Subject: Studies in the News 01-22


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

July 1851 - "[Female Students] -- The little girls of today are to adorn the present and guide the next generation -- the wives and mothers of the land; and they should have all the tender care, the zealous vigilance, and the patient instruction in everything useful and true, which could by any possibility be obtained ... to the end that they may worthily fill the high call to which they are destined. "  Los Angeles Star (July 12, 1851) 2  

July 1851 - "Female Education -- After all is said and done, the first and last hope for any country, is the education of women -- a truth, the force of which we who were born in the older States all have realized.... Keep the public school, if you will. Build up the College. But there is another simple institution whose happy influences in the other States are universally felt.... We allude to the 'Sisters of Charity' [school in Los Angeles.]"  Los Angeles Star (July 12, 1851) 2.  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Violence within families
   Making Proposition 36 work
   Eco-terrorism, a new kind of sabotage
   Assault gun ban upheld
   Minorities searched by CHP
   Liability for acts of violence
   Home placements for troubled youth
ECONOMY
   Breakup of Microsoft overturned
   Fortune 500 ranked by state
   Military base closures
   UCITA: Overview and text
   ABA's recommendations on UCITA
   Uniform codes for computer transactions
   Actions needed for reliable power grid
   Energy shortage in California
   Electricity rates projected not to go up
   Financial information on energy purchases
EDUCATION
   Center for UC activities in Mexico
   Increase in nonresident UC tuition
   Dual admissions to community colleges and UC
   Federal education plan
   Higher education for Hispanics
   Los Angeles school district reorganization
   School finance and the master plan
EMPLOYMENT
   Few laws protect household workers
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Air quality improving
   Air pollution in San Joquin County
   Cleanup costs of DOD training ranges
   Wetlands protection
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Self-represented litigants in court
   Consequences of Internet voting
   Available federal grants
   Electronic government challenges
   Paying for e-government services
   States courting tech business
   Disparities in 2000 election undercount
   Voting technology assessment
HEALTH
   Global action plan on AIDS
   Moving from institutional to residential care
   Income, socioeconomic status and health
   Reducing medical errors
   Solutions to rising drug costs
   States and cities can't ban tobacco ads
HUMAN SERVICES
   Oversight of local child welfare agencies
   Bay Area fatherhood initiatives
   Social service programs research
   Difficulties for ex-welfare families
   Welfare housing and employment
   Promoting steady employment for low income workers
STUDIES TO COME
   Problem gambling as public health issue
   Minority businesses' use of Internet
   Craving for cocaine never stops
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Domestic Violence and Welfare Reform. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. Vol. 9, No. 27. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June/July 2001. 2 p.

["The Family Violence Option was included in the 1996 federal welfare reforms and allows states to exempt families from work requirements and time limits if someone has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty.... Due to the broad impact of domestic violence, collaborative efforts are needed."]

[Request #S2074]

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DRUG TREATMENT

"A Troubled Cure: [Series]." By Laura Mecoy and John Hill. IN: Sacramento Bee (July 1-2, 2001) A1+.

Full Text at: www.sacbee.com/news/projects/prop36/20010701_main.html

["State Braces for New Drug Law: The initiative requires treatment instead of prison for non-violent drug offenders to rehabilitate rather than punish them. But a Bee investigation found a system with problems and, some experts say, in need of rehabilitation itself.... The experts said California has fallen behind other large states in its standards for counselors, drug treatment and program licensing and certification."]

[Request #S2075]

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ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME

Eco-terrorism -- A New Kind of Sabotage. By L. Cheryl Runyon, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 26. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June/July 2001. 2 p.

["Eco-terrorists have struck almost every kind of enterprise having to do with the environment or animals.... The Oregonian newspaper, in September 1999, documented 100 major incidents of arson, bombings and other acts of sabotage committed in 11 western states since 1980.... Damages totaled $42.8 million.... California was third on the financial list with $8.5 million in damages from 30 incidents."]

[Request #S2076]

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GUNS & GUN CONTROL

J.W. Harrott v. County of Kings et al. Supreme Court of California. S055064. June 28, 2001. 23 p.

["High Court Upholds Challenge to Assault Gun Ban: The 4-2 decision allows the state attorney general to continue adding names of guns to the list of banned weapons. But gun users may not be prosecuted unless their weapons were specifically identified in a 1989 law or covered by a more generic ban added by the Legislature in 1999, the court said." Los Angeles Times (June 29, 2001) A15.]

[Request #S2077]

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LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

"Racial Bias in CHP Searches: Latinos, Blacks More Likely to Have Vehicles Examined After Being Pulled Over." By Erin McCormick and Jim Herron Zamora. IN: San Francisco Chronicle (July 15, 2001) A1+.

["Latinos and blacks pulled over by the California Highway Patrol are far more likely to be searched than white drivers, a Chronicle analysis of more than 3.3 million statewide CHP traffic stops shows.... The newspaper obtained the data from the American Civil Liberties Union, which sought and received the data as part of its class action lawsuit."]

[Request #S2078]

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VIOLENCE

"Rage: When Third Parties Must Pay for Acts of Violence." By Margaret Graham Tebo. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 87, no. 7 (July 2001) pp. 29-33.

["When agitated people turn violent, the victims turn to the courts. In some cases, third parties may be accountable.... The assailant clearly faces potential civil and criminal liability. It is less clear whether third parties -- such as airlines, workplaces and sports leagues -- have any legal liability when these acts occur on their premises."]

[Request #S2079]

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YOUTH

"Radical Idea Serves Youth, Saves Money." By Bill Alexander. IN: Youth Today, vol. 10, no. 6 (June 2001) pp. 1, 42-44.

["Send Kids Home and Keep Them There: With effective monitoring and follow-up procedures in place, the home environments of troubled youngsters were stabilized through intensive services and speedy around-the-clock responses to crisis situations."]

[Request #S2080]

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ECONOMY

CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING

United States of America v. Microsoft Corporation. United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. 00-5212, 00-5213. June 28, 2001. 63 p.

["Breakup Of Microsoft Overturned On Appeal: Federal court vacates order to split computer giant and rebukes trial judge for 'egregious' ethical violations. But it rules that the company did violate antitrust laws and reassigns the case.... The decision makes it increasingly unlikely that Microsoft will be able to escape any sanctions for its anti-competitive behavior, but also that a dramatic restructuring of the company along the lines contemplated in the overturned order would pass judicial muster." Los Angeles Times (June 29, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2081]

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CORPORATIONS

"Fortune 500." By Lee Clifford and others. IN: Fortune, vol. 143, no. 8 (April 16, 2001) p. 101-158; F1-F35.

[Includes: "Fortune 500 Largest U.S. Corporations;" "Fortune 500: How the Industries Stack Up;" "Fortune 500: How the Companies Stack up;" "Fortune 500 Ranked Within States."]

[Request #S2082]

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DEFENSE CUTS & MILITARY BASE CLOSURES

Hearing on Defense Overview: Statements. By Bob Stump (R-AZ) and others. Presented to House Armed Services Committee. (The Committee, Washington, DC) June 28, 2001. Various pagings.

["Defense Secretary Rumsfeld ... repeated the administration's request for additional closures of U.S. bases... California was hit disproportionately hard by the first four rounds of military base closures.... During the hearing, some committee members suggested that the Pentagon make public a list of bases which will absolutely not be considered for closure, in order to calm nervous communities." Associated Press (June 28, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2083]

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ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

Overview of Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act. By Mary Jo Howard Dively, ABA Advisor to the Drafting Committee, and Carlyle C. Ring, Jr., Chair of the UCITA Drafting Committee. [The Committee, Chicago, Illinois] 2000. And Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (Last Revisions or Amendments Completed Year 2000). And Amendments to Sections 605 and 816 of the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (as Last Revised in 2000). By the National Conference of Commissioners On Uniform State Laws. (The Conference, Chicago, Illinois) September 2000; January 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ucitaonline.com/index.html

[“The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA) provides rules to establish norms and to provide guidance when the parties do not deal with a matter in their contracts for computer information transactions. These transactions cover computer software, Internet and online information, multimedia interactive products and computer data and databases. UCITA, however, generally treats software embedded goods (like a computerized braking system) as goods, and excludes motion pictures, sound recordings and print media, leaving the current common law and statutes, which are deemed adequate, to govern their core businesses." Overview. 39 p. [Request #2086] Full text. 348 p. [Request #2087] ]

[Request #S2086]

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UCITA Resolution: [Packet.] By the Tort and Insurance Practice Section, American Bar Association. (The Association, Chicago, Illinois) 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.abanet.org/TIPS/UCITA/

[Includes: "Recommendation;" "UCITA Overview;" "Examining the Impact of the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act;" "Development and Adoption of UCITA;" "Legislative Enactment Status of UCITA;" "Opposition to UCITA;" and others.]

[Request #S2088]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"Software Hardball: The Tech Industry's Effort to Box in Computer Users." By Fred Von Lohmann, Berkeley Center for Law and Technology. IN: California Lawyer, vol. 21, no. 6 (June 2001) pp. 40-42+.

["There is relatively little statutory or case law guidance concerning licensing agreements for computer information. In an effort to dispel these legal uncertainties, software and computer information vendors have been pushing for a uniform commercial contract code for computer information. In their view, what's needed is something like the Uniform Commercial Code but specifically tailored to the world of licensing agreements. The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act is the fruit of this effort."]

[Request #S2099]

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UTILITIES

The Western States Power Crisis: Imperatives and Opportunities. By Electric Power Research Institute. (The Institute, Palo Alto, California) June 25, 2001. 67 p.

Full Text at: www.epri.com/WesternStatesPowerCrisisSynthesis.pdf

["The estimated cost of bringing the regional transmission system back to a stable condition is $10 billion to $30 billion, to be spent over the next 10 years on new transmission lines and upgrades of existing facilities. New technologies, (however)could trim that spending some. The report criticizes California and other states that responded to a 1992 federal law encouraging electricity restructuring. They 'failed to provide sufficient incentives to build needed generation facilities, increase transmission grid capacity and provide customers with better ways of managing electricity usage.'" Contra Costa Times (July 10, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2084]

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California's Electricity Crisis: What's Going On, Who's to Blame, and What to Do. By Jerry Taylor and Peter VanDoren, Cato Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 3, 2001. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa406.pdf

["Cato scholars ... argue that neither deregulation ... nor environmentalists ... are responsible for the energy shortage in California.... They say the key factors were a 'perfect storm' of high natural gas prices in the region, combined with a steep drop in hydroelectric power due to dry weather conditions, and a demand shock due to the unseasonably warm summer last year.... 'Real-time pricing' -- charging more for increased use during busy hours -- would be a useful market curb for larger users." United Press International (July 13, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2085]

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Revenue Requirements: Letter Submitted to the Public Utilities Commission by the Department of Water Resources. By Thomas M. Hannigan, Department of Water Resources. (The Department, Sacramento, California) July 23, 2001. Various pagings.

["Saying electricity rates have dropped lower than even they expected, state officials said they can pay billions of dollars for electricity without raising customer rates again. In a much-awaited estimate of its revenue needs, the Department of Water Resources, which buys electricity on behalf of the state's three troubled investor-owned utilities, said existing rates are sufficient to pay the utilities' expenses and cover the state's power purchases." Sacramento Bee (July 23, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2089]

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California Department of Water Resources Activities and Expenditures Report: January 18, 2001 - May 31, 2001 (March Quarterly Report as Required by ABX1 1). By the Department of Water Resources. (The Department, Sacramento, CA) July 9, 2001. 20 p.

["Companies with headquarters in Texas garnered less than 10 percent of California's multibillion-dollar energy purchases, while public and private energy companies from Canada to Georgia to California got the rest.... The latest financial information is contained in a report by the state Department of Water Resources detailing $7.2 billion in power purchases from Jan. 17 through the end of May." San Francisco Chronicle (July 10, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2090]

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EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION

Authorization for Formation Under Mexican Law of "Casa de California En Mexico" As A Center For University of California Activities In Mexico: Item for Action for the Meeting of the Committee on Educational Policy. By the Office of the President, University of California. (The Office, Oakland, California) July 18, 2001. 5 p.

["The University of California prepared a comprehensive plan which, among other components, included identifying ... the resources needed to fund collaborative research and to expand faculty and student exchanges.... The University ... is committed to the establishment of a presence in Mexico to be named 'Casa de California en Mexico,' and has been provided with the political support and the financial means to convert this opportunity into a reality."]

[Request #S2091]

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Proposed Increase in Nonresident Tuition For 2001-02: Item for Action for the Meeting of the Committee on Finance. By the Office of the President, University of California. (The Office, Oakland, California) July 18, 2001. 2 p.; Attachments.

["The President recommends ... that effective with the Fall term 2001, the Nonresident Tuition Fee be increased by $460 (4.5%) from $10,244 per nonresident student per year to $10,704 per nonresident student per year.... The proposed fee increase will generate about $6 million in revenue."]

[Request #S2092]

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Transfer Path From the California Community Colleges -- Background, Status, Challenges, and Enhancements: Item for Discussion for the Meeting of the Committee on Educational Policy. And Dual Admissions Program: Item for Action for the Meeting of the Committee on Educational Policy. By the Office of the President, University of California. (The Office, Oakland, California) July 18, 2001. 5 p.

["UC Seeks To Boost Community College Transfers: Under the plan, students in the top 4 to 12.5 percent of their high school class would be granted simultaneous admission to UC and a California community college. In this 'dual admission' proposal, students would transfer to a UC campus after completing two years at a community college. [The program would reach] ... students who might not otherwise have had a chance to enter the university system, particularly minorities or those who live in isolated areas or come from low income families." Sacramento Bee (July 19, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2093]

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K-12 EDUCATION

House and Senate Pass Similar Versions of ESEA Reauthorization. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-32. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 7, 2001. 8 p.

["The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) ... represents a significant step forward for President Bush's education plan. Meanwhile, the Senate ... finally passed its ESEA reauthorization bill. Both bills closely mirror the president's original education plan and will require that all states test all students every year in grades 3-8."]

[Request #S2094]

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LATINOS

Goal: To Double the Rate of Hispanics Earning a Bachelor's Degree. By Georges Vernez and Lee Mizell, RAND Center for Research on Immigration Policy. DB-350-HSF. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2001. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/DB/DB350/

["The educational disparity between Hispanics and other racial/ethnic groups is a subject of widespread concern.... The RAND study found that a combination of strategies focusing on all levels of education could double the college graduation rates of Hispanics and that the benefits of achieving this goal would far outweigh the cost of accommodating the increase in school and college enrollment."]

[Request #S2095]

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LOS ANGELES

Los Angeles Unified School District: It Has Made Some Progress in Its Reorganization but Has Not Ensured That Every Salary Level It Awards Is Appropriate. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2000-125. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July 2001. 103 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2000125.pdf

["This report concludes that the district has made some progress in implementing its reorganization plan; however, it has not shifted to local districts the level of authority over financial resources or instructional programs described in its plan.... Because it has lacked formal guidance when determining what salaries to award, the propriety of some of these compensation levels is questionable."]

[Request #S2096]

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SCHOOL FINANCE

School Finance and California's Master Plan for Education. Edited by Jon Sonstelie and Peter Richardson, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2001. 250 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC149/ppic149.full.pdf

["How Should California Finance Its Schools? The Institute conducted research on adequacy-based school finance, alternative approaches to school governance, and local revenue options for school districts. Together those papers ... form a starting point for developing a new system of school finance."]

[Request #S2097]

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EMPLOYMENT

DOMESTIC PARTNERS

Hidden in the Home. By the Human Rights Watch. (The Human Rights Watch, New York, New York) June 2001. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.hrw.org/reports/2001/usadom/usadom0501.pdf

["Special Visas Spark Abuse, Report Says: A rights group says poor oversight fails household workers... The group said workers were rarely allowed outside, were not allowed to speak to strangers, and in some cases were physically or sexually abused. In the cases reviewed, the average hourly wage was $2.14.... Live-in domestics are not covered by federal laws governing over-time pay, workplace health and safety, the right to organize and sexual harassment, the group said." UPI (June 15, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2098]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR QUALITY

Breathing Cleaner Air in California: Why Air Quality is Improving and What Can Be Done to Achieve Further Progress. By The Road Information Program. Prepared for Transportation California. (Transportation California, Sacramento, California) 2001. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.transportationca.com/research/cleaner_air_report.shtml

["The study ... examines recent air quality trends in the state as well as trends in travel, population and economic output.... Despite improvements in seven of the state's areas, Los Angeles, Southeast Desert, Sacramento, Ventura County, San Diego, San Joaquin and the Santa Barbara area, do not yet meet federal air quality standards for ozone.... The San Francisco Bay Area experienced the largest reduction of smog-forming emissions with a 39% decrease between 1985 and 1999. Los Angeles, San Diego and Sacramento experienced decreases of 30%, 30%, and 24% respectively." California Capitol Hill Bulletin (July 12, 2001) 3.]

[Request #S2102]

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"Poison Skies: Valley Air Makes Us Sicker and Sicker As We Try To Survive: [Special Report.]" By Julie Davidow and Jim Nickles. IN: Stockton Record (July 22-23, 2001) pp. A1+.

["Air Pollution Released in San Joaquin County: An estimate of Average Emissions per Day During 2000, Measured in Tons per Day Released into the Atmosphere: The total includes organic gases, carbon monoxide, various nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and dust including tiny particles measuring 10 microns or less that can penetrate deep into human lungs. From 1996 to 1998, deaths linked to asthma complications increased 203 percent."]

[Request #S2105]

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HAZARDOUS WASTE

Environmental Liabilities: Department of Defense Training Range Cleanup Cost Estimates Are Likely Understated. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-479. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?rptno=GAO-01-479

["This report focuses on DOD's efforts to collect, analyze, and report information on its training ranges and the potential cleanup costs of unexploded ordnance or other constituent contamination on these training ranges."]

[Request #S2104]

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WETLANDS

Wetlands Protection: Assessments Needed to Determine Effectiveness of In-Lieu-Fee Mitigation. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-325. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2001. 71 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?rptno=GAO-01-325

["The extent to which the in-lieufee option has achieved its purpose of mitigating adverse impacts to wetlands is uncertain. While officials in 11 of the 17 districts with the in-lieu fee option told us that the number of wetland acres restored, enhanced, created, or preserved by in-lieu fee organizations equaled or exceeded the number of wetland acres adversely affected, data submitted by over half of those districts did not support their claims."]

[Request #S2106]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

COURTS

"Self-Help Speeds Up." By Terry Carter. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 87, no. 7 (July 2001) pp. 34-38.

["While courts work to become more friendly to self-represented litigants, the justice system struggles to address difficult issues raised by their presence.... While there is little statistical data on the increase of pro se litigants and their impact on particular courts, the numbers are believed to be significant.... Proponents ... want to streamline the process for litigants, simplify the forms, and make rules and procedures less rigid in certain kinds of cases and situations."]

[Request #S2107]

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ELECTION REFORM

"Internet Voting and Democracy: [Issue Theme.]" IN: Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, vol. 34, no. 3 (April 2001) pp. 979-1220.

[Includes: "The Internet in the (Dis)Service of Democracy;" "Why Internet Voting?;" "Direct Democracy and the Internet;" "Political Intermediaries and the Internet 'Revolution';" "The Soul of the New Political Machine: The Online, The Color Line and Electronic Democracy;" "The Likely Consequences of Internet Voting for Political Representation;" and others. NOTE: Internet Voting ... will be available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S2108]

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FEDERAL GRANTS

Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Grant Update. 01-06. (FFIS Washington, DC) June 22, 2001. 7 p.

["This Update includes recent announcements about the availability of funds for many programs." Includes: "Climate and Global Change Program;" "Technology and Media Services for Individuals with Disabilities;" "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness and Education Project;" "Food Safety Research;" "Suicide Prevention Research Center;" "Cooperative Agreement for the Production of Ten Satellite/Internet Video Programs;" and others.]

[Request #S2109]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Electronic Government: Challenges Must Be Addressed With Effective Leadership and Management. By David L. McClure, Information Technology Management Issues, U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-959T. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 11, 2001. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/

["Testimony provides an overview of the status of federal e-government initiatives, describes the key challenges the government faces in implementing its e-government initiatives, and discusses the federal CIO approach proposed by S. 803, the E-Government Act of 2001.... Also included is a list of pertinent GAO publications on e-government issues."]

[Request #S2110]

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States Study Best Methods of Delivering, Paying For Various E-government Services. By Diane Schenk, Midwestern Office of the Council of State Governments. Firstline Midwest. Vol. 8, No. 6 (The Office, Lombard, Illinois) June 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.csgmidwest.org/member_services/flmw/2001/FLMW%20--June%202001.pdf

["The Internet ... is changing the way governments interact with other governments, with businesses and with citizens.... Currently, there are three main methods of funding state investments in the Internet. First, money can come from the state's general revenue fund.... One other alternative is to charge user fees.... A third, more controversial method is the selling of advertising space on government Web sites."]

[Request #S2111]

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STATE COURTS

"Courting Tech Business." By Victoria Rivkin. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 87, no. 7 (July 2001) pp. 39-41.

["States are out to lure cyber companies by offering them their own bench.... Maryland and Michigan are the two jurisdictions at the forefront of making technology cases a priority within the court system. By creating a separate court or a separate program for technology-related litigation, the two states hope to route these matters to specially trained state judges presiding in fully wired courtrooms."]

[Request #S2112]

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VOTERS & VOTING

Income and Racial Disparities in the Undercount in the 2000 Presidential Election. By the Minority Staff, Special Investigations Division, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives. Prepared for Representative Lucille Roybal-Allard and others. (The Committee, Washington, DC) July 9, 2001. 24 p.

["Congressional District in L.A. Had Voting Glitches; The Percentage of Discarded Votes is Similar to That in Other Low-income Areas in Nationwide Survey: The study found that the types of foul-ups that threw Florida's presidential election results in doubt were most common nationally in congressional districts whose populations were relatively poor and heavily minority and whose voting equipment was old." Los Angeles Times (July 9, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2113]

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Voting: What Is, What Should Be. R. Michael Alvarez and others, Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project. (The Project, Pasadena, California) July, 2001. 92 p.

Full Text at: vote.caltech.edu/Reports/july01/July01_VTP_%20Voting_Report_Entire.pdf

["Between 4 million and 6 million Americans failed to cast votes or had their votes invalidated in last year's presidential elections because of a variety of foul-ups, a study reported. The study ... cited faulty equipment, mismarked ballots, polling-place failures and problems with registration or absentee voting. It recommended that election boards get rid of punch cards and lever machines, curb absentee voting, institute registration reforms and discard any consideration of Internet voting for the foreseeable future." Washington Post (July 17, 2001) 2.]

[Request #S2114]

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HEALTH

AIDS

Declaration of Commitment on AIDS/HIV: "Global Crisis -- Global Action". By The United Nations General Assembly. (The Assembly, New York, New York) June 27, 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.unicwash.org/Declaration%20of%20Commitment%20on%20HIV-AIDS%20Adopted%20by%20the%20General%20Assembly.htm

["After rancorous debate, the U.N. General Assembly agreed ... on the first global action plan to battle the AIDS pandemic. Overriding the conflicts were the surprising agreements. Groups from the Vatican to ACT UP, a radical activist organization, concurred on the importance of lowering prices on drugs to make treatment available to everyone who is HIV-positive."]

[Request #S2115]

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DISABILITIES

"The Olmstead Case, Two Years Later: States in Varying Stages of Compliance." IN: State Health Notes, vol. 22, no. 352 (July 2, 2001) pp. 1-5.

["It's been two years since the U.S. Supreme Court held that people with disabilities must be given the option of home or community care over institutionalization. States are making slow but steady gains in complying with the Olmstead ruling."]

[Request #S2116]

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HEALTH CARE FINANCING

Income, Socioeconomic Status and Health: Exploring the Relationships. By Nicole Lurie and others, National Policy Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2000. 159 p.

["According to the book's authors, even universal health care systems will probably not yield all the expected improved health outcomes.... These researchers strongly urge that health policy be linked to social and economic determinants of health. There are six areas where they say efforts are critical: 1) investing in young children; 2) providing services and opportunities for the neediest; 3) improving the work environment; 4) strengthening support at the community level; 5) creating a more equal economic environment; 6) recognizing and assessing the effects of economic and social actions on health." U.S. Newswire (January 4, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S1692]

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MEDICAL STANDARDS

Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices. By Robert M. Wachter, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health. (The Agency, Rockville, Maryland) July 2001. 651 p.

Full Text at: www.ahcpr.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/ptsafety.pdf

["Hospitals Seldom Practice Proven Ways to Cut Errors: Dispensing medicines by computer, hiring more nurses and making sure patients better understand their treatments are ways that hospitals can reduce medical errors... The trouble is, few hospitals follow the most effective ways to cut out mistakes, according to a study." Washington Post (July 18, 2001) A2.]

[Request #S2117]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

"The 'Other' Drug War: States Seek Solutions to Rising Prescription Costs." By Donna Folkemer, National Conference of State Legislatures. IN: State Health Notes, vol. 22, no. 350 (June 4, 2001) pp. 1, 6.

["Congress hasn't yet acted on a Medicare drug benefit, leaving states as the target of constituents' ire over rising prices. In response, states are looking to expand coverage and ease cost pressures. [This] ... note looks at two ambitious programs."]

[Request #S2118]

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SMOKING

Lorillard Tobacco Company, et al., v. Thomas F. Reilly, Attorney General of Massachusetts, et al.; Altadis U.S.A., Inc., Etc., et al. v. Thomas F. Reilly, Attorney General of Massachusetts, et al. Supreme Court of the United States. 00-596, 00-597. June 28, 2001. 32 p.

["Justices Say States, Cities Can't Ban Tobacco Ads: The court ruled that states and localities may not ban the outdoor advertising of cigarettes and other tobacco products at retail stores or near schools and playgrounds.... The 5-4 ruling knocks down Massachusetts' restrictions as well as local ordinances in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and at least a dozen other California cities." Los Angeles Times (June 29, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2119]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Child and Family Service Reviews: Implications for State Oversight of Local Child Welfare Agencies. By Steve Christian, National Conference of State Legislatures. State Legislative Report. Vol. 26, No. 5. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) May 2001. 6 p.

["State legislators ... can play an important role in improving state oversight of local child welfare systems. In many states, moving toward a results-based accountability system may require legislation. At the very least, state legislators may want to keep abreast of how their state agencies are preparing for the federal reviews, including how these agencies are involving counties in the planning process."]

[Request #S2120]

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FATHERHOOD

Bay Area Fathering Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities. By Vivian L. Gadsden and R. Karl Rethemeyer, National Center on Fathers and Families, University of Pennsylvania. (The Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 2001. 139 p.

Full Text at: www.ncoff.gse.upenn.edu/bayfids/bayfids-intro.htm

["The Center on Fathers and Families pursued the BayFIDS (Bay Area Fathering Integrated Data System) Project to track, document, and analyze the operation and impact of fathering programs, as well as the nature of local and county policy efforts around fatherhood. The purpose of BAyFIDS was to develop baseline data on participant needs, program capabilities, and agency efforts." ]

[Request #S2121]

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SOCIAL POLICY

Wanted: Solutions for America; What We Know Works: An Overview of Research About What Works (and What Doesn't) in Social Service Programs. By the Pew Partnership for Civic Change. (The Partnership, Charlottesville, Virginia) 2001. 98 p.

["This guide is a primer that summarizes current research in four broad areas: healthy families and children, thriving neighborhoods, living-wage jobs, and viable economies.... This resource provides a road map through the array of social service programs and a starting point to address discrete issues -- from quality childcare to homelessness to downtown revitalization."]

[Request #S2122]

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WELFARE REFORM

When Work Just Isn't Enough: Measuring Hardships Faced By Families After Moving From Welfare To Work. By Heather Boushey and Bethney Gundersen. Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper. (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 2001. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/hardshipsbp.pdf

["Given the extra income often required just to participate in the workforce, these families also may have difficulty meeting other basic needs, such as food, housing, and medical care. This report documents the extent to which families face hardships as they move from welfare to work." HandsNet (June 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2123]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Welfare, Housing, and Employment: Learning from the Jobs-Plus Demonstration. By Jobsplus, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. MDRC Policy Brief. (The Corporation, New York, New York) May 2001. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/JP-PolicyBrief/JobPlusPolicyBrief.pdf

["Recent research by MDRC indicates that while recipients in public housing may be a more difficult-to-employ group in some locales, they may also benefit the most from mainstream welfare-to-work programs. This policy brief examines the evidence and its implications for policymakers."]

[Request #S2124]

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WELFARE-TO-WORK

State of Change: Policies and Programs to Promote Low-Wage Workers Steady Employment and Advancement. By Carol Clymer and others. Field Report Series. (Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) May 2001. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.ppv.org/pdffiles/statesofchange.pdf

["This report ... draws heavily on the experience of some of the states in initiatives to test ways to help individuals retain jobs and gain skills needed to support their families. [It] ... reviews the efforts of several states that have taken advantage of devolved federal authority and the flexibility of the welfare reform legislation to create new state policies and strategies."]

[Request #S2125]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

GAMBLING

When the Chips Are Down: Problem Gambling in America. By Rachel A. Volberg. And Governing Gambling. By Alan S. Blinder. Prepared for the Century Foundation. (Century Foundation Press, New York, New York) 2001.

["Some 5.5 million Americans already are problem or pathological gamblers, which can have devastating effects not only on them but on their families.... Some 15 million American adults can be considered at risk for problem gambling. [The Century Foundation] ... argues that gambling should be considered a public health issue and recommends steps to improve monitoring, prevention, and treatment.” Electronic Policy Network (July 11, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2126]

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MINORITY-OWNED BUSINESSES

Minority Businesses' Use of Internet Technology. By Waldo Lopez-Aqueres, Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. (The Institute, Claremont, California) July 19, 2001.

[Study: Minority Businesses Not Taking Advantage of e-Commerce: The study discovered that although relatively few businesses use the technology to sell, more than 60 percent of the respondents -- 91 percent of them connected to the Internet -- clearly recognize the benefits of e-commerce. Despite access to technology, the belief that products don't lend themselves to online sales and a lack of technological knowledge keeps many minority business owners away from e-commerce." Orange County Register (July 20, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2127]

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ENVIRONMENT

GLOBAL WARMING

"Interpretation of High Projections for Global-Mean Warming." By Tom Wigley, National Center for Atmospheric Research and Sarah Raper, University of East Anglia, England. IN: Science, vol. 293 no. 5529 (July 20, 2001) pp. 451-454.

["Degrees of Uncertainty in Climate Studies: A study released yesterday concludes there is a high probability the Earth's average temperature will rise between 4 and 7 degrees Fahrenheit over the coming century.... If a rapid warming and its expected impacts occur in the near future, even swift societal attempts at control would yield little immediate success." Washington Post (July 20, 2001)1.]

[Request #S2128]

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HEALTH

DRUG USE

Neuroadaptation: Incubation of Cocaine Craving After Withdrawal. By Jeffrey W. Grimm. IN: Nature vol. 41 no. 2 (July 2001) pp. 141-142.

["New research shows that even after users quit taking cocaine, craving for the drug increases, rather than decreases, over time.... 'This phenomenon helps explain why addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease,' said NIDA Director Alan I. Leshner. 'Craving is a powerful force for cocaine addicts to resist, and the finding that it persists long after last drug use must be considered in tailoring treatment programs.'" Join Together (July 16, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2129]

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