Subject: Studies in the News 01-28


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

September 1851 - "A Custom House for San Francisco - Twelve months have been thrown away in dily-dallyings and delays, and the matter of building a Custom House for the greatest commercial position upon the Pacific and the third port in the United States. The whole time has been wasted in attempts to ascertain the title of the United States government to the ground occupied by the 'Old Adobe' on the Plaza."  Alta California (September 22, 1851) 2.  

September 1851 - "It is now some twelve months since the Congress of the United States appropriated $100,000 for the commencement of a Custom House at San Francisco, and yet not a step has been taken towards its construction -- the ground even has not been broken! The same Congress, at another session, appropriated $300,000 more for the completion of a Custom House at this port; and still nothing has been done towards its commencement. "  Alta California (September 22, 2001) 2.  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Sexual exploitation of children
   California drug war costs
   Male prisoners and procreation
   Probation and parole statistics
   Evaluation of victims of crime program
DEMOGRAPHY
   Income and poverty estimates
   Census 2000 partnerships
   Multiple generations living under the same roof
   Integration of immigrant families
   Statistics on computer and internet use
ECONOMY
   California share of USDA subsidies
   Resident ownership mechanisms
   Executive pay scales
   Privacy vs. safety
   Litigation rates in the states
   US stocks and economic slowdown
   Electricity restructuring
EDUCATION
   Schools and suspensions
   Effect of teachers' race on student learning
   Suspension of UC dual admissions program
   School choice wars
   Substance abuse in schools
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Clean water enforcement
   Environmental decision making
   American River flood control
   San Francisco bay area water governance
   CALFED Bay-Delta Water Program
ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY
   Binational farm worker health survey
   Hispanics and an American agenda
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Decision on Proposition 209
   Election law and the Internet
   State preparedness for blackouts
   Nonprofit advocacy and policy
   Fire department privatization
   Responses to tight fiscal conditions
   Sales tax formula
HEALTH
   Sacramento report on child abuse and deaths
   Ritalin acts much like cocaine
   Hospitals and seismic safety upgrade
   Caring for infants and toddlers
   Increasing health insurance coverage
   Survey of employer health benefits
   Managed care organization liability laws
   Workers without health insurance
HOUSING
   Decreases to Section 8 housing program
HUMAN SERVICES
   Adolescents' school and employment
   Best welfare reforms for children
   Coordinating Medicaid and food stamps
   Presidential commission on Social Security
   Welfare reform and household savings
   Rural America welfare reform research
INTERNATIONAL READER
   Trade agreements and states' rights
   California benefits from exports
   U.S.-Japanese relations
TRANSPORTATION
   Financing transportation projects
STUDIES TO COME
   Scenarios of terrorist threats
   Arsenic found in drinking water
   African-American opinion poll
   Stem-cell research outlook
   Child advocacy in public policy
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILD ABUSE

The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Executive Summary. By Richard J. Estes and Neil Alan Weiner, University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work.(The University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) September 10, 2001. 37 p.

Full Text at: caster.ssw.upenn.edu/~restes/CSEC.htm

["The study determined that among the sexually exploited U.S. children, 6,793 had fled mental hospitals, foster homes or other institutions, while 51,602 had been thrown out of their homes by a parent or guardian.... The largest group, about 122,000, is made up of children who have run away from home and turned to prostitution or pornography.... The second-largest group, about 73,000, is made up of children who live at home and are used by family or friends in exchange for money, food, drugs, or other benefits." Sacramento Bee(September 10, 2001) A6.]

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DRUGS

"Allocation of the California Drug War Costs: Direct Expenses, Externalities, Opportunity Costs, and Fiscal Losses." By C. Daniel Vencill and Zagros Sadjadi. IN: The Justice Policy Journal: Analyzing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Issues and Policies, vol. 1, no. 1 (2001) pp. 1-5.

Full Text at: www.cjcj.org/journal/vol1no1/vencill/index.html

["A study by two San Francisco State University researchers says taxpayers aren't getting their money's worth from jailing drug addicts. [They] calculated the average Californian pays $485 a year to fight the drug war, with questionable results." Associated Press State & Local Wire (October 26, 2000) 1.]

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PRISONERS

William Gerber v. Rodney Hickman, Warden of Mill Creek State Prison. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. CV-99-01315-FCD. September 5, 2001. Various pagings.

["Male prisoners have a constitutional right to procreate by means of artificial insemination, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled...Prison officials can restrict that right only if they can show that prison safety issues would make it impossible...The ruling does not apply to female prisoners, the court said, because caring for a pregnant female inmate raises different issues for prison officials." Los Angeles Times (September 6, 2001) A1.]

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PROBATION

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2000. By the Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ppus00.htm

["Correctional Data Record a New High: The nation's combined federal, state and local adult correctional population reached a new high of almost 6.5 million men and women during 2000, an increase of 117,400 men and women during the year.... The total represented 3.1 percent of the country's total adult population, or 1 in nearly every 32 adults." Washington Times (August 27, 2001) A3.]

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VICTIMS

The National Evaluation of State Victims of Crime Act Compensation and Assistance Programs: Findings and Recommendations From a National Survey of State Administrators. By Lisa Newmark, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute. (The Institute, New York, New York) March 2001. 133 p.

Full Text at: www.urbaninstitute.org/pdfs/410142.pdf

["The Institute surveyed all state administrators regarding current policies, practices, contentious issues, and areas for program improvements. Findings indicate that state programs are generally functioning well but could improve operations in several areas, including planning, training, outreach, and coordination. Further development of responses to drastic fluctuations in expenditures from the Crime Victims Fund and development of policies for future uses of funds currently held for victim-related spending are also needed."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CENSUS

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates: Tables for States and Counties by Income Year and Statistics. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 31, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/hhes/www/saipe/stcty/estimate.html

["For People in the Middle, A Squeeze: California, as a whole, has a shrinking middle class.... And there has been an increase in the number of poor people....Recent U.S. census figures say: Only 34 percent of California families have incomes of from $35,000 to $75,000, the second-lowest tally among the states. Only Massachusetts has a smaller percentage." San Diego Union-Tribune (September 9, 2001) B1.]

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CENSUS 2000

Census Review of Partnership Program Highlights Best Practices for Future Operations. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-579. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 40 p.

["To take a more complete and accurate count of the nation's population in the 2000 Census, the Bureau of the Census partnered with other federal agencies, as well as with state, local, and tribal governments; religious, community, and social service organizations; and private businesses.... We reviewed the 2000 Census partnership program, paying particular attention to the Bureau's tracking system used to monitor partnership engagements and measure performance."]

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FAMILIES

Households and Families: 2000. By Tavia Simmons and Grace O'Niell. (U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC) September 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-8.pdf

["Families of three or more generations live under the same roof in about 4 million American homes...with Hawaii and California leading the way. Multigenerational households are most common in areas with high immigration, but also occur where people help care for a daughter's children or for elderly parents." Sacramento Bee (September 7, 2001) A19.]

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IMMIGRANTS

The Integration of Immigrant Families in the United States. By Michael Fix and others, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2001. 67 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/pdfs/immig_integration.pdf

["According to the Institute, undocumented immigrants represent 34 percent of domestic workers; 23 percent of agricultural and fisheries workers; 21 percent of textile and assembly workers; 18 percent of service workers; 18 percent of material handlers and helpers; and 12 percent of transportation workers.... The United States should consider a guest-work program that would include those who are already here.... Newcomers would enter as 'contracted guest workers' with specific jobs waiting." San Diego Union-Tribune (August 15, 2001) B7.]

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TECHNOLOGY

Home Computers and Internet Use in the United States: August 2000. By the Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) September 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p23-207.pdf

["More proof of the skyrocketing popularity of the Internet: 42 percent of U.S. households could get onto the Web in 2000, up from 18 percent three years earlier, the Census Bureau found.... Gaps still existed among different socioeconomic groups. Older Americans and families with smaller incomes were less likely to have computers." San Francisco Chronicle (September 6, 2001) C1.]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

"What Price Rice? California Farmers Harvest $480 Million in Subsidies." By Paul Schnitt. IN: Sacramento Bee (September 24, 2001) A1+. And "U.S. Subsidies Bypass Many California Farms." By Kiley Russell, Associated Press. IN: Associated Press State and Local Wire (September 9, 2001) p.1.

["During 1999 and 2000, California farmers who produce the nation's second largest rice crop -- covering 500,000 acres in the Sacrametno Valley -- harvested $480 million in federal subsidies.... In many rural Northern California counties, the government cash allows farmers to sustain their way of life, and be profitable, rather than sell their land to developers."]

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms. By Heather McCulloch and Lisa Robinson, PolicyLink. (PolicyLink, Oakland, California) 2001. 184 p.

Full Text at: www.policylink.org/pdfs/ROMs.pdf

["Low-Income Residents Can Become Stockholders, Not Just Stakeholders, in Revitalization, Says Equitable Development Study: The economic strategies described ... look beyond the traditional asset building strategies of single family homeownership and individually-owned small businesses. They offer solutions for building collaborative, community-building approaches to economic development." U.S. Newswire (September 6, 2001) 1.]

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INCOME INEQUALITY

Executive Excess 2001: Layoffs, Tax Rebates, The Gender Gap: Eighth Annual CEO Compensation Survey. By Sarah Anderson, Institute for Policy Studies and Chris Hartman, United for a Fair Economy and others. (The Institute, Boston, Massachusetts) August 28, 2001. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.ufenet.org/press/2001/EE2001.pdf

["CEO Pay 531 Times That Of Workers; Gap Grows Despite Downturn: The average chief executive of a major American corporation now makes 531 times as much in pay, bonuses and stock options as the average factory worker.... Although the economy stalled and the stock market dipped in 2000, the salaries and bonuses of CEOs jumped by 18 percent, according to the study. The paycheck of the average worker, by contrast, went up 3 percent." Chicago Tribune (August 28, 2001) N1.]

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PRIVACY

Privacy vs. Safety: Terrorist Threat Shifts Priorities in Online Rights Debate. By Stefanie Olsen and Evan Hansen, CNet News. (CNet Networks, Inc., San Francisco, California) 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: news.cnet.com/News/Pages/Special/Privacy/privacyreport.pdf

["Terrorist Threat Shifts Priorities in Online Rights Debate: In the past year, privacy advocates, civil libertarians and lawmakers have spoken about the need to balance the government's use of technology to track criminals with the public's right to privacy.... A few of the technologies central to the debate [are listed]."]

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TORT REFORM

"The Politics of Torts: Explaining Litigation Rates in the American States." By Jeff Yates and others. IN: State Politics and Policy Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 2001) pp. 127-143.

["Debate rages over whether Americans have become enormously litigious.... This article examines tort filings in ten representative states over a 20-year period and analyzes the impact of social, political, policy, and legal system factors that may account for case filings.... It is more likely that tort reform measures will continue to be the preferred political response to higher litigation rates."]

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U.S. ECONOMY

The Pop Heard 'Round the World: Putting Perspective on the Collapse of the US Stock Market. By Peter Swank and Christopher Thornberg. And The Economic Impact of the Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center Will Be Minor. By Edward E. Learner and Christopher Thornberg. (UCLA Anderson Forecast, Los Angeles, California) September 2001. 22 p.

["One feature of the current economic slowdown has been the dramatic decline in the value of the US stock markets. From a high of 5,4048 in March, 2000 the tech-heavy NASDAQ continues [its] tumultuous decline.... Now, with the current reversal of fortunes, the question everyone seems to be asking is 'how low will it go?'"]

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UTILITIES

Power to the Cities: A Homegrown Way to Recharge California. By Mark Bernstein and others. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/rr.08.01/power.html

["Study Backs New Generators at Existing Power Plants in Three California Cities: The study found that installing new generators at existing power plants could potentially save the state $466 million over 10 years by providing electricity it might otherwise have to buy from out-of-state or inefficient local suppliers at exorbitant prices." Los Angeles Daily News (May 9, 2001) 1.]

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EDUCATION

CAMPUS DISCIPLINE

Schools and Suspensions: Self-Reported Crime and the Growing Use of Suspensions. By the Justice Policy Institute, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.cjcj.org/sss/sss.pdf

["Report Questions 'Zero Tolerance:' Juvenile crime rates have held steady since the 1970s, but school suspensions have doubled over the same time period.... The increase in the number of suspensions seemed to have little to do with serious school crime, said Vincent Schiraldi, president of the Center. 'We need to question why a well-behaved generation is being so severely punished by being denied access to education.'" Washington Times (September 4, 2001) A4.]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Teachers, Race and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment. By Thomas S. Dee, National Bureau of Economic Research (The Bureau, Cambridge, Massachusetts) August 2001. 38 p.

Full Text at: papers.nber.org/papers/W8432.pdf

["Both black and white children score higher on mathematics and reading tests when their teachers are the same race as they are.... The race effects were particularly strong among poor children, children with inexperienced teachers, and children attending segregated schools —- especially for African-American children." Education Week (September 19, 2001) p. 1]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Faced With No Way to Pay for It, University of California Shelves Dual-Admissions Plan. By Jeffery Selingo. IN: Chronicle of Higher Education (September 21, 2001) p. 1. And President Atkinson's Letter to Regents Regarding Dual Admissions. By Richard Atkinson, President. (Office of the President News Room, Oakland, California) September 18, 2001. 1 p.

["The University of California has delayed a high-profile effort to increase minority enrollment that would have guaranteed admission for some students who completed their first two years at a community college... More than half of the students who would have tranferred had family incomes below $35,000, compared with 36 percent of transfer students now. White students would have made up 40 percent of the dual-admissions pool, with Hispanic and black students accounting for 29 percent and 6 percent, respectively." Chronicle of Higher Education (September 21, 2001) 1.]

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SCHOOL CHOICE

The School Choice Wars. By John Merrifield. (Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland) May 15, 2001. 224 p.

["Arguing for a competitive education industry, (John) Merrifield discusses policy and political strategy mistakes while suggesting corrections. This book covers government regulation issues, typical fallacies, diversity issues, private voucher initiatives, and experiments and empirical evidence about competition." NOTE: School Choice Wars ... is available for 3-day loan. The item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

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SCHOOL SAFETY

Malignant Neglect: Substance Abuse and America's Schools. By The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. (The Center, New York, New York) September 2001. 87 p.

Full Text at: www.casacolumbia.org/usr_doc/malignant2%2Epdf

["Zero-tolerance policies in schools, which require stiff penalties even for minor drug offenses, don't work well, the center found. The tough penalties discourage students from turning in their drug-abusing peers. Those expelled for drug abuse often wind up on the streets or in alternative schools where drugs are even more plentiful." Sacramento Bee (September 6, 2001) A10.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLEAN WATER ACT

Water Enforcement: State Enforcement of Clean Water Act Dischargers Can Be More Effective. By the Office of Inspector General, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (The Office, San Francisco) August 2001. 90 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/oigearth/audit/list901/finalenfor.pdf

["The EPA report looked at state efforts to enforce one aspect of the federal Clean Water Act: regulations designed to protect human health and the environment by setting limits on pollutants that can be discharged into rivers, streams and seas. It concluded that the three states it studied--California, North Carolina and Utah--had many weaknesses in their enforcement programs, including failing to report serious violations or impose fines high enough to deter companies from polluting waterways." Los Angeles Times (August 23, 2001) A16.]

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Recommendations for Improving the Scientific Basis for Environmental Decisionmaking: A Report from the First National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment. By the National Council for Science and the Environment. (The Council, Washington, DC) December 7-8, 2001. 32 p.

Full Text at: cnie.org/2000conference/PDFmasters/2000ncspeRecommendations_txtonly.pdf

["This report contains the recommendations of more than 450 scientists and decision makers who participated in the first conference on Science, Policy and the Environment.... The overarching theme of the recommendations is the need for this nation and the world community to achieve a level of sustainability that integrates three basic elements: economic security, ecological integrity, and social equity."]

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FLOODS

American River Watershed, California: Long-Term Study Draft, Supplemental Plan Formulation Report/EIS/EIR: Executive Summary. By U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento Division. (The Corps, Sacramento, California) September 2001. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.spk.usace.army.mil/cespk-pd/americanriver/main.html

["Sacramento can achieve long-desired 200-year flood protection along the American River if officials raise the height of Folsom Dam by 7 feet, according to a new federal report. The Army Corps of Engineers' analysis won immediate plaudits from local officials who say it offers a plan that would enable Sacramento, now one of the nation's most flood-prone urban areas, to withstand the area's toughest storms." Sacramento Bee (September 19, 2001) A1.]

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WATER POLICY

Water Governance in the San Francisco Bay Area: Challenges and Opportunities. By Randall Crane and others, California Policy Research Center, University of California. CPRC Brief. Vol. 13, No. 3. (The Center, Berkeley, California) August 2001. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/sfwater.pdf

["This Brief summarizes our examination of local water governance issues in the San Francisco Bay Area, with a focus on the unique relationship of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (the SFPUC) to the majority of its customers.... [The report's] purpose is ... to consider the potential merits of alternative governance arrangements for the SFPUC service area."]

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WATER RESOURCES

Water Storage and the CALFED Program: Can the Program Deliver On Its Promises? By Senator K. Maurice Johannessen, Senate Select Committee on the CALFED Bay-Delta Water Program and Carrie L. Brown, Esq. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) August, 2001. Various pagings.

["The CALFED Program promises to provide a long-term solution to the state's water problems by the year 2030. But what happens to the needs of existing water users in the short-term?... At the present time our state water supply system is already running under deficit conditions."]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

IMMIGRANTS

The Binational Farm worker Health Survey. By Rick Mines and others, California Institute for Rural Studies. (The Institute, Davis, California) 2001. Various pagings.

["This report provides new and vital information on how immigrant agricultural workers in the United States cope with the many healthcare challenges they face.... The investigation involved a detailed survey and extensive field observations among current and former U.S. farm workers and health-care professionals in Mexico and the United States." Rural California Report (Summer 2001) 11.]

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LATINOS

Beyond the Census: Hispanics and An American Agenda, Parts I and II. By the National Council of La Raza. (The Council, Phoenix, Arizona) 2001. Part I: 22 p. Part II: 11 p.

Full Text at: nclr.policy.net/proactive/newsroom/release.vtml?id=18060

["The report presents an overview of the most recent Census data on Hispanics in the U.S.... Latinos are a major factor behind the demographic and economic growth the U. S. experienced in the 1990s and this analysis addresses what it means for the U.S.... [It] presents key social, demographic, and economic data and discusses their implications with a focus on an 'American Agenda.'"]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

Connerly v. State Personnel Board. Court of Appeal of California, Third Appellate District. CO32042. September 4, 2001. Various pagings.

["A state appellate court struck down California's major affirmative action laws that give a boost to women and minorities, ruling that they violate the anti-affirmative action initiative Proposition 209. ... The court ... declared unconstitutional laws requiring that the lottery, the state treasurer and state Department of General Services take steps to attract 'socially and economically disadvantaged' business owners, which it found were either minority or women-owned." Los Angeles Times (September 5, 2001) B1.]

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ELECTIONS

Election Law and The Internet. By Trevor Potter and Kirk L. Jowers. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) 2001. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/gs/cf/sourcebk01/InternetChap.pdf

["This chapter discusses the evolution of the regulatory framework of election laws on the Internet ... the United States' generally non-regulatory policy toward Internet communications and how that differs from the Federal Election Commission's approach. Finally, it provides a description and analysis of FEC Advisory Opinions and other proceedings concerning the Internet to date."]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Blackout Preparedness: The Office of Emergency Services and the California National Guard Each Have Weaknesses in Their Blackout Preparations. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) September 2001. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/20011111.pdf

["The OES (Office of Emergency Services) cannot ensure the effectiveness of its notification process or that local governments are receiving the planning assistance that they seek. The CNG has limited assurance that its back-up generator will be readily available to provide the necessary power to operate its Joint Operations Center so that the CNG can respond fully to any OES request."]

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LOBBYING & LOBBYISTS

Exploring Organizations and Advocacy: Strategies and Finances. Edited by Elizabeth J. Reid and Maria D. Montilla, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) [2001.] 93 p.

Full Text at: www.urbaninstitute.org/pdfs/org_advocacy.pdf

["This volume examines strategies for influencing policy and election outcomes, (including) governance and accountability, the internal operations of nonprofit organizations and how their missions, capacity, governance, and constituencies shape their advocacy and their internal and public accountability."]

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PRIVATIZATION

Can You Save Money and Still Save Lives? The Debate Over Fire Department Privatization. By Julia Lave Johnston, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) June 2001. 29 p.

["Fire protection service has been difficult to privatize, both because of community and firefighter resistance.... The majority of researchers agree that privatizing fire services saves communities money. Critics of fire protection privatization argue that this is because municipal fire departments provide better and more dependable service, which costs more."]

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STATE FINANCES

State Responses to Tight Fiscal Conditions: Short-Term Fixes May Backfire if the Economy Does Not Soon Recover; Cyclical Downturn Masks Structural Problems in Some States. By Kevin Carey and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-9-01sfp-rep.pdf

["Report Warns of Using Short-Term Budget Fixes in Slowing Economy: The report looks at how a sampling of states handled a decline in revenues from the cooling economy.... States with tax structures failing to produce enough revenue over the long-term should avoid gimmicks or short-term solutions. Gimmicks include inflated revenue estimates and delaying payments from one budgetary period to a later one." Associated Press State & Local Wire (September 7, 2001) 1.]

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STATE TAXES

The “Single Sales Factor” Formula for State Corporate Taxes: A Boon to Economic Development or a Costly Giveaway? By Michael Mazerov, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/3-27-01sfp.pdf

["Multistate businesses in some states are advocating that the traditional 'three factor formula' (property, payroll, and sales) be abandoned in favor of a 'single sales factor' (or 'sales-only') apportionment formula.... The share of the corporation's total profit that a particular state would tax would be based solely on the share of the corporation's nationwide sales occurring in the state."]

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HEALTH

CHILD ABUSE

2000 Annual Report: Child Abuse Fatalities and Other Deaths. By Sacramento County Child Death Review Team. (Child Abuse Prevention Council, Sacramento, California) 96p.

["'Some of these deaths were so easily preventable - they're just tragic,' said Sheila Anderson, executive director of the county's Child Abuse Prevention Council, which oversees the team and is publishing the report...Anderson said the team is particularly concerned with the relationship between neglect and death. 'We think of it as being benign, but, frankly, more children are dying of neglect-related causes than from abuse.'" Sacramento Bee (September 18, 2001) B1]

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DRUG USE

"Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine." By Brain Vastag. IN: JAMA Journal of the Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 8 (August 22, 2001) pp. 1-4. And "Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate Significantly Increase Extracellular Dopamine in the Human Brain." By Nora D. Volkow and others. IN: The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 9 (September 2001) pp. RC121-125.

["Advanced imaging research has answered a 40-year-old question about methylphenidate (Ritalin), which is taken daily by 4 million to 6 million children in the United States: how does it work? The answer may unsettle many parents, because the drug acts much like cocaine.... Taken orally in a pill form, methylphenidate rarely produces a high and has not been reported to be addictive. However, injected as a liquid it sends a jolt that 'addicts like very much,'.... They say it's like cocaine." JAMA (August 22, 2001) .]

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HOSPITALS

Structural Performance Category Ratings: A list of California hospitals within each county, the number of buildings reported by each hospital and the respective SPC ratings. By California Alliance to Preserve Hospital Access. (The Alliance, Sacramento) August 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.hospitalaccess.org/downloads/county.pdf

["Several north state hospitals ... must improve building earthquake safety standards to comply with an unfunded seismic-safety mandate. Mercy Medical Center in Redding and Redding Medical Center are among 21 critical care centers in northeastern California that must make improvements by 2008, the California Alliance to Preserve Hospital Access said." Sacramento Bee (August 14, 2001) B3.]

[Request #S2442]

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INFANTS & CHILDREN

Caring for Infants and Toddlers [Issue theme]. By Richard E. Behrman and others, David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Future of Children. Vol. 11, No. 1. (The Foundation, Los Altos, California) Spring/Summer 2001. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/vol11no1ART1%2Epdf

[Includes: "Caring for Infants and Toddlers: Analysis and Recommendations;" "Development in the First Year of Life;" "Child Care and Our Youngest Children;" "Caring for our Youngest: Public Attitudes in the United States;" "Employer Supports for Parents with Young Children;" "Federal and State Efforts to Improve Care for Infants and Toddlers;" "International Policies Toward Parental Leave and Child Care;" and others.]

[Request #S2443]

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INSURANCE

Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability Demonstration Initiative. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-44. (FFIS, Washington, DC) September 6, 2001. 3 p.

["The federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently announced an initiative that gives states additional flexibility to provide health insurance to currently uninsured individuals. Under the Health insurance Flexibility and Accountability Demonstration Initiative, states may request a Section 1115 waiver to increase Medicaid or State Children's Health Insurance Program coverage of currently uninsured persons."]

[Request #S2290]

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2001 Employer Health Benefits Survey: Report. By The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) [September 2001.] 180 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2001/3138/EHB2001_fullrpt.pdf

["A national survey of health insurance costs shows that premiums rose 11 percent in the past year, the biggest jump since 1992.... Seventy-five percent of large companies and 42 percent of small firms said they were likely to increase what employees pay for health insurance in the coming year, the survey said." Washington Post (September 7, 2001) E1.]

[Request #S2450]

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MANAGED CARE

State Managed Care Organization Liability Laws: Current Status and Experience. By the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) A2001. August 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2001/3155/MCOReport.pdf

["Since Texas enacted the first law authorizing suits by enrollees of health plans ... eight additional states have adopted similar legislation. This paper briefly describes the key features of these state laws; legal challenges that have been raised to some of them; and early experience in states whose laws are in effect."]

[Request #S2444]

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UNINSURED

Workers Without Health Insurance: Who Are They and How Can Policy Reach Them? By Bowen Garrett and others, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 38 p.

Full Text at: urban.org/pdfs/workershealthins.pdf

["We explore deeper and more policy-relevant characteristics of the working uninsured through a series of two-dimensional cross-tabulations.... We show that targeting subsidy dollars to low-income workers would be the most efficient policy.... We discuss the major design issues and tradeoffs involved."]

[Request #S2445]

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HOUSING

LOW INCOME HOUSING

Senate VA-HUD Appropriations Bill Makes Damaging Changes in Section 8 Housing Program for Low-Income Households. By Barbara Sard and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 15, 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/8-15-01hous2.pdf

["The legislation ... contains provisions damaging to the Section 8 housing voucher program ... Studies ... have found that families with vouchers work more hours and experience higher earnings because they are able to live in neighborhoods with better employment opportunities.... The Senate bill reduces the number of new vouchers more than 70 percent below last year's level."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

ADOLESCENTS

Adolescents’ School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies. By Lingxin Hao and others, Joint Center for Poverty Research. (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2001. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/Hao_Astone_Cherlin.pdf

["We find that welfare reform may change the behavior of teenage students by encouraging full engagement in schooling and reducing employment while in school.... However, if low-income youth obtain 'soft skills' from a formal job and if 'soft skills' turn out to be decisive for low-income youth's economic future, these welfare policy effects could be harmful."]

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CHILDREN

Which Welfare Reforms are Best for Children? By Pamela A. Morris and Greg J. Duncan, Brookings Institution. Policy Brief No. 6. (The Institution, Washington, DC) September 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/wrb/publications/pb/pb06.pdf

["This policy brief summarizes the effects on children of 11 welfare experiments aimed at increasing the self-sufficiency of low-income parents.... Implications of these findings are twofold: that welfare policies can be designed in ways that increase parental employment without affecting elementary school-aged children's development ... [and] that welfare policies can also be designed to improve the well-being of elementary school-aged children if the federal government and states fashion welfare reforms that include financial supplements to earnings."]

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FOOD STAMPS

Coordinating Medicaid and Food Stamps: How New Food Stamp Policies Can Reduce Barriers to Health Coverage for Low-Income Working Families. By Liz Schott and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-14-01fs.pdf

["The purpose of this paper is to review from a Medicaid perspective the key options that states now have that relate to certain requirements that families must meet to secure and retain food stamps. [It] ... describes how states can use the information they gather from families for food stamp purposes to reduce the paperwork that families must file to remain enrolled in health care coverage."]

[Request #S2449]

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SOCIAL SECURITY

Interim Report. By The President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security. (The Commission, Washington, DC) August 2001. 32p.

Full Text at: csss.gov/reports/Report-Final.pdf

["The head of a White House panel that's studying Social Security reform said that the group has not ruled out recommending benefit cuts to preserve the program's financial health...The panel, which is expected to make its recommendations in the fall, met amid word of a sharp drop in federal income, which adds urgency to its mission." Sacramento Bee (August 23, 2001) A1.]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform and Household Savings. By Erik Hurst, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago and James P. Ziliak, Department of Economics, University of Oregon. Prepared for the Joint Center for Poverty Research. JCPR Working Paper 234. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) July 2001. 59 p.

Full Text at: www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/hurst_ziliak.pdf

["In this paper, we use micro-level data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the impact of new saving incentives that were implemented as part of the overhaul of U.S. welfare policy during the mid-1990s on the saving of households at risk of entering welfare."]

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Welfare Reform Reauthorization and Rural America: Implications of Recent Research. By Bruce Weber and Greg Duncan, Joint Center for Poverty Research. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) July 25, 2001. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.jcpr.org/RuralPovertyReport.pdf

["Rural Poor Worse Off: A new study indicates that the rural poor have fewer opportunities to find work and less chance of finding financially rewarding jobs than their urban counterparts. [It] looks at how welfare reform affected the lives of low-income families living outside the nation's metropolitan areas.... 'Stimulating job investments would increase the likelihood of the success of the current work-oriented welfare policy for the residents of rural areas and lessen incentives to move.' (Bruce) Weber said." United Press International (July 25, 2001) 1.]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Democracy's New Challenge: Globalization, Governance, and the Future of American Federalism. By Mark C. Gordon, Demos. (Demos, New York, New York) August 2001. 155 p.

Full Text at: www.demos-usa.org/Pubs/Global/grndts_democ_710.pdf

["Some people think that international treaties force the federal government to forfeit decision-making power to a foreign entity, thus diminishing American sovereignty.... "Democracy's New Challenge" says that trade agreements enable the international community to set state policy as well....' (Mark)Gordon said, 'States need to keep abreast of international treaties and agreements and know how they affect them. States must also develop a greater influence over national trade policy.'" United Press International (August 16, 2001) 1.]

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California: Benefits from Exports. By the International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Department, Washington, DC) August 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.sba.gov/oit/statereports/CA-Fa-EPSweb.pdf

["California is consistently the nation's top exporter and in 2000 posted merchandise export sales of $130 billion -- up 25 percent from 1997 and nearly double the 1993 total of $68 billion. California's exports have recently grown much faster than overall U.S. exports of goods.... The state's leading export category is computers and electronic products, which alone accounted for 51 percent -- just over half -- of California's total exports in 2000."]

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PPIC Statewide Survey: Global California: Perspectives on U.S.-Japan Relations. By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) September 2001. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org//publications/CalSurvey20/survey20.pdf

["State's Admiration of Japan: According to a survey, 74 percent of Californians regard Japan favorably, and 2 out of 3 believe that Japan has had a major influence on U.S. culture and technology. Ninety-two percent believe the relationship between the United States and Japan is important." San Francisco Chronicle (September 5, 2001) A4.]

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TRANSPORTATION

FINANCING

Innovative Financing of Transportation Projects. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-45. (FFIS, Washington, DC) September 5, 2001. 5 p.

["Innovative finance, defined as all techniques that supplement traditional grant reimbursement (pay-as-you-go) financing methods, is one way to achieve this goal. Initiated in 1994 by the Federal Highway Administration, innovative finance allows states to leverage federal funds. In doing this, states can reduce the cost of transportation projects and expedite their completion."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

TERRORISM

Six Nightmares: Real Threats in a Dangerous World and How America Can Meet Them. By Anthony Lake. (Little Brown & Company, New York, New York) October 2000. 318 p.

["In Six Nightmares... former national security advisor Anthony Lake warns about six terrifying threats that could jeopardize America's security in the coming years, and prescribes the steps needed to resolve them. The six nightmarish scenarios are... the potential use by terrorists of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons... cyberterror and cybercrime... the proliferation of "fractured states"... the impact on the American economy of an economic downturn in Japan and Brazil... and partisan politics in its most extreme form overtaking Washington." United Press International (January 2, 2001) 1. NOTE: Six Nightmares ... will be available for 3-dayloan. the item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

DRINKING WATER

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update. By Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology and National Research Council. (The National Academy Press, Washington, DC) September 2001. 264 p.

["The report reinforces that the cancer risks are high even for low levels of arsenic in tap water.... While their report makes no recommendations more specific than that the standards should be set lower then 50 ppb, its authors studied the health effects of establishing a standard of 3, 5, 10 or 20 ppb.... At each level, the study found, the cancer risks were much higher than the EPA had estimated." Associated Press (September 12, 2001) 1.]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

AFRICAN AMERICANS

Diverging Generations: The Transformation of African American Policy Views. By David Bositis, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2001. 88 p.

["The report ... indicated an emphasis on economics.... Top concerns of those polled were racism and jobs (21 percent each), education (11 percent), unity (7 percent) and crime (6 percent).... The poll shows more needs to be done to educate blacks about AIDS." Stockton Record (July 22, 2001) A10.]

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HEALTH

RESEARCH

Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine. By the Committee on the Biological and Medical Applications of Stem Cell Research, Institute of Medicine. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC). 71 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/books/0309076307/html/

["This report addresses key questions about the biology and therapeutic potential of human stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can give rise to specialized tissues and organs.... Human stem cell research that is publicly funded and conducted under established standards of open scientific exchange, peer-review, and public oversight offers the most efficient and responsible means to fulfill the promise of stem cells to meet the need for regenerative medical therapies." NOTE: Stem Cells ... will be available for 3-day loan. The item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Who Speaks for America's Children? The Role of Child Advocates in Public Policy. Edited by Carol J. De Vita and Rachel Mosher-Williams, The Urban Institute. (Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC) August, 2001. 236 p.

["Urban Institute Book Examines Promise, Problems of Child Advocacy; Offers Ways to Increase Impact on Policy Process: Leading experts on children's health policy, education policy, community organizing and the nonprofit sector shed new light on how advocacy for children is conducted and the ways in which it influences policymaking on the federal, state and local levels." AScribe Newswire (September 7, 2001) 1. NOTE: Who Speaks ... will be available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

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