Subject: Studies in the News 01-27


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1851 - "A treaty commission was sent from Washington to get the indigenes out of the way of expansion into the newly-conquered (from Mexico) territory. They signed 18 treaties with more than 500 Indian leaders of the many tribes whose territories patchworked the land. Those treaties set aside -- reserved -- 8.5 million acres of less desirable land, away from seacoasts, in scattered parcels, none containing more than 25,000 acres."   Costanoan-Ohlone California Natives Resource p.1  

September 1851 - "Treaty of Camp Colus (signed September 18, 1851) and Treaty of Camp Cosumnes (signed September 18, 1851): These treaties were never openly and publically debated (thus not appearing in the Congressional Record) and instead were hidden and remained so until discovered in the early 1900's, then denied."   Costanoan-Ohlone California Natives Resource p. 1  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Abandoned infant legislation
   Parolee outpatient clinic programs
   Juvenile offender interventions
   Prison population growing at slower pace
   Increase of parolees and prisoners
DEMOGRAPHY
   Gay and lesbian families census
   Schooling and teen motherhood
ECONOMY
   Military base closures
   Legalizing immigrants
   Congress and states' Internet taxation
   No-fault auto insurance and accidents
   Newspaper industry decline
   Online banking privacy
EDUCATION
   Impact of charter schools on school districts
   Professional development for principals
   Student mathematic achievement survey
   Nations Report Card
   School reform options
   2001 ACT national and state scores
   Toward a quality workforce of teachers in California
EMPLOYMENT
   Unemployment insurance needs overhaul
   Extended mass layoffs
   Employment situation
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Climate change science
   Energy efficiency in California
   Costs for lowering toxics in tap water
   Water pollution enforcement
   EPA study undercuts arsenic step
ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY
   Discrimination against Muslims
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Soft money in state politics
   NCSL election reform report
   Disappearing votes
   Building consensus on election reform
   Effects of money in the initiative process
   Governors lobby Congress on sales tax
   Online voter registration
HEALTH
   Direct care wage crisis
   California health care crisis
   Reaching uninsured workers
   Managed care for seniors in rural areas
   Mental health care and race
   Targeting tobacco use
   Tobacco settlement securitization
HUMAN SERVICES
   "Hard-to-serve" CalWORKS clients
   Economic aspects of child care industry
   Kid friendly cities report
   Unmarried parents likely to separate
   Homelessness and policy solutions
   Poverty trends for single mothers
INTERNATIONAL READER
   State-of-the-Union address of Mexico's president
   U.S. trade and balance of payments deficits
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Economic Forecast for California
   Living wage policy
   State tax policy
   Transmission resistance in HIV cases
   Ritalin acts much like cocaine
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILD PROTECTION

Abandoned Infant Legislation 2000-01. By the National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August 8, 2001. 6 p.

["Few Choose Legal Havens To Abandon Babies: While 35 states have adopted safe haven laws in the last two years ... there is little evidence that they are having the desired effect. Of the first 16 states that passed laws, only six reported safe haven babies in a survey by the National Conference of State Legislatures. And babies continue to be abandoned illegally in states with the laws -- more frequently in some cases, than in states without them." New York Times (August 31, 2001) A1.]

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CORRECTIONAL HEALTH CARE

Department of Corrections: Though Improving, the Department Still Does Not Identify and Serve All Parolees Needing Outpatient Clinic Program Services, but Increased Caseloads Might Strain Clinic Resources. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2001-104. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2001. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001104.pdf

["This report concludes that the program has failed to serve many of the parolees that the department has determined could most benefit from clinic services. These are primarily mentally ill parolees, but also include other parolees who may pose a threat to public safety, such as sexual offenders.... The program failed to serve almost 40 percent of mentally ill inmates who were paroled between October 2000 and March 2001"]

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JUVENILE OFFENDERS

"A Short-Run Cost-Benefit Analysis of Community-Based Interventions for Juvenile Offenders." By Angela A. Robertson and others. IN: Crime & Delinquency, vol. 47, no. 2. (April 2001) pp. 265-284.

["This article presents a cost-benefit evaluation of two techniques: intensive supervision and monitoring and intensive outpatient counseling with cognitive behavioral therapy.... Our results show that local intensive intervention programs based on a cognitive-behavioral treatment approach can more effectively reduce juvenile system expenditures relative to ... programs that provide only strict monitoring and supervision."]

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PRISONERS

Prisoners in 2000. By Allen J. Beck and Paige M. Harrison, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/p00.pdf

["The total number of people in state and federal prisons was up 1.3 percent over 1999. However the overall rate of growth compared to the average annual growth rate of 6 percent since 1990 was the lowest percentage gain since 1972." San Francisco Chronicle (August 13, 2001) A3.]

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National Correctional Population Reaches New High: Grows by 126,400 During 2000 To Total 6.5 Million Adults. By the Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 28, 2001. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ppus00.pdf

["1 in 32 Adults in Criminal Justice System: The number of adults ... reached a high of 6.5 million last year.... Still, the 2 percent increase in the prison population from 1999 to 2000 was half of the average increase over the previous decade. It is one of several signs that after 30 years, the astronomical growth in the nation's penal population -- fueled by tough-on-crime laws, stern sentencing and a boom in prison construction -- is beginning to level off as a result of the drop in crime in the 1990s." Chicago Tribune (August 27, 2001) N8.]

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DEMOGRAPHY

FAMILIES

Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households: A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data. By David M. Smith, Human Rights Campaign and Gary J. Gates, Population Studies Center, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 22, 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.hrc.org/familynet/documents/L%20census.pdf

["California Home To More Gay Households Than Anywhere in U.S.: In the most comprehensive count of same-sex couples ever conducted by the U.S. Census, California is emerging as the state with one of the strongest concentrations of gay or lesbian households in the nation, with Bay Area cities leading the way.... There are 92,138 same-sex couples statewide, who make up 13 percent of unmarried partner households." San Jose Mercury News (August 8, 2001) 1.]

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RACE & ETHNICITY

Young Mexican Americans, Blacks, and Whites in Recent Years: Schooling and Teen Motherhood as Indicators of Strengths and Risks. By Joel Perlmann, Jerome Levy Institute, Bard College. Working Paper 335. (The Institute, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York) August 8, 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.levy.org/docs/wrkpap/papers/335.html

["One crucial issue is the educational attainment of later-generation Mexican Americans.... In this paper I examine a number of indicators that shed some light by focusing on the second generation just now reaching adulthood. These indicators include educational progress ... young motherhood ... marital status ... poverty status and employment status.... I compare these groups to two others: one is the native whites of native parentage.... The other non-Mexican group ... are American blacks."]

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ECONOMY

DEFENSE CUTS & MILITARY BASE CLOSURES

Military Base Closures: Overview of Economic Recovery, Property Transfer and Environmental Cleanup. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-1054T. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 28, 2001. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d011054t.pdf

["While some communities surrounding closed bases are faring better than others, most are recovering from the initial economic impact of base closures. The long-term economic recovery of communities depends on several factors, such as the strength of the national and regional economies and successful redevelopment of base property.... Title to only 41 percent of unneeded base property has been transferred."]

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IMMIGRATION

Comprehensive Migration Policy Reform in North America: The Key to Sustainable and Equitable Economic Integration: Executive Summary. By Raul Hinojosa Ojeda, UCLA North American Integration and Development Center, and others. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) August 29, 2001. 44 p.

Full Text at: naid.sppsr.ucla.edu/ImmigReform83001.PDF

["Undocumented workers contribute at least $300 billion annually to the U.S. economy, and it makes fiscal sense to grant them residency, this study says.... The study used a variety of labor and immigration data to determine economic effects." Sacramento Bee (August 30, 2001) A5]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"MTC's Bucks: State Tax Systems' Viability Depends on Taxation of 'New Economy.'" By Karen Setze. IN: State Tax Today (August 22, 2001) pp. 29-30.

Full Text at: www.tax.org/bestofstate.nsf/bff7e465af03db2f852566cc006cffb9/9808e69c7c11a75d85256ab50076c95c?Opendocument

["The debate in Congress over extension of the moratorium on Internet taxes is really a debate over the future of state and local governments, said Dan Bucks, executive director of the Multi-state Tax Commission, at a Midwest tax administrators' meeting in Minnesota.... Bucks said that several bills introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate this year are intended to exempt Internet-related companies from state and local taxes, and adoption of any of them could have dire consequences."]

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INSURANCE INDUSTRY

The Effect of No-Fault Automobile Insurance on Driver Behavior and Automobile Accidents in the United States. By David S. Loughran, Rand Institute for Civil Justice. MR-1384-ICJ. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2001. 63 p.

["An analysis of accident trends in the United States between 1967 and 1989 found no statistically significant relationship between states' adoption of a no-fault system and the fatal accident rate, overall accident rates, and other measures of driver care.... Thirteen states currently either mandate no-fault auto insurance or allow drivers to choose between no-fault and tort insurance." RAND Research Brief (2001) 1.]

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MEDIA INDUSTRY

Taking Stock: Journalism and the Publicly Traded Newspaper Company. By Gilbert Cranberg and others. (Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa) May 2001.

[“About 40 years ago … newspaper companies began to go public. ‘Staffs are leaner and there is a lot less investigative reporting. The quality of newspapers has degraded…’ The consequences of the changes are felt throughout the news operation: In overburdened copy desks … under-trained and poorly paid reporters … the amount of news in your paper and the degree to which it is locally produced … the degree of editorial independence and the choices made by editors.” Sacramento Bee (August 5, 2001) L5. NOTE: Taking Stock ... is available for 3-day loan. The item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

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PRIVACY

Online Banking Privacy: A Slow, Confusing Start to Giving Customers Control Over Their Information. By the Center For Democracy & Technology. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 29, 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.cdt.org/privacy/financial/010829onlinebanking.pdf

["Online Customers' Privacy Rights Being Abused, Group Says: Many banks, mortgage brokers and insurance companies fail to fully inform online customers of their privacy rights.... The center, an online privacy rights group sponsored by the computer industry and private foundations, filed formal complaints with the Federal Trade Commission against five mortgage companies for allegedly violating the privacy rights of online customers." San Diego Union-Tribune (August 30, 2001) A10.]

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EDUCATION

CHARTER SCHOOLS

Challenge and Opportunity: The Impact of Charter Schools on School Districts: Report of the National Study of Charter Schools. By RPP International. Prepared for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. (The Department, Washington, DC) June 2001. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.ed.gov/pubs/chartimpact/district_impact.pdf

["Charter Schools' Influence Surveyed: Pros, Cons Found in Public Districts: Public schools have reintroduced music classes and launched programs for at-risk youths to compete with nearby charter schools, but they've also lost money and students to them, according to a US Department of Education study.... RPP International concentrated on five states: Massachusetts, Arizona, California, Colorado, and Michigan." Boston Globe (July 8, 2001) B9.]

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K - 12 EDUCATION

Learning to Lead, Leading to Learn: Improving School Quality Through Principal Professional Development. By the National Staff Development Council. (The Council, Oxford, Ohio) 2000. 16 p.

["This report describes some of the new demands on school leaders and identifies what schools, districts, states, and the federal government can do to strengthen the ability of principals and other educators to become instructional leaders.... Current principals need practical training aimed at helping them doing their jobs more effectively."]

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MATHEMATICS

The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2000. By the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. NCES 2001-517. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2001. 372 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main2000/2001517.asp

["Despite some improvements, 48 percent of California's fourth- and eight- graders still failed to master the most basic level of math skills. California also did not reduce the gap between its white, African American and Hispanic students since 1996." San Francisco Chronicle (August 3, 2001) A1.]

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The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2000: Report for California. By the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (The Center, Washington, DC) 41 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/naep3/pdf/stt2000/2001519CA.pdf

["California fourth-graders ranked 39th out of 40 states; eight-graders ranked 35th out of 39. Compared to 1996, fourth-graders scores grew five points, while nationally, the average gain was four points." Sacramento Bee (August 3, 2001) A19.]

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SCHOOL REFORM

State of Our Nation's Youth. By Peter Hart Research. Prepared for the Horatio Alger Association. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2001. 52 p.

["A survey suggests that high-school students consider the reduction in the numbers of pupils in each class as the best path to better schools.... Giving students greater access to computers and the Internet was popular, with 56 percent saying that would significantly help schools. Increasing teachers' salaries was also cited as a good approach by 46 percent, while lengthening the school day or year was decidedly unpopular, with 7 percent saying it would help." New York Times (August 8, 2001) 1.]

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STANDARDIZED TESTING

2001 ACT National and State Scores: Selections from the 2001 National Score Report. By the ACT Research Services. (ACT, Inc., Iowa City, Iowa) Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.act.org/news/data/01/data.html

["Average ACT Score Holds Steady For A Fifth Straight Year: The national average score stayed at 21 out of a possible 36.... The report reflects the performance of students who graduated from high school this year, and who took the ACT at some point in the past three years. Nearly 1.1 million students who graduated in the Class of 2001 took the exam." Chronicle of Higher Education Daily News (August 15, 2001) 2.]

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TEACHERS

Teach Our Children Well. By The Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) September 2001. 84 p.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/160/report160.pdf

["In this review, the Commission acknowledges important efforts to attract, prepare and retain a workforce of skilled and dedicated teachers. It also identifies ways that California could more fundamentally align the agencies and programs that train, certify and deploy these important contributors to our collective well-being."]

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EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Divided We Fall: Deserving Workers Slip Through America's Patchwork Unemployment Insurance System. By Jeffrey B. Wenger, Economic Policy Institute. Briefing Paper. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2001. 24 p.; Appendices.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/divided.pdf

["Unemployed Workers Reject Meager Benefits: Not all of the unemployed are eligible for unemployment insurance.... Too many rules exclude workers from benefits that replace only about a third of lost wages.... (Jeffrey) Wenger argues that a 10 percent increase in wages replaced by unemployment benefits would boost the proportion of recipients by about 6 percentage points.... He also says state unemployment systems are too complicated." Arizona Republic (August 26, 2001) D2.]

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UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

Extended Mass Layoffs in 2000. By the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Report 951 (The Department, Washington, DC) July 2001. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/pdf/mls00ext.pdf

["This report presents recent data from the BLS Mass Layoff statistics (MLS) program. Extended mass layoffs refer to layoffs of at last 31 days' duration that involve the filing of initial claims for unemployment insurance by 50 or more individuals from a single establishment during a consecutive 5-week period.... One-third of all layoff events and separations in the private sector occurred in manufacturing industries."]

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Employment Situation: July 2001. By the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (The Department, Washington, DC) August 3, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.toc.htm

["The number of workers who are 55 or older will jump from 17.1 million in 1998 to 25.2 million in 2008, representing an increase from 12.4 percent of the nation's workforce to 16.3 percent.... Nearly 1 million workers, age 55 or older, lost their jobs because of a plant closing or cutback between 1997 and 1999, the Bureau says." Wisconsin State Journal (September 3, 2001) A1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. By the Committee on the Science of Climate Change, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/catalog/10139.html

["The Academy report finds that current understanding of the causes of global warming is filled with gaps and uncertainties. Such research should be solidified before it is used as a basis for public policy.... There are enormous uncertainties about whether the earth will heat up in a dangerous way in the next century and whether human-induced greenhouse gases are a significant culprit.... Those are the essential questions, and the academy's panel of distinguished scientists said there are no answers." San Diego Union-Tribune (August 5, 2001) B4.]

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy Efficiency Leadership in A Crisis: How California Is Winning. By the Silicon Valley Manufacturers Group and the Natural Resources Defense Council. (The Council, San Francisco, California) August 23, 2001. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.nrdc.org/air/energy/eeca/eeca.pdf

["Silicon Valley Report Says High -- Tech Industry Not An Energy Hog: High-tech companies are helping -- not adding to -- the energy crunch, according to an industry report.... The report cited the energy savings of three companies, illustrating their contributions to California's overall 12 percent decline in energy demand since June 2000 -- the most successful statewide energy conservation campaign in history." Associated Press State & Local Wire (August 23, 2001) 1.]

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WATER

EPA: The National Costs of the Total Maximum Daily Load Program: Draft Report. By the Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (The Agency, Washington, DC) EPA 841-D-01-003. August 1, 2001. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/coststudy/coststudy/pdf

["State costs to develop a cleanup plan for each of the 20,000 waters are projected to average about $52,000 per plan. EPA provides grants to states, tribes and interstate agencies to implement provisions of the Clean Water Act. In the current year, up to $210 million is available to states for TMDL and related clean water work, including monitoring. The study projects implementation costs (i.e., costs of installing measures to reduce pollution) of $900 million up to $4.3 billion (an unlikely worst-case scenario) per year."]

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Water Enforcement: State Enforcement of Clean Water Act Dischargers Can Be More Effective: Audit Report. By the Office of Inspector General, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Report No. 2001-P-00013. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/oigearth/audit/list901/finalenfor.pdf

["The inspector general found that states did not report serious toxic water-pollution violations to the federal government as required.... More than half the monitored factories in 28 states had significant water-pollution violations in 1999 and again in 2000, the report found." San Jose Mercury News (August 23, 2001) 1.]

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Final Report. By the Arsenic Cost Working Group, Enivronmental Protection Agency. Prepared for the National Drinking Water Advisory Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) August 14, 2001. 43 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/safewater/ars/ndwac-arsenic-report.pdf

["EPA Study Undercuts Arsenic Step: The panel ... concluded that the Clinton administration did a 'credible job' of computing the costs to water systems when it ordered that arsenic in drinking water be reduced 80%.... The panel did offer suggestion to the EPA on how to better estimate costs as the agency decides where to set the standard. It also strongly urged the EPA to alter the way it considers affordability for small water systems and recommended that a fund be developed to help them meet the new standard." Los Angeles Times (August 24, 2001) A20.]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

MUSLIM AMERICANS

The Status of Muslim Civil Rights in the United States 2001. By Mohamed Nimer, Council on American-Islamic Relations Research Center. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2001. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.cair-net.org/civilrights/2001_Civil_Rights_Report.pdf

["There are about 7 million Muslims in the United States and discrimination against the group is rising, CAIR said. Muslims reported 366 complaints of discrimination this year, CAIR said. Only 80 complaints were made in 1996." Gannett News Service (September 10, 2001) 1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS

State Secrets: Study to Examine 'Soft Money' in State Politics. By the Center for Public Integrity. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 17, 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.public-i.org/Statesecrets_02_072601.htm

["The figures come from a study carried out by the Center for Public Integrity and the Center for Responsive Politics.... The study was intended to take a look at how special interests can influence politics at the state level.... Data compiled from the project show that party committees in the 50 states took in a collective $610 million in soft money." Associated Press State & Local Wire (August 13, 2001) 1.]

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ELECTION REFORM

Voting in America: Final Report. By the NCSL Elections Reform Task Force, National Conference of State Legislators. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August 14, 2001. 131 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/press/2001/electref0801.htm

["The election process in every state should be scrutinized with an eye toward uniformity and fairness but remain free of strict federal oversight, according to a report by the National Conference of State Legislatures. The document, written by 29 state lawmakers and legislative staff members, calls on states to create their own statewide voter registration database, fund voter education efforts and adopt specific rules to count, verify and recount votes." San Antonio Express News (August 15, 2001) B5.]

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How to Make Over One Million Votes Disappear: Electoral Sleight of Hand in the 2000 Presidential Election. By the Democratic Investigative Staff, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives. (The Committee, Washington, DC) August 20, 2001. 122 p.

Full Text at: www.house.gov/judiciary_democrats/electionreport.pdf

["This report finds that: A number of states experienced rampant spoilage of ballots; voters in the majority of states reported being improperly excluded or purged from voting rolls; disabled voters faced obstacles to voting in nearly every state; intimidation at the polls still casts a shadow over our elections; and the vast majority of states appear to have recount laws that would likely be found unconstitutional under Bush v.Gore."]

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Building Consensus On Election Reform. By the Forum on Election Reform, The Constitution Project, Georgetown University. (The Project, Washington, DC) August 2001. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.constitutionproject.org/eri/CP_ERreport.pdf

["The Dangers of Voting Outside the Booth: Nearly 25 percent of voting in California was by absentee ballot.... The Constitution Project report decries unlimited absentee balloting and votes by mail, strongly endorsing 'the proposition that voting at the polls serves basic and historically rooted objectives.' Adding: 'The gathering of citizens to vote is a fundamental act of community and citizenship. It provides the greatest security for enabling voters to cast their ballots free of coercion. It facilitates prompt counting and verification of results.'" New York Times (August 3, 2001) A23.]

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INITIATIVES & PROPOSITIONS

"Money in the Initiative and Referendum Process; Evidence of Its Effects and Prospects for Reform. By Elizabeth Garrett and Elisabeth R. Gerber. IN: The Battle Over Citizen Lawmaking: A Collection of Essays. Edited by M. Dane Waters. (Carolina Academic Press, Durham, North Carolina) 2001. pp. 73-95.

["In 1998 issue committees across the country spent nearly $400 million promoting and opposing measures on ballots in 44 states.... In California alone, an estimated $256 million was spent in 1998 by groups in campaigns concerning ballot questions. These figures are, by any measure, substantial, and they have intensified concerns that well-funded organized interests unduly influence the initiative and referendum process."]

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STATE FINANCES

Mid-Session Budget Review; Health Care Reform Issues. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Budget Brief. 01-06. (FFIS, Washington, DC) September 6, 2001. 3 p.

["The Congressional Budget Resolution for FY 2002 provided for a number of social initiatives in the so-called 'pay-as-you-go' part of the federal budget-entitlements and taxes-These initiatives were primarily in the area of health finance.... These entitlement initiatives, as well as increased spending in the 'discretionary' parts of the budget, are impossible under the current resolution rules."]

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TAXATION

Letter. By the National Governors Association. Presented to All Members of Congress. (The Association, Washington, DC) August 8, 2001. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/nga/legislativeUpdate/letterDetailPrint/1,1421,2466,00.html

["Crusade To Tax Net Sales is Misplaced: A bipartisan group of governors ... is proposing a measure in Congress that would allow the states to start collecting a tax on Internet and catalogue sales.... It's a tax that has always been on the books, but state governments have never figured out how to collect it." Detroit News (August 29, 2001) 11.]

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VOTERS & VOTING

"As Public Records Go Online, Some Say They're Too Public." By Amy Harmon. IN: New York Times (Aug 24, 2001)A1. And "Am I ... Registered to Vote or Not?" By Savvy Voter. (Savvy Voter, New York, New York) August 2001. 1 p.

["As local, state and federal governments begin to make public records of all kinds available online, easy electronic access to personal information is increasingly raising concern.... At www.registeredtovoteornot .com, any visitor can type in the last name and birth date of anyone registered to vote in New York City and retrieve that person's address and party affiliation. The site uses data that has always been publicly available on paper at the Board of Elections, and more recently for a fee on compact disc..... Critics say the privacy risks of such an online system may actually discourage voter registration." New York Times (August 24, 2001) A1.]

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HEALTH

CAREGIVERS

Cheating Dignity: The Direct Care Wage Crisis in America. By Steven L. Dawson, Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute (PHI) and Ann Kempski, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), and others. (The Institute, Washington, DC) [2001.] Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.afscme.org/pol-leg/cdtc.htm

["The report provides an detailed analysis of how our nation fails to pay our critical direct-care staff 'self-sufficient' wages and benefits. The report particularly examines 1999 national and state median hourly wage and employment estimates for the three major categories of paraprofessional (direct-care) aide workers included in the US Bureau of Labor's occupational employment categories.... The report also compares the direct-care wages and benefits to a 'self-sufficiency standard' that measures how much income is needed for a family to meet its basic needs -- without public or private assistance."]

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HEALTH CARE

"California's Next Drought: First It Was Energy, Then Water, and Now Health Care: Open Forum." By Spyros Andreopoulos, Office of Public Affairs, Stanford Medical Center. IN: San Francisco Chronicle (August 29, 2001) A17.

["California's next big crisis will be in health care. It has already begun in rural areas, but it is spreading as doctors and urban hospitals threaten to dump HMOs unless they renegotiate contracts to cover their full costs.... The crisis is reviving an old-time quest for universal health insurance.... In California, legislation to establish a single-payer system lies dormant.... In light of the impending crisis, it is expected to be resurrected."]

[Request #S2386]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Workers Without Health Insurance: Who Are They and How Can Policy Reach Them. By Bowen Garrett and others, Urban Institute. Community Voices. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2001. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.urbaninstitute.org/pdfs/workershealthins.pdf

["Health Insurance Subsidies for Low-Income Workers Most Efficient Way to Expand Coverage: The report, based on analyses of 1999 Current Population Survey data and a survey of the literature on the working uninsured ... offers the most detailed picture yet of the uninsured working population -- now numbering more than 16 million -- and compares the relative merit of two key vehicles for expanding coverage: tax credits or public programs." PR Newswire (August 29, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2387]

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MEDICARE

"HMO Refugees: Seniors Abandon Dreams of Country Living as Affordable Plans Leave Rural Areas." By Lisa Rapaport. IN: Sacramento Bee (September 9, 2001) E1+

["Just as growing numbers of senior citizens retire to the foothills and other rural areas of the state, their access to affordable health maintenance organization coverage has been compromised by federal health policies intended to increase their options...In the past three years alone, 14 counties lost their last Medicare HMO, leaving more than 11,000 Californians without any managed care option and bringing to 23 the total number of counties without these health plans. HMO withdrawals in other counties have forced at least 100,000 additional seniors to switch insurers."]

[Request #S2388]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report. By the Surgeon General, Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2001. 204 p.

Full Text at: www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/cre/default.asp

["The Mental Health Gap Treatment Misses Racial, Ethnic Groups: In hugely diverse California, the racial and cultural barriers to mental health treatment long have been recognized. For more than a decade, state law has required government mental health providers to be 'culturally competent.' ... Despite the law, minorities are under-represented in state-funded treatment programs... If the mental health gap between minority and majority populations is to be bridged, California and the nation will need providers who speak the languages and know the cultures of those who so desperately need treatment." Sacramento Bee (August 29, 2001) B6.]

[Request #S2389]

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SMOKING

Investment in Tobacco Control: State Highlights 2001. By the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (The Centers, Atlanta, Georgia) 2001. 150 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/tobacco/statehi/statehi_2001.htm

["The purpose of this report is to analyze current investments in tobacco control at the state level, place these investments in the context of health and economic consequences of tobacco use specific to the state, and compare current investments with the specific funding ranges."]

[Request #S2390]

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Discussion of Tobacco Securitization (Tobacco Settlement Securitization). By Al Runde and Dave Loppnow, Joint Committee on Finance, Wisconsin Legislative Fiscal Bureau. Paper #885. (The Bureau, Madison, Wisconsin) April 26, 2001. 44 p.

["This paper ... provides information on tobacco securitizations and the other states or governmental bodies that have sold their tobacco settlement payment revenues. [It] ... analyzes the Governor's proposal to sell the state's tobacco settlement payments including an outline of the proposed transaction. The last section describes some of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed securitization."]

[Request #S2391]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

Connecting Different Worlds: Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug, and Family Violence Services in CalWORKS. By Lynn DeLapp, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2001. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/01/13/01-013.pdf

["In a significant departure from prior welfare policy, lawmakers recognized that an estimated ten to thirty percent of welfare recipients might need additional mental health or substance abuse services to enable them to work, and provided funding for this purpose.... Three years into CalWORKS, we know that relatively few clients with these issues have been identified within CalWORKS, and that many counties have not spent the funds allocated for mental health or alcohol and other drug treatment services."]

[Request #S2409]

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CHILD CARE

The Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in California. By Steven Moss, M. Cubed. Prepared for the National Economic Development and Law Center. (The Center, Oakland, CA.) Fall 2001. 26p.

Full Text at: www.nedlc.org/eir_registration.html

["California's licensed child-care industry pumps tens of billions of dollars into the state's economy, but the industry is strained and badly in need of support from both the private and public sectors, according to a report. The study analyzed the economic power of an industry normally viewed in social and educational terms. It found that the industry generates more than $4.7 billion annually in direct revenue...Everything from zoning restrictions to thin profit margins make it a difficult business for start-ups...It urged state and local government to encourage development of new facilities and encourages private industry to provide child care for employees." Los Angeles Times. (September 5, 2001) B2.]

[Request #S2392]

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CHILDREN

Kid Friendly Cities Report Card 2001. By Zero Population Growth. (Zero Population Growth, Washington, DC) August 2001. Various pagings.

["O.C. Ranks High For Kid-Friendliness: Several Orange County cities got good grades on the list of 74 suburban communities.... The rankings were based on factors such as health conditions, safety, education, environmental cleanliness and community life.... Another category, called health improvement, looks at efforts made in reducing the percent of births to teens, infant mortality, and the percent of babies born with low weight." Orange County Register (August 26, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2393]

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FAMILIES

Unmarried Parents, Fragile Families: New Evidence from Oakland. By Maureen R. Waller, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) July 2001. 126 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC150/ppic150.full.pdf

["The study focuses on 250 families in Oakland that participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-being (FFCW) survey, a national, longitudinal study of unmarried parents and their children.... Drawing on two waves of surveys with parents, the report tracks transitions toward increased or decreased involvement in the first year of their child's life. It also analyzes the economic and personal issues parents faced during that same time." Research Brief (July 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2394]

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HOMELESS

Urban Homelessness & Public Policy Solutions: A One-Day Conference. Presented by the Institute of Governmental Studies. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) January 22, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.igs.berkeley.edu/events/homeless/papers/

[Includes: "Advocacy and Attribution: Shaping and Responding to Perceptions of the Causes of Homelessness;" "Health Issues in Homelessness;" "Markets, People, and Policy: What Empirical Economics Really Tells Us About Section 8 and Alternatives;" "Law and Politics of Homelessness;" "Comments on Homeless Population Dynamics and Policy Implications;" "Population Dynamics and Policy Implications;" "Responding to Homelessness: Policies and Politics;" And "Health Status of Homeless Persons."]

[Request #S2395]

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POVERTY

Poverty Trends for Families Headed by Working Single Mothers: 1993 to 1999. By Kathryn H Porter and Allen Dupree, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2001. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/8-16-01wel.pdf

["Families of Single, Employed Women Did Not Fare As Well As Others During Economic Boom, Report finds: From 1995 to 1999, the families of single, working mothers -- a group that includes many who left the welfare rolls during that time -- achieved income gains in the labor force that were largely wiped out by the loss of government aid, such as welfare checks and food stamps. As a result, the 19.4% poverty rate ... was essentially the same as four years earlier." Los Angeles Times (August 16, 2001) A15.]

[Request #S2396]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

First Report to Congress on the State of the Union. By President Vicente Fox, Republic of Mexico. Presented to the Congress of the Union. (Internet System of the Mexican Presidency, San Miguel Chapultepec, Mexico) September 1, 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.presidencia.gob.mx/?P=42&Orden=Leer&Tipo=Pe&Art=1735

["In his first state-of-the-union address, ... (Mexico) President Vicente Fox said that his government had won increasing foreign investment, and that declining inflation has meant an increase in the value of Mexican wages. And ... he briefly mentioned the importance of the economic contributions of some 18 million Mexicans who live in the United States. Remittances worth nearly $8 billion are Mexico's third largest source of foreign income, behind oil and tourism." New York Times (September 2, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2397]

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Interim Report: Notes on the U.S. Trade and Balance of Payments Deficits. By Wynne Godley, Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Bard College. Strategic Analysis. (The Institute, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York) [2001.] 10 p.

Full Text at: www.levy.org/docs/stratan/stratan.html

["The United States has a balance of payments deficit worth nearly 20 percent of GDP and negative net foreign assets (or foreign debt) worth nearly 20 percent of GDP..... There is a danger that over a period of time, the United States will find itself in a 'debt trap,' with an accelerating deterioration both in its net foreign asset position and in its overall current balance of payments.... Policy responses in principle come down to: Reducing domestic demand; Raising foreign demand; [and] Reducing imports and increasing exports relative to GDP."]

[Request #S2398]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 8, Bulletin 25-27. (The Institute, Washington DC) August 2 - September 13, 2001. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/bull827.pdf

[Includes: "U.S. Mexico Continue Negotiations On Immigration Policy;" "Fox Wants Initial Agreement By Year's End;" "Circulating Delegation Letter On Medicaid Upper Payment Limit;" "Senate Passes Export Administration Act;" "International Relations Committee Reports EAA After Tightening Export Controls;" "Boxer Amendment on Arsenic Standards In VA-HUD Bill;" "Energy and Natural Resources Passes Golden Gate Recreation Bill;" "Federal Task Force To Draft Southern California Comprehensive Regional Transportation plan;" "Pentagon Base Closure Plan Due Friday; Seeks One Round in 2003;" and others.]

[Request #S2401]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

2001 Economic Forecast and Industry Outlook. By the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) 2001.

["The nation, California and Southern California will narrowly avoid a recession in 2001, but the growth slowdown will be painful for both business, government and local residents according to the 'Mid-year Update -- 2001-2002 Economic Forecast and Industry Outlook' just published." San Francisco Chronicle (September 13, 2001) D4.]

[Request #S2402]

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MINIMUM WAGE

Raise The Floor: Wages and Policies That Work For All Of Us. By Holly Sklar and others. (Ms. Foundation for Women, New York, New York) August 24, 2001. 246 p.

["Americans earning the minimum wage are making a third less in real dollars than their counterparts did a third of a century ago. Wages have not kept up with the cost of living.... The authors maintain the federal minimum wage can and should be increased to $8 an hour. The book also recommends improved Earned Income Tax Credit, health care, housing, child care and other policies to supplement wages in assuring people can meet their basic needs." Des Moines Register (September 3, 2001) 3.]

[Request #S2405]

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TAXES

State Tax Policy: A Political Perspective. By David Brunori. (The Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 156 p.

["State governments have more responsibilities than ever before. In addition to traditional services, state governments provide, or at least pay for, many services that were once the province of the federal government and local jurisdictions...This book is destined to be the first stopping place for anyone wanting an overview of the major issues in state tax policy from the perspective of someone who bridges academia and politics." State Tax Notes (September 3, 2001) 771.]

[Request #S2364]

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HEALTH

AIDS

"Predicting the Unpredictable: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV." By S.M. Blower and others. IN: Nature Medicine, vol. 7 no. 9 (September 2001) pp. 1016-1020.

["Researchers are forecasting that 42 percent of HIV infections in San Francisco will be resistant to current AIDS drugs by 2005, further complicating efforts to keep the rapidly mutating virus in check.... The model shows drug resistance among all people living with HIV - including both new and existing infections - growing from zero in 1996 to 28.5 percent in 1999, and reaching 42 percent in 2005." San Francisco (August 31, 2001) E1.]

[Request #S2403]

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DRUG USE

"Pay Attention: Ritalin Acts Much Like Cocaine." By Brain Vastag. IN: JAMA Journal of the Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 8 (August 22, 2001) And "Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate Significantly Increase Extracellular Dopamine in the Human Brain." By Nora D. Volkow and others. IN: The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 9 (September 2001)

["Advanced imaging research has answered a 40-year-old question about methylphenidate (Ritalin), which is taken daily by 4 million to 6 million children in the United States: how does it work? The answer may unsettle many parents, because the drug acts much like cocaine.... Taken orally in a pill form, methylphenidate rarely produces a high and has not been reported to be addictive. However, injected as a liquid it sends a jolt that 'addicts like very much,'.... They say it's like cocaine." JAMA (August 22, 2001) .]

[Request #S2404]

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