Subject: Studies in the News 02-5


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Reforming urban schools with career academies
   Positive effects of career academies
EMPLOYMENT
   Car ownership programs for low-income families
   Findings from the job initiative
   Job and skill training programs
   Impact of recession on Los Angeles workers
   Unemployment insurance safety net
   Status of low-wage workers
   Low-wage workers in the new economy
   Alternative work arrangements
   Women in management ranks
   Linking education and workforce development
   Soft skills and workforce development
   Small business employment
   Job security measures
   Child and elder care benefits
   Teens, jobs and welfare
HUMAN SERVICES
   Tracking former CalWORKs recipients
   TANF and CalWORKS spending
   Childcare subsidies
   Work and family in America
   Keeping jobs and raising families
   Status of former TANF recipients
   Trends for TANF recipients
   Women working poor
   Demonstration program evaluation
   Comparison of welfare-to-work programs
   Job losses for former TANF recipients
   Moving from welfare to work
   Former welfare mothers who work
   Job retention for welfare recipients
STUDIES TO COME
   Use of employment training funds
   Job losses throughout nation
   Mandatory overtime policies
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EDUCATION

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Career Academy Programs in California. By Nan Maxwell and Victor Rubin, California Policy Research Center. CPRC Brief Vol 13, No. 4. (The Center, Berkeley, California) December 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/careeracad.pdf

["After nine years of research and observation of school-to-career programs … we sought to answer a number of questions related to the ways career academies can reform urban high schools to increase education and workplace knowledge and skills.... We examined high school transcripts, administered post-high-school surveys to several thousand students, and undertook site visits to academies, schools, and district offices.” CPRC Brief (December 2001) 1.]

[Request #S3072]

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Career Academies: Impacts on Students’ Initial Transitions to Post-Secondary Education and Employment: Executive Summary. By James J. Kemple. (Manpower Research Demonstration Corporation, Oakland, California and New York, New York) December 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/CareerAcademies/CAExecutive_Summary.pdf

["Although participaing in Career Academies enhanced the high school experience of their students in ways that were consistent with the reform's short-term goals, these positive effects did not translate into changes in high school graduation rates or initial transitions to post-secondary education and jobs.... The results suggest that Career Academies should consider expanding their efforts to recruit students who may not be motivated to enroll in Academies on their own and to provide college counseling from the beginning of high school."]

[Request #S4050]

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EMPLOYMENT

ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

State and County Supported Car Ownership Programs Can Help Low-Income Families Secure and Keep Jobs. By Heidi Goldberg, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) November 8, 2001. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/11-8-01wel.pdf

["Some states and counties have recognized the importance of car ownership as a means to help meet the needs of a broader range of low-income families, and are developing programs to assist families to purchase and maintain cars.... This paper examines how car ownership can help low-income families obtain and maintain employment and reviews examples of existing car ownership programs."]

[Request #S4030]

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Extending Ladders: Findings From The Annie E. Casey Foundation's Jobs Initiative. By Wendy Fleischer, The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2001. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/jobsinitiative/ladders.pdf

["The objective of the Jobs Initiative (JI) is to improve the way urban labor markets work for low-income, inner-city residents. It intends to improve the odds that disadvantaged parents get and keep the kind of jobs that enable them to support their families with their earnings.... Overall, the JI sites have been successful at placing training participants in high-paying, entry-level jobs that lead to wage growth over time."]

[Request #S4031]

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JOB TRAINING

California's Job Training, Employment and Vocational Education Programs. By Alicia Bugarin, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) 2001. 47 p.

["California currently has over 39 job training, employment and vocational education programs administered by eleven different state departments.... The multiple federal and state categorical program requirements and regulations and diverse administrative structures continue to be a barrier to offering clients an accessible and systemic approach to job and skill training or workforce development.... California spent only 38.6 percent of the federal funds available for the WIA Youth, Adults and Dislocated Workers Programs."]

[Request #S4048]

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LOS ANGELES

When the Big Wheel Turns: Projected Impacts of a Recession on Los Angeles Workers. By Daniel Flaming and Mark Drayse, Economic Roundtable. (The Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) December 2001. 37 p.

["This report uses information from the five most recent years when the Los Angeles economy contracted as well as information about the overall sensitivity of each industry to the business cycle over the past 23 years to produce a list of 'likely suspects' for layoffs in the current downturn."]

[Request #S4032]

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UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Is the Unemployment Insurance System A Safety Net for Welfare Recipients Who Exit Welfare for Work? By Anu Rangarajan and others, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Prepared for the Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Presented to the National Conference on Workforce Security. (Mathematica, Princeton, New Jersey) [2001.] 27 p.

["As fears of an economic slowdown grow, it is critical to examine the extent to which UI is an option for those who have left welfare for work. This paper provides important evidence on the extent to which recent recipients who left welfare for work are eligible for UI."]

[Request #S4033]

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UNITED STATES

World Trade Center Job Impacts Take a Heavy Toll on Low-Wage Workers: Occupational and Wage Implications of Job Losses Related to the September 11 World Trade Center Attack. By the Fiscal Policy Institute. (The Institute, New York, New York) November 5, 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.fiscalpolicy.org/Nov5WTCreport.PDF

["Attacks Hit Low-Pay Jobs The Hardest: Many of the unemployed were in service industry. Workers in traditionally low-wage industries, like restaurants and hotels, retailing and transportation, have been hit hard in the fallout from September 11, according to a new analysis.... The report forecasts that almost 80,000 people will have lost their jobs by the end of the year, and that 60 percent of these positions paid an average of $28,000 a year. That is far below the citywide average salary of $58,000." New York Times (November 6, 2001) B1.]

[Request #S4034]

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UNSKILLED WORKERS

Low-Wage Workers in the New Economy. Edited by Richard Kazis and Marc S. Miller. (Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 386 p.

[" [This publication] is about the men and women for whom the American Dream remains out of reach. It is about the challenges they face in pulling themselves and their families out of poverty through work.... It is about strategies for helping working Americans advance — the policies and practices that can make a real difference in the ability of low-wage workers to support their families, choose their futures, and contribute more fully to society and the economy.”] NOTE; Low-Wage Workers ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4035]

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Low-Income and Low-Skilled Workers’ Involvement in Nonstandard Employment: Final Report. By Julia Land and others, the Urban Institute. Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) December 19, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/temp-workers01/index.htm

["The role of alternative work arrangements -- temporary help, independent contractors, on-call workers, and contract company workers -- has caught the attention of both policy makers and academic researchers alike. Current research indicates that 1 in 10 are employed in one of these alternative work arrangements.... The goal of this project was to examine the role of alternative work arrangements in today's labor market."]

[Request #S4036]

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WOMEN

Women In Management, Analysis of Selected Data From the Current Population Survey. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-156. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2001. 23 p.

["Female managers in most of the 10 industries examined had less education, were younger, were more likely to work part-time, and were less likely to be married than male managers, according to the March 2000 Current Population Survey.... In 1995 and 2000, full-time female managers earned less than full-time male managers, after controlling for education, age, marital status and race."]

[Request #S4037]

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WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT

Creativity, Culture, Education and the Workforce. By Ann M. Galligan, Center for Arts and Culture, Northeastern University. Issue Paper. (The Center, Washington, DC) December 2001. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.culturalpolicy.org/pubs/education.pdf

["This paper suggests [that] the U.S. needs a comprehensive strategy that links education and workforce development at federal, state, and local levels. This strategy needs to include education in the arts and humanities (K-12) as a principal cornerstone for strengthening America's cultural capital and for developing the skills necessary for Americans to remain competitive in the 21st century."]

[Request #S4038]

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Hard Work on Soft Skills: Creating a “Culture of Work” in Workforce Development. By Ted Houghton and Tony Proscio, Public/Private Ventures. (Ventures, New York, New York) October 2001. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.ppv.org/pdffiles/softskills.pdf

["Workforce practitioners are finding more and more that the uncertainties of the soft-skills world are inescapable and that success at all levels of training depends on being able to teach social disciplines like courtesy, teamwork and self-control....[These] pages describe four highly regarded workforce development programs, concentrating on how they cultivate 'emotional intelligence' -- how they prepare trainees for the cultural demands of the workplace."]

[Request #S4039]

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Small Business, Workforce Development Consortia Provide Needed Services. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-80. October 2001. 30 p.

["We identified communities with well-regarded community workforce development efforts and selected communities that had established consortia of local organizations to address workforce needs.... We conducted on-site reviews of workforce consortia and met with officials from key consortia organizations and with small business officials."]

[Request #S4040]

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WORKFORCE

Workforce Security Conference: Making Connections in the New Economy: Conference Papers. (Education and Training Administration, Department of Labor, Washington, DC) 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: ows.doleta.gov/nrc/summary.asp

[Includes: “State Trends in Unemployment Insurance Eligibility, Benefits, and Take-up, 1990-2000;” “Compensating American Families for Births and Adoptions;” “The Incidence and Cost of Wrongfully Denied Unemployment Benefits;” “The New Workforce: Age and Ethnic Changes;” “The Emergence of a Binational Mexico-US Workforce: Implications for Farm Labor Workforce Security;” “Promoting Women’s Workforce Security: Findings from IWPR Research on Unemployment Insurance and Job Training;” “Lessons for WIA Assessments from the New Jersey Workforce Development Partnership Program;” and others.]

[Request #S4041]

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WORKING WOMEN

Shared Work, Valued Care: New Norms for Organizing Market Work and Unpaid Care Work. By Eileen Appelbaum and others. Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2002. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/books/sharedcare.pdf

["The report ... says that employers today expect to be entitled to 'unencumbered workers' -- that is, employees who function as if they had a partner or other caregiver at home full time ... This ignores the mass entrance of women into the work force over the past three decades.... [The authors] describes successful programs in Japan, Australia, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy that allow workers greater work-time flexibility and better child and elder care benefits."]

[Request #S4042]

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YOUTH

Teens, Jobs, and Welfare: Implications for Social Policy. By Brett Brown. Child Trends Research Brief. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) 2001. 6 p.

["This Research Brief examines teen employment in the context of welfare reform, drawing on data from the National Survey of America's Families to describe employment patterns among teens ages 14 to 17.... Teens in families that have recently left the welfare rolls are much more likely to work long hours than any other group of youth.... These findings suggest that enhancing the employment opportunities for youth in welfare families, while considering pressures to work overly-long hours, should be a focus of the TANF reauthorization debate."]

[Request #S4043]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

What Do We Know About Former CalWORKs Recipients? By the California Budget Project. Welfare Reform Update. (The Project, Sacramento, California) July 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/books/sharedcare.pdf

["Consensus is emerging that steep caseload reductions are not sufficient to consider welfare reform a success; helping families attain self-sufficiency once off welfare is just as important.... Findings include: Over half of leavers surveyed are working; however, their earnings are generally low.... Earnings tend to be above the federal poverty level but far below what it costs to support a family in California."]

[Request #S4044]

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TANF and CalWORKS: How California Spends the Money. By the California Budget Project. Welfare Reform Update.(The Project, Sacramento, Csllifornia) August 2001. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/adobe/welfare/0108wel7.pdf

["This Update describes how dollars flow from the federal, state, and county levels for CalWORKS and related programs. California has spent practically all of its federal funds and is meeting state spending requirements. Counties are spending most, if not all, of their main employment services allocations, but are spending less of the funds they receive for mental health and substance abuse services."]

[Request #S4045]

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CHILD CARE

Mothers’ Employment and Use of Childcare in the United Kingdom. By Alan Duncan and others, Institute for Fiscal Studies. WP01/23 (The Institute, London, England) October 2001. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.ifs.org.uk/workingpapers/wp0123.pdf

["Data from the UK Family Resources Survey are used to estimate jointly the choices of whether to participate in employment and whether to use formal paid childcare. In analyzing the determinants of these choices, particular focus is given to the role of the price of childcare and so the results shed some light on the potential impact of childcare subsidies on employment rates."]

[Request #S4046]

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FAMILIES

Work and Family in America: A Reference Handbook. By Leslie F. Stebbins. (ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California) August 2001. 247 p.

["As more women pursue careers and more men stay at home, the spheres of work and family will never be the same. This book offers a comprehensive and insightful overview of these two overlapping worlds as it provides the latest figures on and status of work-family demographics, from the number of working mothers to marriage and divorce rates and recent legislation and case law." Booklist. NOTE: Work and Family ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3054]

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Keeping Jobs and Raising Families in Low-Income America: It Just Doesn't Work. By Lisa Dodson and others, Radcliffe Public Policy Center and 9 to 5 National Association of Working Women. (The Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.radcliffe.edu/pubpol/publications/boundaries.pdf

["This report details a number of policy initiatives on the part of employers and public policymakers that would help increase family and employment stability.... Policies recommended include giving workers more control over their schedules and time off when needed for family illness, school activities."]

[Request #S4047]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Leaving Welfare, Left Behind: Employment Status, Income, and Well-Being of Former TANF Recipients. By the National Campaign for Jobs and Income Support. (The Campaign, Washington, D.C.) October 2, 2001. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.nationalcampaign.org/Download/LEAVINGWELFARE.doc

["More than 120,000 families have already lost their benefits or had them reduced because of time limits on welfare. The lifetime limits kick in at different times in different states. Between now and next July we'll see welfare benefits exhausted for large numbers of families in at least 26 states." Los Angeles Times (November 19, 2001) A19.]

[Request #S4049]

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Temporary Assistance for Needy Families [Fiscal Year 2001 Caseload Data]. And California FY 2000 Use of TANF and MOE Funds. By the Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) [December 2001]. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/pubs/TANF/FY01%20Caseload%20discussion.pdf

["Welfare Caseload Rising; Officials Monitor Recession's Impact on 1996 Reforms: TANF caseloads increased in 33 states between March and September , according to the center. Twenty-two states saw an increase in their TANF caseload between September 2000 and September 2001." Charleston Daily Mail (January 4, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S4058]

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WELFARE REFORM

Working First But Working Poor: The Need for Education & Training Following Welfare Reform: Executive Summary. By Cynthia Negrey and others, Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Prepared for NOW Legal Defense Education Fund. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/7states-exec.pdf

["The 'work first' approach to welfare reform isn't working.... welfare recipients ... are shunted into unstable jobs that do not sustain their families.... In this report, 12 practical and effective recommendations are outlined that will help women succeed in getting jobs, with good pay and benefits, an all-important step toward long-term economic independence."]

[Request #S4051]

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The SUCCESS Evaluation Final Impact and Cost-Benefit Report. By David C. Mancuso and others, The SPHERE Institute. Prepared for County of San Mateo, Human Services Agency. (The Institute, Burlingame, California) October 26, 2001. 91 p.

Full Text at: www.sphereinstitute.org/pdf/SuccessFinal.pdf

["In this final report we use state and county administrative data to examine the effectiveness of San Mateo County's SUCCESS program (and the CalWORKS program that replaced it) in helping families on cash assistance to achieve self-sufficiency.... We focus on outcomes that can be measured using the administrative data sources available for analysis: employment rates, earnings levels, sanction rates, welfare recidivism, and receipt of other forms of public assistance."]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Comparison of Employment Data from the SCANS Career Transcript System to Similar Welfare-to-Work Programs. By Sule Calikoglu and Melissa Siberts, Institute for Policy Studies, John Hopkins University. (The Institute, Baltimore, Maryland) 2001. 7 p.

["The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills 2000 (SCANS) Center's Career Transcript System (CTS) is a post-placement job-retention program.... Liaisons focus on job retention through skills improvement and workplace change.... SCANS participant data were compared to several reports published in connection with the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies."]

[Request #S4053]

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Last Hired, First Fired: Job Losses Plague Former TANF Recipients. By Heather Boushey, Economic Policy Institute. EPI Issue Brief; 171. December 12, 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/Issuebriefs/ib171.html

["Former welfare recipients ... jobs are now at risk. The economy's slide into recession ... has led to considerable job losses in the very industries in which many welfare recipients had found employment.... To make matters worse, many former welfare recipients will be ineligible to receive welfare assistance, even if they need it."]

[Request #S4054]

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Ways to Work: Off Welfare and Out of Poverty. By the National Results Council. (The Council, St. Paul, Minnesta) August 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.nationalresultscouncil.org/Ways2Work.pdf

["The Council, with the help of the University of Minnesota ... conducted a two-year study that looked at two ways of helping people find work -- work-first and customized training.... We collected data on these two programs, talked to program managers, businesses and to the people striving to get off welfare and out of poverty. We highlight some of the issues we found that were associated with moving from welfare to work. We conclude with our recommendations."]

[Request #S4055]

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Is Work Enough? The Experiences of Current and Former Welfare Mothers Who Work. By Denise Polit and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, New York, New York) November 2001. 97 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/UC-IsWorkEnough/IsWorkEnough.pdf

["This report describes the experiences of women from poor urban neighborhoods who once relied on public assistance and entered the labor market. It presents findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, a study of the implementation and effects of welfare reform in the countries encompassing four big cities: Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami and Philadelphia."]

[Request #S4056]

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How Can We Encourage Job Retention and Advancement for Welfare Recipients? By Harry J. Holzer and Douglas Wissoker, Urban Institute. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-49. (The Institute, Washington, D.C.) October 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/anf_a49.pdf

["This brief presents new evidence on job performance and retention among welfare recipients.... New findings have been drawn from a recent survey that focuses on the experiences of employers from four large metropolitan areas in hiring welfare recipients. The study considers what these findings imply for policies on retention and advancement of welfare recipients in light of what is known from various program evaluations in this area."]

[Request #S4057]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EMPLOYMENT

JOB TRAINING

21st Century Accountability: Perkins III and WIA by David Stevens, The Jacob France Institute, University of Baltimore. (The Institute, Baltimore, Maryland) 2001.

["This study addresses the application of performance excellence criteria to the Perkins III performance measurement process. Reviews major vocational education and work force development legislation and assessments. The paper discusses Perkins II and WIA Title I and Title II accountability processes, with a look to the future of accountability in career and technical education."]

[Request #S4059]

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UNITED STATES

The Impact of September 11 on U.S. Metropolitan Economies: Research Report. By Ross C. Devol and others, Milken Institute (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) January 2002. 178 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.com/presrel/National%20Metro%20Impact%20Report.pdf

["The new study from the Milken Institute predicts heavy job losses throughout the nation for the next three years as a direct result of the terrorist attacks. The Bay Area will lose 49,700 jobs in 2002, more than any other region except New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Las Vegas, the report predicted." San Francisco Chronicle (January 12, 2002) B1.]

[Request #S4060]

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WORK CONDITIONS

Time After Time: Mandatory Overtime in the U.S. Economy. By Lonnie Golden and Helene Jorgensen, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) January 2002. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/120/bp120.pdf

["Long hours can detrimentally affect workers, their co-workers, their families, consumers, and the public. Despite the short-term benefits that make overtime attractive to employers, it may in the longer term create offsetting harm to an organization by decreasing quality, increasing mistakes, and reducing productivity."]

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