76 p. And The Social Report: a Deeper View of Prosperity. 94 p. By Marc Miringoff, and others, The Fordham Institute for Innovation in Social Policy. (The Institute, Tarrytown, New York) 2001. 76 p. ; 94 p.

["For Mr. Miringoff, the report on the states is a step toward his ultimate goal: a Social Index of Leading Indicators that commands as much attention as the Economic Index of Leading Indicators....In the meantime, what he has done with the Fordham survey is to create a report card for the states that combines 16 measures of social health, from child poverty and teenage suicide rates to average weekly wages, homicide rates, health insurance coverage and alcohol-related traffic deaths....In his state-by-state analysis, Mr. Miringoff found that three indicators in particular -- child poverty, high school completion and health insurance -- were bellwethers of overall social health. " New York Times (April 27, 2002) B11.]

[Request #S5056]

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TRANSPORTATION

COMMUTERS & COMMUTING

Effects of Part-Time Operation: HOV Lanes on Route 14. By the Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office, Sacramento, California) April 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/hov/0402_hov_lanes.pdf

["The report states that Chapter 337, Statutes of 2000 temporarily changed the hours of operation of the high-occupancy vehicle lanes on State Route 14 in Los Angeles County from full-time to part-time operation.... Due to this law, single-occupancy vehicles can now use the Route 14 HOV lanes during off-peak hours. The conversion to part-time operation had essentially no effect on traffic congestion, either positive or negative. State Net (April 17, 2002) 4.]

[Request #S5057]

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PUBLIC TRANSIT

New Economic Engine: National Comparison Shows Michigan Can Pull Ahead with World-Class Transit. By Kelly Thayer, Michigan Land Institute, and others. (The Institute, Beulah, Michigan) March 2002. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.mlui.org/projects/transport/publictransit/ucpreport.pdf

["Poor state funding of public transit along with weak support in its cities combine to put Michigan's major metropolitan areas near the bottom of the list of their peers across the nation. This report offers a set of recommendations for Michigan policymakers to put the state on track for world class transit and the economic competitiveness that comes with greater transportation choices for workers, businesses, and visitors."]

[Request #S5058]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CALIFORNIA READER

California's Vulnerability to Terrorism: Infrastructure, Cyber, and Agricultural Dimensions. By K. Jack Riley and others. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 230 p.

["The assessment, carried out for California's Office of Emergency Services, examines the vulnerabilities of the state's critical physical infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, and agricultural domains to terrorist threats. The authors define the possible threats, and provide strategic recommendations."]

[Request #S5059]

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ECONOMY

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World. By Lawrence Lessig. (Random House, New York, New York) October 2001. TC

["The book argues that America's concern with protecting intellectual property has become an oppressive obsession. 'The distinctive feature of American copyright law,' he writes,'is its almost limitless bloating.' As Lessig sees it, a system originally designed to provide incentives for innovation has increasingly become a weapon for attacking cutting-edge creativity." Intellectual Property Today (February 2002) 25.]

[Request #S5060]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Livable Cities: Urban Struggles for Livelihood and Sustainability. Edited by Peter Evans. (University of California Press, Berkeley, California) February 2002. 290 p.

["This book explores the linked issues of livelihood and ecological sustainability in major cities of the developing and transitional world.... [It] identifies important strategies for collective solutions by showing how political alliances among local communities, nongovernmental organizations, and public agencies can help ordinary citizens live better lives."] NOTE: Livable Cities ... will be available for 3-day loan.

[Request #S5061]

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