Subject: Studies in the News 01-33


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, and Workforce Preparation Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Working poor sinking deeper in debt
   High road partnerships for the global economy
   Los Angeles area manufacturing trends
EDUCATION
   Implementing e-learning policy
   High school senior achievement program
   Occupational programs
EMPLOYMENT
   State anti-discrimination laws
   American workforce statistics
   Organizing immigrants
   Unemployment insurance proposal
   National compensation survey
   Age and ethnic changes in workforce
   Private-sector suggestions for workforce investment
   Employment funds for dislocated workers and youth
   California's growing temporary workforce
   Fatal injuries to civilian workers
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Public employee retirement systems
HUMAN SERVICES
   Earned income tax credit helps working families
   Welfare recipients' job performance
STUDIES TO COME
   Economic profile of film industry
   Living wage policy
   Women in the sciences
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

LABOR

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. By Barbara Ehrenreich. (Metropolitan Books, New York, New York) May 2001. 221 p.

["For her research, (Barbara) Ehrenreich left a comfortable life to labor alongside those in the slow-lane world of waitresses, nursing-home attendants, and housekeepers.... A key finding: The working poor have little choice but to take more than one job at a time.... The result was exhaustion.... Such fatigue, according to Ehrenreich, partly explains why there is little social unrest among low-wage workers." Business Week (May 28, 2001) NOTE: Nickel and Dimed ... is available for 3-day loan. ]

[Request #S2587]

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High Road Partnerships Report: Choosing a Path through the Global Economy. By John J. Sweeney, AFL-CIO Working for America Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) [2001.] Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.workingforamerica.org/documents/HighRoadReport/preface.htm

["Across the country, community groups, government, foundations and far-sighted employers are teaming up to build a future of good jobs, successful industries and strong communities.... In this report, the Institute examines 14 high road partnerships to identify elements likely to lead to success, barriers to effectiveness and tools to help these and other partnerships reach their potential."]

[Request #S2743]

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MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Five-County Area. By the Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) 2001. 24 p. NTC arrived

["L.A. Manufacturers Do Well; Industry Is Outpacing Entertainment Sector: In 2000, Chicago stepped over Los Angeles, taking first place as the nation's largest manufacturing area.... As a wilted economy attempts to revive itself, manufacturing remains a fertile industry in the region with 629,000 jobs, compared with 255,300 jobs in the entertainment industry." Daily News of Los Angeles (September 4, 2001) N3. NOTE: Manufacturing in Los Angeles ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S2588]

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EDUCATION

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Any Time, Any Place, Any Path, Any Pace: Taking the Lead on e-Learning Policy. By the National Association of State Boards of Education Study Group on e-Learning Policy. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) October 2001. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.nasbe.org/Organization_Information/e_learning.pdf

["Having examined the emerging evidence and considered the doubts and cautions, the NASBE Study Group on e-Learning concludes that e-learning will improve American education in valuable ways and should be universally implemented as soon as possible.... The primary goal of this report is to provide a sufficient context so that education policy leaders can ... take the lead on developing sound e-learning policies."]

[Request #S2745]

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STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Raising our Sights: No High School Senior Left Behind: Final Report. By the National Commission on the High School Senior Year, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. (The Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey) October 2001. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.commissiononthesenioryear.org/Report/FINAL_PDF_REPORT.pdf

["This report outlines the need to raise our sights to prepare more students for college and an increasingly complex world of work... The Commission calls for the Triple A Program to improve alignment, raise achievement, and provide more (and more rigorous) alternatives to traditional senior years."]

[Request #S2747]

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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Features of Occupational Programs at the Secondary and Postsecondary Education Levels. By Richard P. Phelps and others, National Center for Education Statistics. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2001-018. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2001. 130 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001018.pdf

["This report presents data collected from two surveys conducted in spring 1999.... Overall, a majority of all public secondary schools offered at least one of the listed occupational programs: 35 percent of the schools offered 1 to 5 programs, 18 percent offered 6 to 10 programs, and another 13 percent offered more than 10 programs. However, about one-third of the schools did not offer any of these programs."]

[Request #S2749]

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EMPLOYMENT

APPRENTICESHIPS

Registered Apprenticeships: Labor Could Do More to Expand to Other Occupations. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-940. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-01-940

["To promote the apprenticeship model and safeguard the welfare of apprentices, the Department of Labor established the federal registered apprenticeship program, in which more than 36,000 apprentices are currently enrolled.... Labor has not systematically identified new occupations suitable for apprenticeship programs that could respond to needs for skilled labor, nor requirements of apprenticeship, resulting in slow expansion for apprenticeship to new occupations."]

[Request #S2750]

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DISCRIMINATION

The Labor Market Impact of State-Level Anti-Discrimination Laws, 1940-1960. By William J. Collins. Prepared for the National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 8310. (The Bureau, Cambridge, Massachusetts) May 2001. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.nber.org/papers/w8310

["This paper assesses the impact of fair employment legislation on black workers' income, unemployment, labor force participation, and occupational and industrial distribution relative to whites.... In general, the fair employment laws adopted in the 1940s appear to have had larger effects than those adopted in the 1950s, and the laws had relatively small effects on the labor market outcomes of black men compared to those of black women."]

[Request #S2751]

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EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

Report on the American Workforce. By Deborah Klein and Richard Devens, U.S. Department of Labor. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2001. 205 p.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/opub/rtaw/pdf/rtaw2001.pdf

["The report traces the broad outlines of the economy in the 20th century, its impact on the American worker, and the evolution of the statistical tools needed by policymakers, workers, employers, and researchers.... The three chapters explore demographic change and demographic statistics, the evolution of compensation and compensation reporting, and economic structure and economic classification. A compendium of statistical tables completes the book."]

[Request #S2752]

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LABOR UNION

Organizing Immigrants: The Challenge for Unions in Contemporary California. Edited by Ruth Milkman. (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York) 2000. 260 p.

["Drawing on newly collected evidence on immigrants and unions in late twentieth-century California, the chapters include broad overviews of immigrant employment and unionization patterns in the nation's most populous state, as well as studies of particular organizing campaigns, strikes, and immigrant-employing industries in a variety of urban settings, with cases from both northern and southern California."]

[Request #S2753]

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UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Unemployment Isn’t Working: A Proposal to Better Insure Ohio’s Workers. By Policy Matters Ohio. (Policy Matters Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio) 2001. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.policymattersohio.org/uirept.pdf

["This report reviews the history and operation of the Ohio unemployment insurance system. It describes how eligibility standards work and how the qualifying requirements affect low-wage workers. The study further examines how the system is financed and its current condition. It suggests a number of changes in the financing and provision of benefits, including ways to extend coverage to more Ohioans who have lost their jobs."]

[Request #S2754]

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WAGES

National Compensation Survey: Occupational Wages in the United States, 1999. Bulletin 2539. July 2001. 189 p. And National Compensation Survey: Occupational Wages in the United States, 2000. Summary 01-04. September 2001. 16 p. By the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) September 2001.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/sp/ncbl0343.pdf

["Regional Data Finds Austin Pays Top Wage for Records Clerks: Austin, Texas ... has the highest median wage, $14.02.... Record clerks play a key role in most companies ... if a tax dispute arises and past documentation is necessary... The next highest ... is $13.92, in Chicago.... Los Angeles' hourly wages remain modest ... $12.15." Report on Hourly Compensation (September 2001) 2.]

[Request #S2755]

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WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT

The New Workforce: Age and Ethnic Changes. By Judi L. McClellan and Richard Holden, Labor Market Information Division, California Employment Development Department. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2001. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.calmis.cahwnet.gov/specialreports/Aging-Workforce.pdf

["California's primary working age population (20-64 years of age) will shrink as a share of the state population after 2010.... Age structure changes also will accompany more racial and ethnic diversity. California, as the most diverse state ethnically and culturally, has the opportunity to lead the nation in accomplishing an ongoing transition to a workforce much more diverse than the workforce of the baby boom era."]

[Request #S2756]

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WORKFORCE

Workforce Investment Act: New Requirements Create Need for More Guidance. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-94t. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 4, 2001. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-94t

["Training providers have struggled to find ways to effectively meet WIA's data collection and reporting requirements that they believe are burdensome and, as a result, have reduced the course offerings they make available to WIA job seekers. Private-sector members of workforce investment boards have grappled with their concerns that their input is diluted by staff and committees set up to facilitate board operations. The federal agencies that oversee the mandatory partners' programs, particularly Labor and Education, have not provided adequate guidance to address these concerns."]

[Request #S2757]

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Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance Needed to Address Concerns Over New Requirements. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-72. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2001. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-72

["As required by WIA, mandatory partners are making efforts to participate in the one-stops. However, programmatic or financial concerns are affecting the partners' level of participation, as well as their ability to fully integrate their services at the one-stops.... We are recommending that the responsible federal agencies-Labor, Education, HHS, and HUD-work together to provide more effective guidance on how to address the specific concerns identified by state and local implementers."]

[Request #S2758]

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WIA Update: Revised State Allotments of Youth Activities and Debate about Rescission. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-55. (FFIS, Washington, DC) October 3, 2001. 2 p.

["The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) issued notification of changes in dislocated worker and youth funds for program year (PY) 2001. In addition to increasing funds for youth activities, the notification also explained how the DOL planned to carry out congressional instructions to take back from the states $110 million in previously allocated funds for dislocated worker programs under the WIA.... In light of current events, the rescission has been delayed and possibly will not occur."]

[Request #S2759]

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Working on the Margins: California's Growing Temporary Workforce. By Sundari Baru, Center on Policy Initiatives. (The Center, San Diego, California) 2001. 65 p.

["[This report] ... is the first in a series of CPI reports that seek to address the changing structure of work in California and its effects on workers. The reports aim to highlight key issues surrounding the state's growing non-secure workforce and offer policy recommendations that achieve greater economic and career security for workers and their families."]

[Request #S2760]

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WORKPLACE SAFETY

Fatal Injuries to Civilian Workers in the United States, 1980-1995 (National and State Profiles). By Suzanne M. Marsh and Larry A. Layne, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health and Human Services. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/NTOF2000/2001129pd.html

["The National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system was developed to fill gaps in the knowledge of work-related injury deaths in the United States by providing a census of occupational injury deaths for all U.S. workers.... This document will serve as a comprehensive resource to describe the magnitude and circumstances of occupational injury deaths from 1980 through 1995."]

[Request #S2761]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

PUBLIC EMPLOYEE PENSIONS

Federal, State, and Local Governments: State and Local Government Public Employee Retirement Systems. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) October 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/govs/www/retire.html

["The State and Local Government Public Employee Retirement System survey provides revenues, expenditures, financial assets and membership information for public employee retirement systems. Data is shown for individual retirement systems as well as at the national, state, and local level."]

[Request #S2762]

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HUMAN SERVICES

EARNED INCOME TAX CREDITS

A Hand Up: How State Earned Income Tax Credits Help Working Families Escape Poverty in 2001: Summary. By Nicholas Johnson, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/10-18-01sfp.pdf

["The EITC has been widely praised for its success in supporting work and reducing poverty.... The success of the federal EITC has led a number of states to enact Earned Income Tax Credits that supplement the federal credit.... Altogether 16 states now offer EITCs based on the federal credit."]

[Request #S2763]

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A Local Ladder for the Working Poor: The Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit in U.S. Metropolitan Areas. By Alan Berube and Benjamin Forman, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy in Collaboration with the National League of Cities. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 2001. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/eitc/eitcnational.pdf

["In this survey, we extend our analysis to the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the U.S. Our findings here echo those of earlier studies: while low-income working families in metropolitan areas are most concentrated in the central cities, the majority of EITC dollars flow to the suburbs."]

[Request #S2764]

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WELFARE REFORM

How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Employment and Income: A Synthesis of Research. By Dan Bloom and Charles Michalopoulos, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. The Next Generation. (The Corporation, New York, New York) May 2001. 80 p.

Full Text at: http://www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/NG-AdultSynthesis/NG-AdultResearchSyn-May2001.pdf

["By shedding light on the trade-offs between competing goals -- such as increasing employment, decreasing welfare receipt, controlling government costs, and improving the well-being of families and children -- this cross-cutting research synthesis is intended to inform policymakers as they attempt to design and improve policies for low-income families."]

[Request #S2765]

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WELFARE-TO-WORK

Job Performance and Retention Among Welfare Recipients. By Harry J. Holzer, Urban Institute. Prepared for the Joint Center for Poverty Research. JCPR Policy Brief. Vol. 3, No. 9. (The Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois) June 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/holzer_stoll_wissoker.PDF

["Welfare Recipients Perform Well on the Job: A new study ... concludes that most welfare recipients who take jobs perform as well or better than other employees at comparable jobs.... [It] measured how hundreds of employers in Chicago, Milwaukee, Los Angeles and Cleveland have been affected by the push to move people off welfare rolls and into jobs.... The study did find problems in absenteeism and poor attitudes." Dallas Morning News (July 31, 2001) 20 p.

[Request #S2766]

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Workforce Development: Employment Retention and Advancement Under TANF. By the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Technical Paper. (The Foundation, Battle Creek, Michigan) 2001. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.wkkf.org/Devolution/TechnicalPapers/Workforce.pdf

["Research findings since 1996 support the premise that TANF programs can do much more to address job quality while maintaining a strong focus on rapid entry into the workforce, through a range of approaches including improved job matching, better use of labor market information, closer links to employers, and increased access to skill-building activities."]

[Request #S2767]

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Implementation of Individual Training Account Policies Under the Workforce Investment Act: Early Information from Local Areas. By Nisha Patel and Steve Savner, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2001. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/pubs/jobseducation/ITAPreliminaryReportMay2001.pdf

["One of the key features of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) is that WIA-funded services for adults and dislocated workers must generally be paid for through vouchers called Individual Training Accounts or ITA's. Because many of the decisions about eligibility and priority for training services ... are left to local workforce investment areas, policies have the potential to vary widely by locality." Electronic Policy Network (date)1.]

[Request #S2768]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

FILM INDUSTRY

Film Industry Profile of LA County. By the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) October 2001.

["The film industry, according to the profile, faced and continues to face in 2001 other major issues such as runaway production, and a slowing economy that is curbing advertising spending and censorship. The profile examines the business indicators for the industry, including domestic box office numbers which had a slight increase of 2.8% in 2000 and has a forecasted total of $8.35 billion for 2001, a 9% increase..... Finally, the profile examines the economic impacts of the film industry on Los Angeles County, where it ranks as the fifth major industry on the basis of employment." Capitol Hill Bulletin (October 25, 2001) 3.]

[Request #S2770]

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LABOR

The Future of Success. By Robert Reich (Knopf, New York, New York) January 2001.

["[Reich's] prescriptions sound modest: Cushion people against economic shocks, widen the circle of prosperity, reduce inequality, give caring attention to those who need it most. His proposals sound more radical: Guarantee everyone a job at a decent wage, offer every young person some venture capital, raise pay for workers in helping professions such as child care and elder care, offer public support for a parent who stays home with a child under 3." Washington Post (February 18, 2001) 1. NOTE: The Future of Success ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S2769]

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MINIMUM WAGE

Raise The Floor: Wages and Policies That Work For All Of Us. By Holly Sklar and others. (Ms. Foundation for Women, New York, New York) August 24, 2001. 246 p.

["Americans earning the minimum wage are making a third less in real dollars than their counterparts did a third of a century ago. Wages have not kept up with the cost of living.... The authors maintain the federal minimum wage can and should be increased to $8 an hour. The book also recommends improved Earned Income Tax Credit, health care, housing, child care and other policies to supplement wages in assuring people can meet their basic needs." Des Moines Register (September 3, 2001) 3.]

[Request #S2405]

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EDUCATION

WOMEN IN SCIENCE

Balancing the Equation: Where Are Women & Girls in Science, Engineering & Technology? By Mary Thom, National Council for Research on Women. (The Council, New York, New York) July 2001. NTC (Issue 23)

["Report Urges Educators to Improve the Representation of Women in the Sciences: It urges policy makers and educators alike to help remove the lingering barriers to the advancement of women in math, science, and engineering. It also recommends that they increase women's interest in those fields by diversifying the curriculum.... The report also notes that while women made up 46 percent of the work force in the United States as of 1996, they held just 12 percent of the science and engineering jobs in the nation's businesses." Chronicle of Higher Education (July 18, 2001) 2.]

[Request #S2187]

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