California Research Bureau Reports

The California Research Bureau (CRB) provides nonpartisan research services to the Governor and his staff, to both houses of the Legislature, and to other elected State officials. If you would like to be notified of new reports, click here. The Bureau also publishes an electronic notification service of new studies and reports about matters of current legislative or administration interest called Studies in the News.

California Research Bureau Reports are in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation of the source is requested. Suggested citation format is given below:

Author (Last Name, First Name). "Report Title". Report Number. Publication year. California Research Bureau, California State Library, Sacramento, CA 95814.

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Programs and Projects Related to Mexico in California State Government – 2017 Update (PDF)

California Research Bureau (November, 2017)
This publication is an update of a 2004 report that identified California government activities related to issues of common interest and concern to California and Mexico. The survey describes over 100 programs operated by dozens of California state departments, agencies, boards and commissions.

California Policymaking For Tomorrow Amid Rapid Technological Change Today (Full Video)

(March 2017)
Three experts discuss the impact of rapid technological change on California's economy and jobs, as well as the opportunities, challenges and risks awaiting California policymakers. Anne Neville, director of the California Research Bureau, moderates a thought-provoking discussion with Nicholas Davis, head of Society and Innovation at the World Economic Forum in Geneva; Rachel Hatch, research director of the 10-Year Forecast at the Institute for the Future in Palo Alto; and California's chief economist, Irena Asmundson. (1:18:05)

Or watch the following video excerpts from the March 23, 2017, discussion:

California and the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Video Excerpt (12:06)
Forecasting Four Alternative Futures for California, Video Excerpt (13:16)
California Population Projections and Revenue Challenges, Video Excerpt (10:00)
Will Changes in Technology Result in Job Gains or Losses?, Video Excerpt (2:50)
There's One Economic Law Left: If It's Unsustainable It Has to Stop, Video Excerpt (0:58)
Automation and the Coming Crisis of Human Meaning, Video Excerpt (4:16)
Is Technology Neutral?, Video Excerpt (3:04)
If Robots Take Our Jobs, Is Universal Basic Income a Practical Response?, Video Excerpt (7:12)

Frivolous Action Filings in California Courts (PDF)

Benjamin Tang (February 2017)
California enacted Assembly Bill 2494 (2014) to expand the legal remedies available against frivolous litigation. Specifically, the statute revived California Code of Civil Procedure section 128.5, which allows parties in lawsuits to file motions requesting sanctions against bad faith legal actions. This report, mandated by AB 2494, examines the statute's impact in the first two years after passage on the frequency of requests for sanctions.

Demographics of Disciplinary Action by the Medical Board of California (2003-2013) (PDF)

Patrick Rogers (January 2017)
The Medical Board of California protects the health of Californians by ensuring that practicing physicians in the state are licensed and regulated. Conducted at the request of the Medical Board, this report looked at 10 years of disciplinary data to see if there was any relationship between physician race and disciplinary outcomes. Latino/a and Black physicians were both more likely to receive complaints and more likely to see those complaints escalate to investigations. Latino/a physicians were also more likely to see those investigations result in discipline. Asian physicians had a reduced likelihood of receiving complaints, or of those complaints escalating to investigations.

Demographics in the California Legislature: November 2016 Election Update (PDF)

Devin Lavelle (November 2016)
Californians voted in 100 Assembly and Senate races in the November 2016 election. Thirty-one new members were elected to the Legislature, shifting the demographics of both bodies. The Assembly is now majority-minority (54%). The number of women legislators decreased by 5, bringing the total to 26, the lowest since 1991-1992. This report was updated on December 5, 2016.

Download the Data

Download the Readme

A Brief History of Major Tax Changes in California, 1979-2015 (PDF)

Kellie Jean Hogue and Christopher Berger (August 2016)
Since Proposition 13 passed in 1978, California has not had another major revamping of its tax system despite a widely acknowledged need for an overhaul. As a result, the state's fiscal health relies disproportionately on personal income tax, and sales and use tax. This paper, which was originally published in an appendix to Controller Betty Yee's "Comprehensive Tax Reform in California: A Contextual Framework," looks at the frequent incremental changes on taxation California has made, including the Legislature considering an average of 245 tax bills per year over the last two decades.

Housing First: How well does it work in ending homelessness? (PDF), (VIDEO)

(October 2016)
As the Legislature considered a major expansion of Housing First solutions for chronically homeless persons, the Research Bureau gathered experts to discuss the evidence behind Housing First and emerging solutions for the majority of homeless people who are not chronically homeless.

A Review of the Unlawful Detainer Pilot Program (PDF)

(October 2016)
State legislation allowing city attorneys in a pilot program to evict tenants for drug- and weapon-related nuisances began almost two decades ago in California. Four cities currently participate in the program—Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland and Sacramento. Under the pilot program city attorney-sponsored evictions are permitted when tenants "create a nuisance on the property by using or allowing the premises to be used" for unlawful firearms or drug activity. In 2015, city attorneys used the program 64 times against 74 tenants, a marked decrease from the 235 times cities used the program in 2011. This report reviews program use by each city and provides tenant demographic information and other data.

Sober Living Homes in California: Options for State and Local Regulation (PDF)

Jason MacCannell and Kellie Jean Hogue (October 2016)
Under the social model of recovery from substance abuse disorders, the sober living home has become an important resource for persons in recovery in California and elsewhere. Since the law generally treats sober living homes as residences rather than treatment facilities, state and local governments do not require them to carry licenses or impose other regulations outside of the general regulations on housing, zoning and land use. The proliferation of sober living homes in some places has raised concerns that they are being operated more like businesses than homes, impinging on the residential use and character of areas where they are concentrated. This report explores recent efforts to regulate sober living homes at the state and local level, the legal challenges that local ordinances in California have faced and policy options for regulation of these establishments at the state level.

Making Open Data Work in California's State Government

Governments around the world are making data more accessible and useable. Releasing data isn't a matter of just flipping a switch, however. Public and private organizations alike need to think about privacy, data quality and a host of other factors. This paper explores successful open data projects at the California Health and Human Services Agency and the State Controller's Office. It reports on their successes, challenges and outcomes. Using shared lessons from these projects and others, the paper also summarizes current state policy on open data, including procurement policies; highlights various privacy laws and guidelines; and provides sample organizational structures for open data teams.

Video of "Making Open Data Work" event. To view timestamps and watch by section, select "show more".

The Corporate Practice of Medicine in a Changing Healthcare Environment (PDF)

Pamela Martin and Anne Neville (April 2016)
California law has historically prevented corporations from practicing medicine, which includes the employment of physicians. This long-standing ban on the corporate practice of medicine remains in effect, though the state has created a number of exceptions for certain types of organizations. This report explores the current state of the ban in California. It reviews the impact of the ban in a changing healthcare landscape that now emphasizes integrated service delivery, and explores the types of conflicts of interest – in addition to employment – that physicians and other medical professionals face. The report builds upon the policy options the Research Bureau discussed in its original 2007 paper.

Women on Corporate Boards:
Increasing in California but Still Underrepresented

Amanda Kimball, Guest Author, and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (January 2016)
In 2014, women represented 13.3 percent of board directors on California's largest company boards, up from 8.8 percent in 2005. The continued underrepresentation of women on California boards is widespread even as it varies significantly across counties and industries. This research brief describes international, national and California programs to increase the number of women board directors, analyzes women directors by location and industry, and offers options California could undertake to increase women’s representation on corporate boards.

Veterans' Discharge Paperwork: LGBT Veterans Say Change is Needed

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-15-004, September 2015)
California is home to the largest number of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) veterans in the country – more than double the next closest state. When these service members left active duty military service, the Department of Defense issued them discharge papers that characterized their military service. For LGBT veterans, discharge papers reflecting outdated gender identities and outdated policies – such as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" – can cause a loss of access to earned military benefits and services.

PDF version (2 Mb) is available online.

Women of Color in California's Legislature

John Cornelison (S-15-003, August 2015)
This analysis traces the path by California women of color to the state Legislature from 1966 – when the first women of color were elected – to today. It provides details about election trends by racial and ethnic groups as well as by party affiliation. This is the second in the Women in Politics series.

PDF version (2.5 Mb)
Data, Excel (34Kb)

Better Serving Those Who Serve: California's LGBT Veterans Speak Out
White Paper: California Department of Veterans Affairs LGBT Veteran Leadership
Forum White Paper September 26–27, 2014

Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (June 2015)
Results presented here bring together the experiences and analyses of California leaders in LGBT and veteran communities, including LGBT veterans, service providers, other organizations and spouses. This white paper makes public the policies and programs that a cross-section of LGBT veterans, allies and service organizations recommend to reduce discrimination and expand equal opportunity for LGBT veterans. These suggestions include recommendations for federal, state and local actions gathered at a two-day California Department of Veterans Affairs LGBT veterans leadership forum. Examples include housing accommodations for trauma survivors, nondiscrimination employment protections, cultural sensitivity training, college campus resource centers and an expedited process to upgrade discharge papers that "out" LGBT veterans' sexual orientations or transgender identities.

Executive Summary, PDF (0.1 Mb)
Stakeholder Policy Recommendations, PDF (0.1 Mb)
Stakeholder Policy Recommendations (Transgender Focus Group), PDF (0.3 Mb)
White Paper, PDF (0.9 Mb) (Updated 7/10/15)
Appendices, PDF (0.5 Mb) (Updated 7/10/15)
Data, Excel (0.1 Mb) (Updated 9/25/15)

Nanotechnology and Society: An Overview

Guest authors: Christine Shearer, Ph.D., Jennifer Rogers-Brown, Ph.D., and Stacey Frederick, Ph.D. CRB contact Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-15-002, February 2015)
This Short Subject provides an introduction to nanotechnology, its potential risks and applications, and current regulation in the United States and California. "Nano" refers to particles and effects scaled at billionths of a meter. Emerging applications hold great promise in many areas, including new ways to treat cancer. Guest authors affiliated with UC Santa Barbara's Center for Nanotechnology and Society.

PDF version (0.9 Mb) is available online.

California State Parks: Implementing Recent Recommendations Regarding Peace Officers

(15-001, February 2015)
This is the third report on California State Parks, prepared at the request of the Senate Natural Resources & Water Committee and the Assembly Water, Parks & Wildlife Committee. It describes how the state could change the peace officer requirements for state park superintendents and state park rangers, and raises questions about the effects of such changes on the structure and culture of the Department of Parks and Recreation. Recent reports by the Little Hoover Commission and the Parks Forward Commission recommended these changes as important steps to transforming DPR into a new operating model built around shared management, innovation, and greater transparency.

PDF version (0.6 Mb) is available online.

Previous reports in this series include:

California State Parks: A Budget Overview (13-002, December 2013)
California State Parks: An Equitable and Sustainable Revenue Strategy (14-001, May 2014)

California's Women State Legislators: Historical Trends (1918 to December 1, 2014)

John Cornelison (S-14-023, December 2014)
This is the second in the Women in Politics series of short subjects about women officeholders in California. This updated edition was prepared at the request of the California Legislative Women's Caucus, and adds election results through December 1, 2014. This short subject discusses the number and party affiliation of the 147 women elected to California's Legislature since 1918, as well as the effect of term limits enacted by the voters in 1990.

PDF version (3 Mb) is available online.

Data for the Short Subject in an Excel spreadsheet (77 Kb) is available online.

MakeHERSpaces: STEM, Girls, and the Maker Movement

Pamela Martin, MPPA (S-14-022, September 2014)
Makerspaces in libraries, schools, and museums are places where people apply scientific and engineering principles in a hands-on environment to create things such as robots and 3D models. Since boys are often well-represented in STEM fields, many organizers in the maker movement are attempting to directly engage women and girls and motivate them in a maker environment.

PDF version (2 Mb) is available online.

An Overview of Men as Informal Caregivers

Pamela Martin, MPPA (S-14-021, September 2014)
In California, the number of men who provide informal care for loved ones with disabilities is on the rise. As a part of our Healthy Aging Series, this report discusses a few distinct features of male informal caregivers, including the problems of physical and emotional stress, how male caregivers see themselves, and the key role that social networks play.

PDF version (1.7 Mb) is available online.

California's Women Veterans: Responses to the 2013 Survey

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (14-002, September 2014)
This report presents information from the 2013 California Women Veteran Survey. The results suggest there is an opportunity for increased outreach and education among women veteran communities. Most respondents were unaware of all the state's veteran-related benefits and services to which they are entitled. Some of those who may be eligible for service-connected disability compensation had not filed claims. Many who had not used U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare reported they did not realize they were eligible.

PDF version (3.5 Mb) is available online.

Researching Oil in California History

Kathleen Correia, Michael Dolgushkin, and Karen Paige, Guest Authors from California History Section (S-14-020, August 2014)
Where can you find historical information about oil in California? The first in a new series spotlighting the State Library's California History Section, this Short Subject features publication, documentary, and visual resources about oil in California as well as some of the Library's ephemera. We also introduce you to a hidden treasure, the California Information File.

PDF version (0.5 Mb) is available online.

The Impact of Childcare Needs on Employment and Healthcare
2013 California Women Veteran Survey

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-14-018, August 2014)
This Short Subject presents results from the 2013 California Women Veteran Survey, which asked respondents questions about childcare and the effects that childcare needs may have on employment and healthcare decisions. Slightly more than 50 percent of respondents with children under the age of 13 reported using at least one form of childcare. More than 30 percent of respondents with more than one child under 13 indicated that childcare needs had influenced their decision to have certain healthcare services performed, the location of the healthcare they received, and/or whether or not they could even afford healthcare.

PDF version (0.5 Mb) is available online.

Psychosocial and Economic Health of Older American Indians and Alaskan Natives in California

Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-14-017, July 2014)
This Short Subject is a part of our Healthy Aging Series and employs California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicators of mental health, social environment, and economic security to better understand California's older AIANs.

PDF version (0.8 Mb) is available online.

State Veteran Benefit Utilization
2013 California Women Veteran Survey

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-14-016, June 2014)
This Short Subject presents results from the 2013 California Women Veteran Survey, which asked respondents questions about their use and knowledge of a variety of veteran benefits and services offered by the state of California. The two most commonly used state veteran benefits were California Employment Development Department employment assistance and unemployment benefits. Fewer than 15 percent reported using any of the other benefits with which respondents were prompted.

PDF version (0.7 Mb) is available online.

Sources, Uses, and Disposal of Water in Hydraulic Fracturing

Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. (S-14-014, June 2014)
Water is an integral part of hydraulic fracturing, an enhanced technique for oil and gas recovery that has garnered much media attention in recent years. Sources and uses of water vary, depending on the type of event, geographic site, and geologic situation. The second in our series on hydraulic fracturing in California, this Short Subject discusses the role of water in this popular technique: where it comes from, how it is used, the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids, and what happens to the fluids after the event.

PDF version (2 Mb) is available online.

Water Conservation in California: State Law and Local Enforcement

Maeve Roche (S-14-015, June 2014)
This Short Subject summarizes current state laws regarding water conservation and provides a review of the water conservation enforcement measures of selected public entities.

PDF version (2 Mb) is available online.

Aging and the LGBT Community

Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. (S-14-013, June 2014)
This Short Subject is a part of our Healthy Aging Series and offers a brief summary of this diverse group's demographic characteristics and looks at aging in the LGBT community through three additional lenses: identity and relationships, social networks, and cultural competence.

PDF version (2 Mb) is available online.

California State Parks: An Equitable and Sustainable Revenue Generation Strategy

Jennifer Ruffolo, M.P.P. and Matthew K. Buttice Ph.D. (14-001, May, 2014)
This report describes a sustainable and equitable approach to generating revenue in the California state park system. Employing this approach would result in a balance of public funding and earned revenue to support the parks, with revenue targets that could be largely met by collecting low fees from all users.

PDF version (4.6 Mb) is available online.

Psychosocial and Economic Health of Older Asian Pacific Islanders in California

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-14-012)
This Short Subject is a part of our Healthy Aging Series and presents information about the mental and economic health of older Asian Pacific Islanders (API). A larger percentage of APIs experienced less social connection in some ways and more economic insecurity than other Californians.

PDF version (0.8 Mb) is available online.

Housing Instability and Homelessness
2013 California Women Veteran Survey

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-14-011)
This Short Subject presents results from the 2013 California Women Veteran Survey, which asked respondents questions about experiences with homelessness and housing instability following their separation from the U.S. Armed Forces. Overall, 21 percent of respondents reported experiencing homelessness and 60 percent reported housing instability. Enlisted members and those who reported experiencing sexual harassment/assault, PTSD, or a service-connected disability were all more likely to report experiencing homelessness and/or housing instability.

PDF version (1 Mb) is available online.

Health Information Exchange: An Overview

Jaemin Lee and Pamela Martin. (S-14-010)
As the Affordable Care Act expands health care benefits to millions of uninsured and underinsured people, lowering costs of care has become a pressing issue. One approach to this problem is to reduce duplicative laboratory tests and prevent medication errors by exchanging health information across different care settings. This brief defines major terminologies associated with health information technology and discusses federal efforts to encourage the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems among physicians and hospitals.

PDF version (1.3 Mb) is available online.

Military Sexual Trauma
2013 California Women Veteran Survey

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-14-009)
This Short Subject presents results from the 2013 California Women Veteran Survey, which asked respondents questions about the prevalence and aftermath of sexual harassment and assault while serving in the military. Overall, 73 percent of respondents reported sexual harassment and 40 percent reported sexual assault. The majority of respondents who experienced harassment and/or assault did not report the incident(s). Of those who did report incidents of sexual assault, more than 60 percent felt retaliated against and 1 in 5 reported suffering from additional physical or sexual violence.

PDF version (0.5 Mb) is available online.

Psychosocial and Economic Health of Older Latinos in California

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-14-005)
This Short Subject is a part of our Healthy Aging Series and presents information about the mental and economic health of older Latinas and Latinos. California's Latina/o population is aging due to an increase in life expectancy and a larger number of Latina/o baby boomers entering their elderly years. A larger percentage of Latinas and Latinos experienced more psychological distress, less social connection in some ways, and more economic insecurity than other Californians.

PDF version (1Mb) is available online.

Pharmaceuticals in Water Series

Despite a large volume of scientific research, the definitive risks of active pharmaceutical ingredients to human health are largely unknown. Detection of low-level concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in California drinking water has raised interest in finding safe ways to dispose of unwanted, unused medications. Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Environmental Quality, this series examines the complex issue of pharmaceuticals in water.

Pharmaceuticals in Water: An Overview
Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. (S-14-006)
Provides an overview of pharmaceuticals in water: points of entry into the water supply, relevant legislation, basic terminology, and regulatory agencies.

PDF version (1.2Mb) is available online.

Common Pharmaceuticals in California Water
Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. (S-14-007)
Discusses the impacts of pharmaceuticals in water, methods of detection, and offers a list of pharmaceuticals commonly found in water as well as their potential health effects.

PDF version (1.2Mb) is available online.

Reducing Pharmaceuticals in California Water
Kellie Jean Hogue, Ph.D. (S-14-008)
Looks at methods for removing pharmaceuticals in water: wastewater treatment technologies, disposal practices, and take-back programs.

PDF version (1.2Mb) is available online.

The Role of Aerospace in California's Economy

Patrick Rogers (B-14-001)
Aerospace is one of the nation's standout industries, and one in which California has enjoyed an outsized role. Over $31 billion in aerospace manufacturing production occurred in California in 2011, representing 6.3 percent of all manufacturing activity in the state. Out of $183 billion in aerospace production in the United States in 2011, California represented 17 percent of that total. New trends point to continued growth in California's aerospace industry, with the recent success of commercial space flight companies such as SpaceX and Scaled Composites building testing and manufacturing facilities in the state.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

California's Women State Legislators

John Cornelison (S-14-004)
The first in the Women in Politics series of short subjects about women officeholders in California. Prepared at the request of the California Legislative Women's Caucus, this short subject discusses the number and party affiliation of the 139 women elected to California's Legislature from 1918 to 2013 as well as the effect of term limits enacted by the voters in 1990.

PDF version, revised on 3/13/14 (3Mb) is available online.

Data for the Short Subject in an Excel spreadsheet (70Kb) is available online.

Psychosocial and Economic Health of Older Nonpartnered Women in California

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-14-003)
This Short Subject is a part of our Healthy Aging Series and presents information about the mental and economic health of older, nonpartnered women. A larger percentage of older nonpartnered women experienced more psychological distress, less social connection in some ways, and more economic insecurity than partnered women.

PDF version (1Mb) is available online.

Psychosocial and Economic Health of Older African Americans in California

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-14-002)
Another in our Healthy Aging Series (see below), this Short Subject presents information about indicators that may be associated with the shorter lifespans of older African Americans in California. A larger percentage of older African Americans experienced more psychological distress, less social connection in some ways, and more economic insecurity than all other older Californians.

PDF version (1.5Mb) is available online.

Hydraulic Fracturing in California: An Overview

Pamela Martin, MPPA (S-14-001)
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is an enhanced technique for oil and gas recovery that has garnered much media attention in recent years. California has been at the forefront of hydraulic fracturing use for more than 60 years, and has even been the site of several "record fracs" in its time. This Short Subject gives a brief history of this oil and gas recovery technique, as well as some of the major landmarks of federal and state oversight in this state.

PDF version (1.4Mb) is available online.

Californians in Media Occupations: Representation and Income Parity

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-13-021)
Another in our California Women and Girls Series, this Short Subject presents demographic information about Californians in media occupations, describes the representation of women and men in each occupation, and compares their median personal incomes to their representation. Where only one of the studied occupations exhibits parity in both representation and income, most of the occupations have a disparity between women and men's representation and incomes.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

California State Parks: A Budget Overview

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. and Jennifer Ruffolo, M.P.P. (13-002)
Prepared at the request of the Senate Natural Resources and Water Committee and the Assembly Water Parks and Wildlife Committee, the report reviews the Department of Parks and Recreation's expenditures over the last 20 years. Funding for support of the state park system has increased although the proportion of General Fund declined, as did reliance on fee revenue. Most of the growth in the Department's budget is attributable to the growth in special funds. The study finds that the most promising source of additional funding for the state park system may be park-generated revenue.

PDF version (3Mb) is available online.

Veterans and Educational Benefits: An Overview

Pamela Martin (S-13-020)
Through the GI Bill, the Veterans Administration provided educational benefits for over 900,000 active military service members, veterans and dependents in 2011, nearly 10 percent of whom were Californians. Approximately a third of all U.S. veterans who use the GI Bill to pay for college are women, which is close to the proportion of women veterans under age 50. This Short Subject gives a summary of the ways in which service members are using these benefits to pay for their education.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

California's Gender Gap in STEM Education and Employment

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. and Patrick Rogers (S-13-019, November, 2013)
California is a national and global leader in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), both for education and employment. This position has benefited the state greatly. However, there is a gender gap in educational attainment and employment in STEM fields. Men receive STEM degrees and are employed in STEM fields at a higher rate than women. This Short Subject provides a first look at the differences between men and women in educational attainment and employment in STEM fields in California.

PDF version (5Mb) is available online.

Immigration Reform and Unauthorized Women Immigrants in California

Patrick Rogers (S-13-018)
It is estimated that 2.6 million undocumented immigrants currently reside in California. This represents a quarter of all undocumented immigrants in the country as a whole. Of those, approximately 34% are women and another 13% are children under the age of 18. This Short Subject provides a review of the path to citizenship currently being considered by the federal government, and looks at its expected impact on women undocumented immigrants and their children.

PDF version (1Mb) is available online.

Farmworkers in California: A Brief Introduction

Patrick Rogers and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-017)
While California is one of the largest agricultural producing regions in the world, farmworkers in the state face a number of disadvantages. Farmworkers in California are at higher risk for living in poverty and are less likely to have health insurance than are the population as a whole. This Short Subject provides a brief overview of the demographic characteristics and geographic distribution of the nearly 300,000 farmworkers in California.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

California Higher Education: An Overview

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-016)
Fourth in our CA Women and Girls Series, this Short Subject presents information about the roughly 3 million people enrolled in California institutions of higher education. It presents information about Californians' participation in higher education, maps participation by county, and identifies the Bachelor's degrees earned most frequently by recent graduates.

PDF version (6Mb) is available online.

California Women and Incarceration: An Overview

Melissa M. Barker, Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D., and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (S-13-015)
Third in our CA Women and Girls Series, this Short Subject compares the number of incarcerated women in California over time, disaggregates 2012 data according to demographic and geographic information, and offers a brief discussion about California women and realignment.

PDF version (4Mb) is available online.

The Minimum Wage in California and the U.S.: Current and Historical Practice

Patrick Rogers and Chris Berger (S-13-014)
The first in a new series of Short Subjects on the topic, The Minimum Wage in California and the U.S.: Current and Historical Practice covers the development of minimum wage laws in the country and provides a comparison of wage rates across U.S. states. California's minimum wage has historically tracked closely with the federal rate, and is currently approximately 110% of the federal wage. California law also provides additional protections for tipped workers, preventing the inclusion of tips in calculations of wage rates. There have also been an increasing number of municipalities establishing higher minimum wage rates on their own, and passing living wage laws, which protect employees of business that contract with the city or county government.

PDF version (1.8Mb) is available online.

The TACPA Program: A Review of Current Structure and Potential Alternatives

Pamela Martin, MPPA and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (B-13-001)
This brief report provides background information on the Target Area Contract Preference Act (TACPA) program, identifies potential problems with the current structure of the program, and presents an analysis of potential alternative eligibility rules aimed at overcoming the loss of two criteria indicators at the state-mandated block-group level.

PDF version (6Mb) is available online.

The Technical Appendix (M-13-002) provides a detailed overview of the TACPA analysis conducted by the California Research Bureau.

PDF version (522Kb) is available online.

Maintenance of Voter Registration Lists: A Brief Introduction

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-013)
The second in our series of Short Subjects on election policy (see first entry Voter Identification: A Brief Overview below). A 2012 review of state voter lists found that approximately 24 million voter registrations in the United States are inaccurate or no longer valid. This Short Subject provides an overview of the procedures election officials use to collect and manage databases of registered voters.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

California Women and Employment: An Overview

Sun Young Kim, Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D., and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-012)
Second in our CA Women and Girls Series (see below Women and Education), this Short Subject presents information about the nearly 15 million women and girls in California age 16 and over. Despite comprising 46 percent of the labor force, this group earned 39 percent of total personal income in California during 2011.

PDF version (3Mb) is available online.

California Men and Healthy Aging

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-011)
Sixth in our Healthy Aging Series (see below), this Short Subject presents information about the approximately 4.8 million men in California who are age 50 or over. Though most of these California men have health insurance, 14 percent of preretirement age and 4 percent of retirement age men report that they could not see a doctor in the past year because of the cost.

PDF version (2Mb) is available online.

Californians 65 and over in the Labor Force

Matthew K. Buttice and Ph.D. Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D., (S-13-010)
Fifth in our Healthy Aging Series (see below), this Short Subject presents information about the approximately 4.2 million Californians who are age 65 or over. Since 1980, whether because of longer life spans, increased financial need, or for other reasons, the labor force participation of Californians who are ages 65+ has increased by 6 to 7 percentage points. Orange, Mendocino, and Marin counties have the largest percentage of their 65+ population in the labor force. The lowest participation rates are found in Trinity, Imperial, and Amador counties.

PDF version (3Mb) is available online.

California Women and Education: An Overview

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. and Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D. (S-13-009)
This Short Subject presents degree attainment trends for California women since the 1960s, compares these to national rates, breaks out rates according to race/ethnic category, and offers a brief discussion. Recent U.S. Census data suggest that California may fall short of national educational attainment rates for women when compared to attainment rates of women nationally. While California women have higher levels of education than they did in prior years, disparities across different race/ethnic backgrounds remain.

PDF version (2.1Mb) is available online.

City-Attorney-Sponsored Unlawful Detainer in California Part I: Mandated Information 2013 Report to the Legislature

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (13-001)
AB1384 (Havice, Ch.613, Stats. 1997-1998) established the legal capacity for city attorneys in five cities to sue for unlawful detainer (an eviction suit) when property owners were either unwilling or unable to evict a tenant arrested for drug or weapons crimes. The program was designed to facilitate the effective and efficient removal of criminals from neighborhoods. This report was produced in response to AB 530 (Krekorian, Ch. 244, Stats. 2009-2010), requiring CRB to evaluate the pilot Unlawful Detainer program.

Current reporting requirements and practices make it difficult to assess the overall merits of the UD pilot programs. Few UD notices were filed in court by city attorneys, a finding consistent with CRB's first report. Weapon-related UD notices appear to be about twice as likely to lead to subsequent court action as drug-related notices, although many more drug-related notices were issued.

PDF version (5.8Mb) is available online.

Testimony Before the Assembly Committee on Housing and Community Development and the Assembly Committee on Veterans Affairs, March 20, 2013

Rebecca E. Blanton
This document provides the written testimony submitted to the the joint Assembly committees as background information about homeless veterans in California. Oral comments were a condensed version of this testimony. In addition, please see the relevant brief about California's Women Veterans and Homelessness at

This is the PDF of the testimony.

Military Families and Child Care Needs in California

Rebecca E. Blanton, (S-13-008)
California is home to approximately 106,000 military children (children with at least one parent in the Armed Forces). The Department of Defense (DOD) attempts to provide child care to 80 percent of military children aged 13 or less. The other 20 percent of child care is provided through community providers. In some areas of California, there is not enough community child care to bridge this gap. This brief explores the child care needs of California's military families, the issues around licensing DOD-apporved child care versus California state approved child care and the costs of child care for military families.

PDF version (1.26Mb) is available online.

Californians and Aging Series

These overviews use the California Health Interview Survey to present information about health risk factors, economic security, and caregiving behaviors of California's African Americans, Asian Pacific Islanders (API), Latinos, and Whites ages 50 and over. A significant portion of older Californians from each race/ethnic group is overweight and suffers from issues related to economic security. These concerns are generally more common among those without a college education. And, while 25 percent of those ages 50 and over report providing care to a family member or friend who has a long-term illness or disability, fewer than 5 percent report using respite care services.

California African Americans and Aging

Tonya D. Lindsey & Matthew K. Buttice

PDF version (2.06Mb) is available online.

California Asian and Pacific Islander Americans and Aging

Matthew K. Buttice & Tonya D. Lindsey

PDF version (2.04Mb) is available online.

California Latino Americans and Aging

Matthew K. Buttice & Tonya D. Lindsey

PDF version (2.04Mb) is available online.

California White Americans and Aging

Tonya D. Lindsey & Matthew K. Buttice

PDF version (2.03Mb) is available online.

Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act: General Guidelines

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D., Patrick Rogers, (CRB S-13-003)
This fact sheet provides basic information about how to include the public in Bagley-Keene eligible meetings and when Bagley-Keene applies. It should serve as an informal compendium of the unabridged law. This is the fourth in CRB's series of short subjects about open government.

PDF version (KB) is available online.

California Women and Healthy Aging

Matthew K. Buttice, Ph.D., Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D., (S-13-002)
This overview presents some of the health issues California women ages 50 and over experience, compares them to women nationally, reports preventative strategies some employ, and discusses how health issues may differ for California women according to their race/ethnic categories. Despite that 86 percent of California women ages 50-64 and 99 percent of those 65 and older have healthcare coverage, some report not going to the doctor because of the cost.

PDF available at California Women and Healthy Aging

Military Spouses and Professional Licensing

Rebecca E. Blanton, (S-13-001)
Military spouses face a special burden when it comes to obtaining and maintaining professional licenses. This brief explores the issues military spouses face and offers several options the State may take to reduce these burdens.

PDF available at Military Spouses and Professional Licensing

California's Women Veterans and Homelessness

Rebecca E. Blanton, (S-12-011)
CRB surveyed over 800 women veterans about their housing status and found that one in seven had experienced homelessness and one in three had experienced unstable housing. This brief sheds some light on the extent of homelessness and the precursors to unstable housing for women veterans in California.

PDF available at Women Veterans and Homelessness

HIV/AIDS in California: 2012 Update

Rebecca E. Blanton, (S-12-012)
Using the latest data from the Center for Disease Control and the California Department of Public Health, CRB finds 1 in 268 Californian's is currently infected with HIV. The rate of infection differs significantly between racial groups. The Black population in California experiences infection at three times the rate of White's in California and nine times that of the state's Asian-American population.

PDF available at HIV/AIDS in California: 2012 Update

Voter Identification: A Brief Introduction

Laura Parker (S-12-010, October 2012)
The first in a CRB series of Short Subjects on election policy. This Short Subject provides an overview of voter ID including current laws, pros and cons, court challenges, and impact on the November 2012 elections.

PDF version (1,123KB) is available online.

California's Women Veterans Series

CRB conducted a survey of women veterans in 2011. This survey was the first in the country to ask women veterans, "What do you need?" The following five briefs present short overviews of important topics contained in the Women Veterans survey. These briefs, initially released on October 4, 2012, are the first in a larger series of briefs on women veterans' issues. The full report for the results of the 2011 survey may be found on this page at:

California's Women Veterans and Military Sexual Trauma (MST)
Rebecca E. Blanton. (S-12-004)
Provides an overview of military women's experiences with MST as reported in a confidential survey after they left the service.
PDF available here

California's Women Veterans and Mental Health
Rebecca E. Blanton. (S-12-005)
Provides an overview of women veterans mental health needs and costs of providing mental health services to this population.
PDF available here

California's Women Veterans and Employment
Rebecca E. Blanton. (S-12-007)
Provides an overview of women veterans' employment prospects and unemployment statistics in CA.
PDF available here

California's Women Veterans and Benefit Utilization
Rebecca E. Blanton. (S-12-008)
Provides an overview of women veterans' pattern of state benefit utilization.
PDF available here

California's Women Veterans at a Glance
Rebecca E. Blanton. (S-12-009)
Provides an overview key statistics about women veterans in CA as of October 2012.
PDF available here

CalEVDRS Reporting System Short Subject Series

The California Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS) collects information from death certificates, police investigations and coroner's files to create a more comprehensive look at the circumstances surrounding violent deaths in California. The California Department of Public Health and the California Research Bureau have partnered to use this database to investigate the trends in suicides and homicides in California to gain a better understanding of circumstances that lead to violent deaths. Below are links to three short fact sheets on information gleaned from the CalEVDRS system.

Understanding Violent Deaths in California.
Jason Van Court. (S-11-002)
Provides an overview of the CalEVDRS system and the information it contains.
PDF version (331KB) is available online.

Characteristics of Homicide: Data from California's Electronic Violent Death Reporting System.
Jason Van Court. (S-11-006)
Provides an overview of homicides in CA for 2009, the most recently available data.
PDF version (331KB) is available online.

Characteristics of Suicide: Data from California's Electronic Violent Death Reporting System.
Jason Van Court. (S-12-006)
Provides an overview of suicides in CA for 2009, the most recently available data.
PDF version (1.26MB) is available online.

Principles of Open Government: Transparency, Participation & Collaboration

Patrick Rogers and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (CRB S-12-003)
The third in CRB's series of short subjects about issues impacting open government initiatives. This short subject discusses the three principles that underlie open government initiatives: Transparency, Participation and Collaboration.

PDF version (508KB) is available online.

Open-source Software: Value, Cost, and Supporting Open Government

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. and Patrick Rogers (CRB S-12-002)
The second in CRB's series of short subjects about issues impacting open government initiatives. This short subject defines open-source software and explains its value, cost, and how it can support open government.

PDF version (815KB) is available online.

Public-use Data: Safe, Secure, and Supporting Open Government

Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (CRB S-12-001)
The first in CRB's series of short subjects about issues impacting open government initiatives. This short subjects defines public-use data and explains how they can be safe, secure, and support open government.

PDF version (941KB) is available online.

California's Women Veterans: Responses to the 2011 Survey

Rebecca E. Blanton and Lisa K. Foster (CRB-12-004)
CRB, at the request of CalVet and the Commission on the Status of Women, surveyed California's women veterans to find out what they currently need, what they needed at the time they transitioned from the military, and what are their sociodemographics. This report presents the findings of that survey. Women veterans told us they need help finding a job when they leave the service and that they currently want physical and mental health care. The needs for women-specific and senior-specific services are growing needs in the women veterans community as well."

Briefly Stated: California's Women Veterans: Responses to the 2011 Survey

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

White Paper: Interagency Council on Veterans, February 22-23, 2012

Rebecca E. Blanton and Tonya D. Lindsey, Ph.D. (CRB 12-003, May 2012)
Governor Edmund G. ("Jerry") Brown established the Interagency Council on Veterans (ICV) in order to coordinate state-level activities to improve services and outreach for veterans. Participants of the ICV met in February 2012 over two days to discuss the service needs, gaps and obstacles in service and outline potential next steps for improving services to veterans. This paper analyzes the contents of the meeting discussions and presents key findings from that analysis. Participants in the ICV identified the need for funding, increasing data sharing and data capture, improving transition programs and increasing public outreach as critical needs for the veteran community.

PDF version (386KB) is available online.

California's Women Veterans: Response to the 2011 Survey: Preliminary Report

Rebecca E. Blanton (CRB 12-002, May, 2012)
California has the largest number (167,000) and greatest proportion (9.5 percent) of female veterans in the country. Currently, who these women are and what they need is generally unknown. The California Research Bureau, along with CalVet and the Commission on the Status of Women, conducted a survey of nearly 900 women veterans in California to find out who they are and what they need. This report presents the preliminary findings from the 2011 survey of these women veterans.

PDF version (733KB) is available online.

California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs

Rebecca E. Blanton (CRB-12-001, January, 2012)
Charter schools are overseen by authorizers. In California, an authorizer is generally a school district, but may be a county office of education or the State Board of Education. As of June 2011, California had 293 authorizers overseeing 911 charter schools. In SB537 (Ch.650, Stats. of 2007) the Legislature mandated the California Research Bureau review the practices of authorizers in California, examine best practices in authorizing, review the current funding structure for authorizers and submit to the Legislature a report on key elements and actual costs of charter authorizing. This report provides CRB's findings from its investigation of California's authorizers. Additionally, it provides several options to the Legislature for improving charter oversight.

Briefly Stated: California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs

PDF version (4MB) is available online.

Unlawful Detainer Pilot Program: A Report to the California Legislature

Rebecca E. Blanton (CRB-11-002, May, 2011)
AB1384 (Havice, Ch.613, Stats. 1997-1998) established the legal capacity for city attorneys in five cities to sue for unlawful detainer (an eviction suit) when property owners were either unwilling or unable to evict a tenant arrested for drug or weapons crimes. The program was designed to facilitate the effective and efficient removal of criminals from neighborhoods. This report was produced in response to AB 530 (Krekorian, Ch. 244, Stats. 2009-2010), requiring CRB to evaluate the pilot Unlawful Detainer program.

CRB used the data reported by three pilot sites as mandated in Civil Code sections 3485 and 3486. The data showed that the program was utilized approximately 300 times across the three cities that opted to participate in the pilot program in 2010. The most common result of an unlawful detainer suit was that the tenant vacated the property prior to the full prosecution of the suit.

PDF version (838KB) is available online.

March 2011 Women's History Month Calendar

John Cornelison and Carley Herron (CRB-11-002, March, 2011)
To celebrate Women's History Month and commemorate the centennial of women gaining the right to vote in California nine years before the national suffrage amendment passed in 1920, the California State Library and its California Research Bureau have created a page-a-day calendar.

In the calendar you will find out about some of the California women and events that have transformed our state. Many of the images and ephemera are from the unique collection of the State Library.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Managing Coastal Aquatic Invasive Species in California: Existing Policies and Policy Gaps

Adrianna Muir, Ph.D. (CRB-11-001, January, 2011)
Coastal Aquatic Invasive Species (CAIS) increasingly threaten California's coastal estuarine and marine habitats. With no natural predators, these non-native species become abundant, resulting in costly, negative impacts on infrastructure, human health, and natural ecosystems. Seeking assistance in implementing the California Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan, the Senate Natural Resources and Water Committee, requested that the California Research Bureau craft a framework for understanding the challenges that coastal aquatic invasive species create for California. In the resulting report, Managing Coastal Aquatic Invasive Species in California: Existing Policies and Policy Gaps, CRB Senior Environmental Policy Fellow, Adrianna Muir, Ph.D. highlights the CAIS policy and management challenges facing California. The report focuses on opportunities for improvement over six general policy categories (Authority, Prevention, Research, Control, Implementation, and Coordination) and addresses the vectors, or pathways, through which invasive species are introduced.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Healthcare Reform: Selected Topic Seminars

Michael Dimmitt, Ph.D. (CRB-10-001, February, 2010)
The California Research Bureau (CRB) sponsored this seminar series with financial support from the California HealthCare Foundation. The purpose of the grant was to inform a broad group of legislators, and legislative and administrative staff about policy aspects of achieving universal healthcare coverage in California. The overarching goal of the seminars was to highlight the importance of, and necessity for, cost containment to achieve and maintain a near-universal healthcare coverage program. The grant provided funding for three seminars on topics related to achieving universal healthcare coverage in California: Health Information Technology-Electronic Health Records (HIT-EHR), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), and Individual Mandate (IM). The seminars were conducted on a policy-neutral and nonpartisan basis.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

California's Women Veterans: The Challenges and Needs of Those Who Served

Lisa K. Foster and Scott Vince (CRB-09-009, August, 2009)
Women represent over 15 percent of the active duty and reserve forces of the military, and make up over 220,000 of the 1.8 million troops serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) – the largest wartime deployment for U.S. women. Following their military service, often in combat conditions, women are returning to their roles as private citizens - wives, mothers, caregivers, workers – in unprecedented numbers. Women veterans share many of the short- and long-term physical and emotional consequences and needs that their male counterparts face as a result of serving their country. In addition, they have unique experiences and needs as female veterans. The report describes the state's more than 167,000 women veterans (eight percent of the total veteran population); it identifies the challenges these veterans face, the primary services they need, and barriers they encounter. This report also explains the federal, state, and local service delivery structures that provide benefits and services to veterans, and provides additional resource materials.

Briefly Stated: Women Veterans By the Numbers

Briefly Stated: California's Women Veterans: Challenges and Needs

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Study Abroad Programs: Elements of Effective International Student and Faculty Exchange Programs

Pam Martin (CRB-09-006, May, 2009)
As part of Assembly Concurrent Resolution 146 (Solorio), the California Research Bureau was asked to report on the programmatic and funding elements of an effective international student and faculty exchange program, including good practices nationally, with an emphasis on public higher education institutions in California and Mexico. The CRB identified five distinct elements: a) an assessment of demand for a program; b) the establishment of working relationships among institutions and stakeholders; c) written policies stating a clear commitment to academic goals, transparency, and communication; d) identification of long-term funding streams; and e) a plan for increasing enrollment. The report includes an overview of California-Mexico student and faculty study abroad programs currently being offered in California's public universities and community colleges.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Individual Mandate: A Background Report

Lucien Wulsin, Jr. and Adam Dougherty (CRB-09-007, April, 2009)
Over 46 million Americans are without healthcare coverage. The number of uninsured is increasing with the growth of unemployment and stagnation of employer-based coverage. Healthcare cost growth continues to outpace growth in wages. The individual mandate is a policy option that could significantly reduce the number of uninsured in the United States and lead to universal health care coverage. An individual mandate would require every citizen to obtain health insurance, be it through an employer, an individual plan, a purchasing pool, or a public plan. This report will discuss how such a mandate could work, what it would cost. It also will review the pros and cons of the individual mandate as well as the availability, affordability and enforcement that would come from such a mandate.

The PowerPoint presentations from the seminar are available for download here: Blumberg0409.pdf (70 K) and Cannon0409.pdf (440 K)

A transcript of the seminar is available for download here: Transcript0409.pdf (334 K).

PDF version (894KB) is available online.

California Foreclosure Watch: When Will the Pain End?

Rani Isaac (CRB-09-096, March, 2009)
The California Foreclosure Watch is a series of quarterly briefs prepared for the Assembly Banking & Finance Committee. CRB's latest Foreclosure Watch features Q4 2008 data and a new state forecast.

When will the pain end? Not until 2010, when employment losses bottom out and housing prices start rising again. In the spreadsheets accompanying this brief report, data for 57 counties are available at Foreclosures09Q1.xls (Excel) and Foreclosures09Q1.pdf (PDF).The latest CRB estimate of California foreclosures is 1.1 million for the "cycle" or period 2007-2012, but total "lost" homes will reach 1.4 million. Lenders are trying to avoid the expense of foreclosures, sometimes giving cash incentives to those who are in default and voluntarily mail back the keys. Lenders are also becoming more open to short sales. In these two ways, lenders cut short the long foreclosure process. Some 300,000 units will be lost through jingle mail (deeds surrendered in lieu of foreclosure) or through short sales (principal forbearance that allows underwater homeowners to sell the home for less than the mortgage balance).

Previous entries in the series include: Briefly Stated: California Foreclosure Watch For the Third Quarter 2008 (64KB)

CRB plans to follow the cycle through 2009, so watch for the next quarterly update.

PDF version (74KB) is available online.

The Careers Project

Patricia L. de Cos, Julie Chan, and Katharine Salling ()
The Careers Project examined the preparation all students in public middle and high schools receive to explore career options and the relationship between that preparation and California's state and regional economies. The California Research Bureau undertook this research at the request of a bipartisan group of 11 members of the California Legislature, with funding support from the James Irvine Foundation. The study consisted of three distinct phases:

1. A statewide survey of middle and high school counselors and principals.
2. An economic analysis and survey of representatives of business and industry in California.
3. School focus groups.

Links to the reports corresponding to the three phases of the Careers Project study, including a summary report with policy options, may be accessed below:

School Survey of Middle and High School Principals and Counselors in California (CRB-09-001)(Revised)
An Economic Analysis of Ten Industry Clusters in California (CRB-09-002)
Survey of Representatives of Business and Industry in California (CRB-09-003)
Focus Group Perspectives on Provisions for Career Exploration and Development Opportunities at Selected Middle and High Schools (CRB-09-004)
Summary with Policy Options (CRB-09-005)(Revised)

Both the School Survey (CRB-09-001) and the Summary (CRB-09-005) have been revised since their original publishing.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 5 (1MB), Part 2 of 5 (2MB), Part 3 of 5 (1MB), Part 4 of 5 (1MB), Part 5 of 5 (949KB) ] is available online.

A Briefing on Health Technology Assessment

Lucien Wulsin, Jr. and Adam Dougherty (CRB-08-019, December, 2008)
The United States spends a much higher percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on healthcare than any other country. Nearly 50 percent of the increase in healthcare costs is attributable to the introduction of new technologies in the practice of medicine. However the rapid introduction of new technologies has not been accompanied by an improvement in health outcomes, suggesting the need to review the effectiveness of these investments. This report describes the process of assessing health technology and identifies national and state agencies and organizations that currently engage in health technology assessment. Finally, the report discusses a proposal to create a centralized body dedicated to the formal scrutiny of innovative (and existing) healthcare technologies and services.

The PowerPoint presentations from the seminar are available for download here: Garber1208.pdf (457 K), Goodman1208.pdf (150 K), and Weissberg1208.pdf (710 K).

A transcript of the seminar is available for download here: Transcript1208.pdf (431 K).

PDF version (857KB) is available online.

Where are State Funds Spent? The Distribution of Spending Across California Regions

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-08-017, December, 2008)
What does the geographic distribution of state spending look like? Are there regions of the state that receive more than their "fair share" of state funds? How is a region's "fair share" defined and calculated? This report examines the geographic distribution of state spending across nine regions: the San Francisco Bay Area, Central Coast, Far North, Inland Empire, San Joaquin Valley, Sacramento Metro, San Diego, Sierras and South Coast. State expenditures are presented for major program areas such as health, education, public assistance, social services, and transportation. (The same fiscal year, FY 2002-03, is used wherever possible.) The many detailed tables provide a new perspective on state expenditures, one that has not been previously analyzed.

Briefly Stated: Where are State Funds Spent? The Distribution of Spending Across California Regions (81KB)

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Foreclosures: Briefly Stated

Rani Isaac (CRB-08-098, December, 2008)
Foreclosures have soared in the past three quarters. Eleven counties account for 78 percent of the state's foreclosures. In the spreadsheets accompanying this brief report, data for 57 counties are available at Foreclosure.xls (Excel) and Foreclosure.pdf (PDF). Los Angeles has recorded 42,800 foreclosures in this housing downturn, which began in 2006, while the state has lost 288,491 homes to foreclosure. This update of two earlier reports contains sales data and home prices for individual counties and two scenarios of housing demand for the state in 2010. Foreclosures are now are likely to exceed 500,000 in the years through 2012, not including short sales or deeds in lieu of foreclosure. These other types of "lost" homes were the subject of an earlier, Sept. 18th PowerPoint presentation available here.

This update is part of a series of quarterly projections. CRB plans to follow the cycle until job losses abate and home prices stabilize, most likely sometime after the second quarter in 2009.

PDF version (237KB) is available online.

County Probation Camps and Ranches for Juvenile Offenders

Marcus Nieto (CRB-08-016, November, 2008)
This report, which was requested by Assembly Member Jose Solorio, Chair of the Public Safety Committee, examines California's county camps and ranches for juvenile offenders in the context of recent reforms of the state's juvenile justice system. There are different models of county probation camps, including conventional camps, wilderness camps, military (boot camps), and small residential treatment facilities (known as the Missouri model). We describe the different models as implemented by California counties, with information about length of stay requirements and treatment options. When possible, we also describe the educational and vocational requirements and programs provided by the camps, and examine the availability of health and mental health services.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Physician Misconduct and Public Disclosure Practices at the Medical Board of California

Brian R. Sala, Ph.D. (CRB-08-015, November, 2008)
This report explores current Medical Board of California public disclosure laws, regulations and practices; and presents policy options for improving public access to information about physicians in support of the MBC's public protection mandate. The report presents new statistical findings on physician attributes associated with higher odds of facing formal disciplinary charges. Additionally, we review academic research on the incidence of medical errors, which suggests that patients harmed by negligent or incompetent care rarely file lawsuits or formal complaints against their caregivers. We present a number of policy options for expanding public disclosure about California physicians and enhancing the MBC's public outreach program. This report was mandated by SB 1438 (Chapter 223, Statutes of 2006), sponsored by Senator Figueroa.

Briefly Stated: Physician Misconduct and Public Disclosure Practices at the Medical Board of California (52KB)(revised 3/19/2009)

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Child Care Funding Sources for California School Districts

Lisa K. Foster (CRB-08-014, October, 2008)
School districts are central players in the child care delivery system: they operate a mix of child care centers and programs, serve a range of children of different ages, and fund their programs from a variety of federal, state, and local sources. This report provides a range of programmatic and fiscal information about the federal and state funding sources for child care that are available to California's K-12 public school districts. The focus is on funding that pays for basic care and supervision, or what is considered the child care program "slot" or space. Assembly Member Mark Leno requested that CRB compile this information to assist school districts throughout the state, in addition to policymakers.

Executive Summary (20 KB)

PDF version (1011KB) is available online.

The National Housing Crisis and its Impact on California-Conference Presentations

California Research Bureau (CRB-08-099, September, 2008)
On September 18, 2008, the California Research Bureau partnered with the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) to present a conference on the national housing crisis and its impact on California. The morning presentations examined the scale of the crisis, economic forecasts, and trends in home prices and foreclosures.

Speakers in the afternoon discussed removing barriers to home ownership, the crisis in credit availability, new federal and state laws, and policies to mitigate the risk that vacant foreclosed homes will contribute to blight and crime. The CRB's work in this policy area is in response to a request from the Assembly Banking Committee.

HTML Version is available online.

Health Information Technology-Electronic Health Records: A Primer

Lucien Wulsin and Adam Doughert (CRB-08-013, September, 2008)
Achieving universal health care coverage will require significant changes in the health care system. There is an expectation that widespread adoption of Health Information Technology-Electronic Medical Records will play an important role in transforming the delivery of health care by improving the quality of care and reducing costs. However physicians lack an incentive to invest since the benefits accrue largely to insurance companies and health care plans. The role of federal and state governments in establishing standards and providing financial resources for expansion of health information technology is another issue of importance. This background paper reviews and summarizes many of the issues that providers, payers and government will have to address in incorporating health information technology into the health care delivery system.

The PowerPoint presentations from the seminar are available for download here: Goodman0808.pdf (91 K), Hillestad0808.pdf (1952 K), and Wiesenthal0808.pdf (179 K).

A transcript of the seminar is available for download here: Transcript0808.pdf (328 K).

PDF version (744KB) is available online.

Financing Delta Improvements and Environmental Mitigation

Dean Misczynski (CRB-08-011, September, 2008)
This Report was requested by the Delta Vision Blue Ribbon Task Force.

Resolution of the Delta's water supply, water quality, and fish problems may involve building various structures, possibly including gates, pumps, canals, levees, and dams, and undertaking landscaping rearrangements to improve habitat for several species of flora and fauna. Resolution also involves changing water flow regimes in ways that would make more or less water, but probably less, available for human uses. This work and these changes will cost serious money. Cost estimates for many of these actions have not yet been developed.

This paper explores approaches to financing these "improvements" and "mitigations." While a little abstract, this is abstraction that matters. It will determine from whose pockets a good deal of money will come.

PDF version (735KB) is available online.

Estimated Water Use on Large Projects in 2004-2006

Rani Isaac (CRB-08-012, August, 2008)
Senator Sheila Kuehl asked the California Research Bureau (CRB) to provide analysis about the impact of two bills enacted in 2001: SB 221 and SB 610. These bills require local agencies to determine that a reasonably reliable water supply exists before approving new large projects including residential subdivisions with over 500 units, and large industrial and commercial projects. CRB estimated the number of subdivisions and dwelling units that were subject to these two bills from 2004 to 2006, estimated the amount of water used by these subdivisions and evaluated how the estimates would have changed if the law were lowered to apply to subdivisions with over 250 units. CRB also estimated water use in large industrial and commercial projects.

PDF version (1021KB) is available online.

Homeless Youth: Bibliography and Resources

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-08-010, July, 2008)
The CRB and the California Council on Youth Relations, with support from The California Wellness Foundation, are conducting a major research and policy initiative to identify and bring to the attention of state policymakers the serious issues facing homeless youth in California. This report is a resource document and includes an annotated bibliography drawn from a wide range of academic and program-based research, agendas from CRB public policy seminars held over the last year, and contact information for the seminar presenters.

PDF version (591KB) is available online.

Security and Privacy Recommendations for Government-Issued Identity Documents Using Radio Frequency Identification Tags or Other Technologies

Christopher J. Marxen (CRB-08-008, July, 2008)
This report was produced in response to a request from Senator S. Joseph Simitian to provide policy recommendations regarding the use of technology-enhanced, government-issued identification documents. After examining the technical and personal security issues and concerns of these next-generation documents and their accompanying electronic infrastructure, assembling an expert advisory panel, and holding a series of public meetings to obtain input, CRB developed the report's recommendations for the selection and use of these technologies by state and local government agencies.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Hepatitis C: Public Policy Implications of a Silent Virus

Pamela Rasada, R.N., P.H.N. (CRB-08-009, July, 2008)
This report was produced in response to a request from Assemblymember Mark Leno for a comprehensive study on the policy implications of the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

More than 5 million people nationwide are infected with HCV; including 600,000 Californians. Due to the insidious nature of the virus, it is believed that fewer than half of them know they are infected. For many individuals the infection is discovered after the development of advanced liver disease, leaving some patients with no treatment option other than a liver transplant. Even when discovered early, the costly, often debilitating treatment process is successful in less than half the patients who are treated. The paper begins with a brief overview of the discovery of a hepatitis-related virus in the blood supply and how the cause of the virus, now known as hepatitis C, was discovered. The overview continues with detailed discussions of the risk factors and sources of infection for HCV, the diagnostic process, pathways of disease progression, and potential treatment options. A review of the prevalence and the direct and indirect costs associated with HCV are also included. The second half of the paper contains detailed discussions of the policy issues related to HCV including disease tracking and surveillance, a historical timeline of prevention and control efforts, workers compensation and presumptive infection, and access to care and insurance.

Briefly Stated: Hepatitis C Hospitalization Costs Trump Original Estimates (328 K)

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Measuring the Effects of Video Surveillance on Crime in Los Angeles

Aundreia Cameron, Elke Kolodinski, Heather May, and Nicholas William (CRB-08-007, May, 2008)

This study, which examines the effectiveness of video surveillance (also call closed-circuit television or CCTV) in reducing and deterring crime in two Los Angeles neighborhoods, was requested by the California Research Bureau and undertaken by graduate students in the USC School of Policy, Planning and Development. It discusses the rise of CCTV as a crime reduction tool, describes empirical analyses of CCTV's effectiveness, and presents data about its impact on crime in the Jordan Downs public housing development and Hollywood Boulevard's "Walk of Fame." The authors conclude with a number of policy lessons.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Aerospace States' Incentives To Attract The Industry: An Update

Rosa Moller (CRB-08-005, May, 2008)
This paper originated from a request by Senator Roy Ashburn to update the California Research Bureau's report: "Other States' Incentives to Attract or Encourage Aerospace Manufacturing," published in June 1999.

The aerospace industry includes the manufacturing sectors of: aircraft and related parts; guided missiles, space vehicles and related parts; and, search, detection, and navigation instruments. This industry is important because it contributes significantly to the economy of the state, provides a number of well-paid jobs and is a spring board of innovation for other sectors. This paper includes a section on the history of California aviation and aerospace to emphasize the historical importance of this industry in California. The presence of the aerospace industry in the state is still strong. A significant proportion of aerospace electronic components and parts are produced in California and the state has a leading role in space activities and programs. California can enhance the competitiveness of its aerospace industry by offering (as other states are doing) a variety of incentives discussed in this paper. One of the industry's main challenges is that its current workers are approaching retirement age and it will be difficult to replace them, since the pool of labor with the skills required by aerospace activities is limited. Hence, the support of development programs that enhance these skills in the labor force is important.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Foreclosures in California: The current housing crisis is more severe
than previous corrections

Rani Isaac (CRB-08-006, May, 2008)
The Chair of the Assembly Banking Committee requested that the California Research Bureau prepare estimates of the number of housing foreclosures in California. Our estimate of the number of housing foreclosures in the State during the current cycle (2006 - 09), varies from 170,000 to 434,000. Foreclosures will affect between 3.0 and 7.8 percent of all homeowners with mortgages (depending on the underlying assumptions, as discussed in the Note). CRB also presents a range of estimates for metropolitan counties. As the credit and housing crisis plays out, CRB plans to update this Note and publish similar quarterly estimates throughout the year.

PDF version (300KB) is available online.

Voices from the Street: A Survey of Homeless Youth by Their Peers

Nell Bernstein and Lisa K. Foster (CRB-08-004, March, 2008)
Homeless youth are a hidden population. To shed light on this group of vulnerable young people, CRB conducted a survey in which homeless and formerly homeless youth completed over 200 interviews with their homeless peers across the state. The youth interviewed describe their experiences - how they became homeless, what life on the street is like, their interactions with police, their education and aspirations, their mental health experiences, how they go about getting help – the services they need, and the changes they would like to see happen in policy or law. The majority come from the hardest-to-reach and least-studied homeless populations: youth who sleep on the streets or in cars, squat in abandoned buildings, or "couch-surf." Most left their families because of violence or abuse or were kicked out, and many are surviving on the streets in the neighborhoods in which they grew up. This report presents the survey responses and findings. It is a primary component of the California Homeless Youth Project, a major research and policy initiative undertaken by the CRB and California Council on Youth Relations, with support from The California Wellness Foundation, to bring attention to the serious issues facing homeless youth in the state.

PDF version (13MB) is available online.

Actuarially Speaking: A Plain Language Summary of Actuarial Methods and Practices for Public Employee Pension and Other Post-Employment Benefits

Grant Boyken (CRB-08-003, February, 2008)
In January 2008, the California Public Employee Post-Employment Benefits Commission issued recommendations to address the costs of providing public employee pension and retiree health benefits. Several of the Commission's recommendations – and provisions of legislation introduced to implement those recommendations (SB 1123, Wiggins) – address actuarial practices used to determine funding levels for pension and retiree health benefits. Because actuarial methods are a unique and somewhat complex form of financial accounting, this "plain language" summary was developed to serve as a reference guide for policy makers, government employers, pension and health plan administrators, and members of the general public interested in the topic.

PDF version (763KB) is available online.

Student Loans for Higher Education

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D (CRB-08-002, January, 2008)
Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and guaranteed loans, examines the private student loan industry, and discusses issues relating to student debt and financial counseling. We describe practices that have led to allegations and findings of fraud and abuse in the student loan system, and recent federal and state legislative and administrative responses. The report was requested by Assemblymember Sally Lieber in order to better understand the national student loan scandal and responses to it.

PDF version (973KB) is available online.

Ex Parte Communications: The Law and Practices at Six California Boards and Commissions

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-08-001, January, 2008)
This report, which was requested by Assemblymember Loni Hancock, Chair of the Natural Resources Committee, examines the legal limitations on ex parte communications between board commissioners and interested outsiders on the following state boards and commissions: California Air Resources Board, Integrated Waste Management Board, State Water Resources Control Board, California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (Energy Commission), Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission. Ex parte communications are made in private between an interested party in a decision-making process and an official in a decision-making position. Because they can introduce an element of bias in a decision-making process and violate basic due process requirements, state law generally requires that the involved officials publicly disclose ex parte communications in an open meeting. However the legal requirements and practices for the six boards and commissions analyzed for this report vary, and the public disclosure process evidenced in their meeting minutes is uneven. This report available for download is the revised edition.

PDF version (712KB) is available online.

California Research Bureau Public Retirement System Survey

Grant Boyken (CRB-07-014, December, 2007)
In response to ongoing concerns about the cost of providing post-employment benefits to public employees, the California Public Employee Post-Employment Benefits Commission requested that the California Research Bureau conduct a survey of the state's public retirement systems to identify the amount of pension benefits that remain unfunded. The survey found that despite $63.5 billion in unfunded public employee pension liabilities, public retirement systems are recovering from the impact of the downturn in the financial markets that occurred in the early 2000s. California public retirement systems' aggregate funded ratio (the total assets that the systems hold in trust funds to pay benefits relative to the expected cost of benefits they are obligated to pay) is higher than it was in the early- to mid-1990s.

PDF version (749KB) is available online.

What Are The Qualifications For Bounty Hunters In California? As Required in Chapter 166, Statutes of 2004, Assemblymember Spitzer

M arcus Nieto, Peter Lewicki and Paul Lewicki (CRB-07-010, November, 2007)
The image of a "bounty hunter" bringing to justice a runaway fugitive is often glorified in the media and by the movie industry. Bounty hunters are depicted as "maverick" law enforcers who operate on the fringe of the criminal justice system to capture the most wanted criminals, in exchange for a reward. However critics maintain that loose state regulations foster abuse by bounty hunters, allowing them to act more like the outlaws they pursue than law enforcers. Why do bounty hunters have such broad authority to operate? What are their qualifications? What is their relationship to the American criminal justice system? How do they operate in California and what is the impact of the recently enacted Bail Fugitive Recovery Persons Act? These are the issues considered in this report, which was mandated by AB 2238 (Chapter 166, Statutes of 2004), authored by Assemblymember Spitzer.

PDF version (942KB) is available online.

Ninety Years of Health Insurance Reform Efforts in California

Michael Dimmitt, Ph.D (CRB-07-013, October, 2007)
This report will provide an overview of legislative and gubernatorial efforts to increase the number of Californians with health insurance. It will review the state's health care policy for the medically indigent for the period from 1918 until the present, and will describe legislative proposals to increase the number of insured. The review will also indicate whether the proposals were financed by regressive or progressive revenue taxes, fees, or insurance premiums. Over that period, legislators introduced at least 44 measures to reduce the number of medically uninsured people in California. There also were four ballot measures that would have increased health care coverage. The following changes were made to this report on November 29, 2007: On page 13, the report indicates Governor Warren began his first term as governor in 1944; he became governor in 1943. On page 18, AB 605 is identified as being authored by Assembly Member John Burton; it was authored by Phillip Burton.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Ninety Years of Health Insurance Reform Efforts in California: Bill and Proposition Files

Michael Dimmitt, Ph.D., Megan Quirk, John Cornelison, and Pat Kinnard (CRB-07-013, October, 2007)
This compilation of bills, initiatives, and propositions provides full text versions of the legislative and gubernatorial efforts to increase the number of Californians with health insurance. It compliments the California Research Bureau's review of State's health care policy for the medically indigent for the period from 1918 until the present. Over that period, legislators introduced at least 44 measures to reduce the number of medically uninsured people in California. There also were four ballot measures that would have increased health care coverage. Due to file size guidelines and download concerns, the files were kept under five megabytes (5 MB) in size where possible.

HTML Version is available online.

The Educational Success of Homeless Youth in California: Challenges and Solutions

Patricia F. Julianelle, JD (CRB-07-012, October, 2007)
Most homeless youth who are on their own are not in school. Yet the majority of homeless and formerly homeless youth recently surveyed by the California Research Bureau expressed the desire to return to school and have life goals that require extensive education to achieve. This report discusses key issues related to the challenges homeless youth face in achieving their educational goals. It describes federal and state programs and funding, identifies successful practices and model programs, and presents policy options that address these challenges.

PDF version (984KB) is available online.

The Corporate Practice of Medicine Doctrine

Allegra Kim (CRB-07-011, October, 2007)
The Assembly Committee on Health requested this report to elucidate the ban on hospital employment of physicians in California. The committee wished to learn the history of the Corporate Practice of Medicine (CPM) prohibition, whether California's practice is typical, and the effects of the prohibition. This report describes the corporate practice of medicine doctrine, its evolution and current status in California and other states, and implications for California.

PDF version (932KB) is available online.

Preparing Youth to Participate in State Policy Making

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-07-009, September, 2007)
Adding youth voices to the state policymaking process, and encouraging youth participation in developing the policies that directly affect them, can result in more thoughtful and effective legislation. This report, Preparing Youth to Participate in State Policymaking, presents information about how youth organizations currently prepare youth for their role in state policymaking. It shares the perspectives of state legislative and administrative policymakers on how youth can most effectively participate in this process, and it also describes how young people feel about both their preparation and participation.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

A Brief on Biosolids: Options for Biosolids Management

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-07-007, August, 2007)
Biosolids are municipal sewage treated to meet federal and state standards required for land application. This paper describes the production and management of biosolids in California; the regulatory framework that controls the use and disposal of biosolids; and the controversy surrounding their use as a soil amendment and alternatives to the current management practices for biosolids with emphasis on their potential use as a source of energy.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

How Population Growth Estimates Affect Housing Market Projections: Will economic growth hold up under the weight of the housing correction?

Rani Isaac (CRB-07-008, August, 2007)
As foreclosure rates rise, home sales slump, and new building continues to slow, economists are trying to estimate how many potential homebuyers there are in order to estimate the number of years the turnaround in the housing market will take. Projections vary depending upon the population data used - either the State of California's department of Finance Demographic Research Unit's or the Census Bureau's. This article explores how differences in the number of people, number of homes, vacancy rates, and household size impact the forecast.

PDF version (983KB) is available online.

Keeping Children Safe When Their Parents are Arrested: Local Approaches That Work

Ginny Puddefoot, MPH, MPP, and Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-07-006, July, 2007)
Children are often overlooked when their parents are arrested, but they are traumatized by the impact of this arrest on both their immediate circumstances and long-term care. Recent legislation by Assemblymember Pedro Nava encourages a coordinated local response by law enforcement and child welfare services, and requires the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) to develop guidelines and training for use by state and local law enforcement officers encountering children at an arrest scene. This report explores how these coordinated responses can best ensure children's safety and well-being and can also have benefits for both law enforcement and child welfare services. It highlights the successful joint protocols developed by several California jurisdictions and identifies key strategies for developing these approaches responses elsewhere in the state.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Rethinking Redevelopment Oversight: Exploring Possibilities for Increasing Local Input

Grant Boyken (CRB-07-004, April, 2007)
For local governments in California, redevelopment is one of the principal tools available for revitalizing areas that are physically or economically blighted. In recent years, however, critics have raised questions about the value of some redevelopment projects, the use of tax increment financing which diverts increases in local property taxes away from other local taxing entities, the use of eminent domain to support private development, and questionable declarations of blight made by redevelopment agencies. Some have called for increased oversight of redevelopment agencies. At the request of Assembly Member Chuck DeVore, this report examines possible solutions that might increase local input.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Funding the Golden Years in the Golden State

Grant Boyken (CRB-07-005, March, 2007)
Unfunded pension liabilities, rising health care costs, and demographic shifts that are predicted to significantly increase retirement rolls and the average length of retirement have given rise to concerns about how to fund post-employment benefits for retired public employees. Requested by the Public Employee Post-Employment Benefits Commission appointed by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and legislative leaders, this publication provides an overview of key funding issues concerning pension and retiree health benefits among California governments.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

An Update on Small Businesses

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-07-003, March, 2007)
This paper presents recent data on the number of firms, employment, employment growth, and financial conditions for the small business sector. Particular attention is given to firms with less than 100 employees and those with less than five employees. The paper also describes federal and California credit programs. Data show that angel investors, who have traditionally played a key role in early stage capital financing, are getting more organized and sophisticated. If angel investors' decisions start to mirror those taken by venture capitalists, businesses in early stages of development may lose this important source of capital.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Federal Tax Incentives For Health Insurance

Allegra N. Kim (CRB-07-002, March, 2007)
The federal government encourages health insurance coverage mainly through incentives in the Internal Revenue Code. These federal tax incentives for individuals and employers have played an important role in determining who has health insurance and characteristics of that insurance. As policymakers seek to reduce the number of uninsured, it is necessary to understand federal tax incentives and their effects on health insurance coverage. This report briefly describes federal tax incentives for health insurance and their combined implications for costs and coverage.

PDF version (682KB) is available online.

California Tribal-State Gambling Compacts, 1999-2006

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-07-001, February, 2007)
Since the enactment by California voters of Proposition 1A in March 2000, Indian casino gambling has expanded rapidly in the state and is now a $7.2 billion industry. The purpose of this report is to examine the evolution of key provisions in California's tribal-state compacts. This information should be useful to state policymakers and other interested parties if, as seems likely, there are more successful negotiations to expand tribal gambling in the future.

PDF version (980KB) is available online.

The State's Information Technology Hiring Process: Suggested Reforms

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-06-011, November, 2006)
This report, which was requested by State Chief Information Officer (CIO) Clark Kelso, discusses reforms that have been suggested over the last several years to improve the state's information technology classification and hiring process. In addition, we draw on interviews with department IT managers, human resource staff, and recruitment staff.

PDF version (704KB) is available online.

Growing Pains: Airport Expansion and Land Use Compatibility Planning in California

Grant Boyken (CRB-06-010, September, 2006)
The desire to develop land in the vicinity of airports, and the continuous need to make improvements and expand airport capacity, are two opposing forces that shape airport operations and expansion. This report is the result of Senator Christine Kehoe's request that the California Research Bureau examine opportunities and challenges faced by airport operators throughout the state as they cope with pressures to expand operations to meet future demand, while dealing with local land use impacts including noise, traffic and compatibility issues. The report includes data on airport ownership, governance, management, operations and revenues, and current airport land use compatibility planning efforts at 13 of California's commercial airports as well as Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix and Oregon's Portland International Airport. This report was revised on September 27, 2006.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Hospital Planning: What Happened to California's Certificate of Need Program?

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-06-009, August, 2006)
This report responds to a request from Assemblymember Wilma Chan, Chair of the Assembly Health Committee, to research what happened to California's hospital certificate of need (CON) program. For over 30 years, the state and local planning agencies were involved in analyzing and approving the construction and expansion of health care facilities and services, based on a determination of community need. The goals were to ensure access to quality health care and to contain costs by restricting excess hospital capacity. This report discusses the history of California's CON program as well as key findings from other states.

PDF version (293KB) is available online.

The Impact of Residency restrictions on Sex Offenders and Correctional Management Practices: A Literature Review.

Marcus Nieto and Professor David Jung, Hastings Law School (CRB-06-008, August, 2006)
The residency of convicted sex offenders released from confinement continues to be an issue of public concern. This report was requested by California Assembly Member Mark Leno, and examines local ordinances and state statutes across the country that restrict where a sex offender may legally live, and the constitutional implications of such restrictions. The report also discusses comprehensive risk assessment tools identified by the latest research.

PDF version (811KB) is available online.

Report to the Legislature on the Impact of the Implementation of AB 63 (2001): Local Government Sharing Program between the Franchise Tax Board and California Cities

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-06-007, June, 2006)
Assembly Bill 63 (Chapter 915, Statutes of 2001) permits the California Franchise Tax Board (FTB) to disclose specified income tax information to tax officials of any California city under a written agreement between the city and FTB. The records disclosed are limited to information identifying taxpayer filing business income from any California city: the taxpayer address, Social Security or taxpayer identification number, and business activity code. The cities can use the FTB data to identify businesses that might be subject to a local business license fee or tax. This report describes how the FTB and cities are conducting the AB 63 program, addresses data security issues, identifies the extent of participation by cities, describes the results of a survey of participating and non-participating cities on the efficacy of the program, chronicles the program legislative history, summarizes examples of local/state/federal data sharing, and obtains feedback from interested organizations on the AB 63 program.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Gambling in the Golden State: 1998 Forward

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-06-004, May, 2006)
This report was requested by California Attorney General Bill Lockyer and provides an overview of gambling in California since 1998, including its social and economic impacts. The report considers each segment of the gambling industry in a separate chapter: Indian casinos, the state lottery, horse racing, card rooms and Internet gambling. The final two chapters broadly examine the literature on the social and economic impact of the gambling industry.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Dogs on the Beach: A Review of Regulations and Issues Affecting Dog Beaches in California

Lisa K. Foster (CRB-06-006, May, 2006)
Millions of residents and tourists use California's public beaches each year to play in the sand and surf. Dog advocacy groups and dog owners are increasingly lobbying for a share of the beach to enjoy the same activities with their canine companions. However, whether dogs should be allowed on beaches is an issue that engenders strong feelings. Assemblymember Ted Lieu, requested that the California Research Bureau (CRB) conduct a study of dog beaches in the state. This report identifies beaches along the California coast that allow dogs both on and off-leash. It also identifies relevant state statutes and regulations pertaining to dogs on beaches, and discusses the major concerns associated with dog beaches-habitat, health, safety, liability and cost.

PDF version (946KB) is available online.

Policy and Management Issues Framework: Statewide Portal Project

Deborah Schwartz (CRB-06-005, May, 2006)
Electronic government (eGovernment) has become a basic function of state government. California's state web portal ( was award-winning on its debut in 2001, but has not been maintained and was recently ranked in the bottom five state websites nationally. This report identifies the primary policy and management issues that California needs to address to achieve a state web presence that is focused on customer needs, trusted by the public, accessible and usable by California's diverse citizenry and business communities. The state's website must be flexible to accommodate changes in administrative environment, customer expectations, and new technologies. Issues also include effective governance and sustainable funding. J. Clark Kelso, State Chief Information Officer, requested this report as part of his and the State Portal Steering Committee's efforts create an integrated, enterprise state web presence.

PDF version (907KB) is available online.

Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: A Review of Selected State Programs

Barbara Steel Lowney, Masters of Public Policy & Administration Intern (CRB-06-002, February, 2006)
Despite significant advances in public health and health care, the health status of most racial and ethnic groups in California continues to lag. Illness and injury generate tremendous social costs in the form of lost productivity and expenditures for disability, workers' compensation, and public benefit programs. A healthy and productive California will increasingly require the elimination of racial and ethnic disparities by improving the health of all groups. This report was developed as a resource tool for addressing racial and ethnic health disparities in state programs. It reviews programs in four California departments – Health Services, Education, Mental Health, and Transportation. These programs provide services in eight areas: Cardiovascular Disease; Breast Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Diabetes; HIV/AIDS; Asthma; Mental Health; and Trauma. The report describes how these programs are currently addressing and measuring health disparities through program design, data collection and program evaluation.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Who Pays For Penalty Assessment Programs in California

Marcus Nieto (CRB-06-003, February, 2006)
This report was requested by Assemblymember Mark Leno, Chair of the Assembly Public Safety Committee, in order to assist the committee in its examination of California's penalty assessment structure. Penalty assessments are based on the concept of an "abusers fee," in which those who break certain laws help finance programs related to decreasing those violations, and they annually generate millions of dollars. County courts impose various fines, fees, surcharges, and penalty assessments on criminal offenders and traffic violators. This money is collected and distributed to victims and a variety of state statutory programs. Our survey of county courts and county clerks found that traffic violations account for around 86 percent of all funds collected, but that many courts are unable to identify the source offenses that generate penalty revenues. There are a number of actions the State could take to improve debt collection and simplify the penalty distribution process, discussed in the Options section.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Indoor Mold: A General Guide to Health Effects, Prevention, and Remediation. Report in Response to A.B. 284, Chapter 550, Statutes of 2001.

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D., and Pamela J. Davis, R.N., P.H.N. (CRB-06-001, January, 2006)
This report responds to a legislative request for a summary of key issues associated with the complex and controversial issue of mold in indoor environments. The report was prepared in consultation with a review panel representing a wide range of professional and scientific expertise and experience. It draws on diverse published literature on the topics of health effects, prevention, and remediation. The report is a concise summary intended for a general audience. It includes a recommended reading list and an additional list of resources for readers who wish to pursue topics in more depth.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Brief on Biomass and Cellulosic Ethanol

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-05-010, December, 2005)
This report provides information on (1) the availability of biomass, (2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and (3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. There is a large amount of biomass in California. Nearly 90 million tons of biomass (agricultural residues, forest materials, and municipal waste) are produced annually in California, and 30 to 40 million tons are estimated to be technically feasible to collect and use in producing renewable electricity, fuels, and biomass-based products. According to energy experts, there is enough biomass to support the production of as much as 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year. However, the cellulosic ethanol industry faces challenges related to biomass collection, costs, price variability, competition from Midwest corn based ethanol industry, mitigating environmental effects, and the need of more efficient technologies for the processing of biomass to ethanol.

PDF version (796KB) is available online.

A Brief on Ethanol: The Debate on Ethanol: Prospects and Challenges to California Producers

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-05-009, November, 2005)
This paper is an overview of issues related to ethanol, the most widely used renewable fuel in the United States. The use of ethanol may help to reduce oil dependency either in gasoline blends or as an alternative fuel. However, there is much controversy on some aspects of ethanol use that needs to be resolved, including the net effect of low ethanol blends on air quality and the relationship between the amount of fossil energy used in its production and the amount of energy ethanol generates.

PDF version (1000KB) is available online.

High School Dropouts, Enrollment, and Graduation Rates in California

Patricia L. de Cos (CRB-05-008, November, 2005)
This report examines the various definitions for high school dropouts and graduates used by the California Department of Education. The report further compiles statewide data on high school enrollment by race and ethnicity, and provides details on enrollment data for the 10 largest school districts in the state. This report also summarizes the findings from previous educational studies on high school dropout rates and graduation rates. Each study analyzed in this report provides a slightly different method to calculate a graduation rate. The differences are described. Nevertheless, the major results appear consistent: 1) African American and Latino students are less likely to graduate from high school compared to Asian or White students. 2) Between one quarter and one third of all students fail to graduate from public high schools in California.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

San Joaquin Valley Land, People, and Economy

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-05-007, November, 2005)
San Joaquin Valley Land, People, and Economy, requested by Assembly Member Juan Arambula, summarizes statistics for the eight counties of the San Joaquin Valley. Topics include the use of the land, population and its characteristics, employment, and industry. Statistics are drawn from public sources, primarily federal and state, and displayed in charts for the region as a whole and for each of the counties in the region. The resulting picture shows a large, diverse, and rapidly growing region with an economy that is strongly agricultural while also encompassing a wide range of other industry and public and private employment. The region has a rapidly growing population, a trend that is expected to continue in the coming decades, and a large and growing Hispanic population. The region faces challenges of poverty and of educational levels that are below state averages, as well as the challenges of impaired air and water. A diverse, growing economy and growing population suggest that there are opportunities as well as challenges in the future of the region. Note: Pagination has been revised for this 2nd printing.

PDF version (3MB) is available online.

Undocumented Immigrants: An Annotated Bibliography

Alicia Bugarin, Steven DeBry andMartha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-05-006, November, 2005)
The California Research Bureau has received a number of requests concerning the number of unauthorized immigrants in California and the costs and benefits of providing services to these immigrants. This annotated bibliography, divided in two sections provides a list of various articles, documents and books on the subject. The first section of this briefing note shows an estimate of the geographic distribution of unauthorized immigrants across California counties in 2000 and 2005. The second section is an annotated bibliography on recent research concerning the size of the unauthorized immigrant population (in California and the United States) as well as the costs and benefits of providing services to both illegal and legal immigrants.

PDF version (805KB) is available online.

Involving Youth in Policymaking and Coordinating Youth Policy: State-Level Structures in California and Other States

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA, and Becky Gieck and Alicia Dienst, MSW Interns (CRB-05-005, October, 2005)
State policymakers increasingly are seeking to strengthen public policy affecting youth by encouraging youth participation in the policymaking process. This trend acknowledges that youth have a lot to contribute by sharing their experiences and ideas. For example, youth in foster care have actively been advocating for program improvements. At the same time, there is a movement to better coordinate the wide array of youth services and programs offered by multiple state agencies. This report examines what California is doing to increase youth participation and improve services by involving youth and encouraging collaboration between state agencies. The report also describes the actions that other states are taking to improve state-level youth participation and agency coordination.

PDF version (3MB) is available online.

Pay Cards as a Payroll Option

Raymond Hora (CRB-05-003, September, 2005)
Assemblymember John J. Benoit requested that the California Research Bureau examine the implications of allowing the use of Pay Cards for payroll purposes. His bill, AB 822, would amend the Labor Code to permit an employer to pay wages using a Pay Card if it can be used to access funds at an ATM in California with at least one free withdrawal per pay period. As we show in this report, there are a number of fees associated with Pay Cards that may be levied on employers and employees, as well as issues such as replacement costs and ensuring access to the full amount stored in the card. Several states have allowed Pay Cards but required full disclosure of fees to the employee.

PDF version (386KB) is available online.

Mental Health Needs and Services for Youth in the Foster Care and Juvenile Justice Systems: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Resources

Alicia Dienst, MSW Intern, and Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-v12-n01, August, 2005)
Young people who are transitioning out of the foster care and juvenile justice systems often have serious mental health needs. They can have many disadvantages working against them: families with histories of violence, mental illness, incarceration and/or substance abuse; learning disabilities or adverse neurological conditions; and histories of abuse, neglect or trauma. Some have ended up in the juvenile justice system, or on the streets, because of undiagnosed or inadequately treated psychiatric problems. The foster care and juvenile justice systems struggle to address the mental health needs of these young people, often with limited success. The purpose of the annotated bibliography of selected reference materials and websites is to assist policymakers in accessing useful reports, policy briefs, and other resources that examine the mental health needs of youth in the foster care and juvenile justice systems and the services provided to them. These resources, published in the last five years, provide information on a range of mental health issues and concerns facing these youth.

PDF version (137KB) is available online.

Helping Those Who Need It Most: Meeting the Mental Health Care Needs of Youth in the Foster Care and Juvenile Justice Systems

Nell Bernstein (CRB-05-004, June, 2005)
Young people who are transitioning out of the foster care and juvenile justice systems often have serious mental health needs. They can have many strikes against them: families with histories of violence, mental illness, incarceration and/or substance abuse; learning disabilities or neurological conditions; and histories of abuse, neglect or trauma. Some have been driven into the juvenile justice system, or onto the streets, because of undiagnosed or inadequately treated psychiatric problems. These hard lives can result in mental health needs that the foster care and juvenile justice systems struggle to address, with limited success.

Why do efforts to provide mental health services to these young people so often fall short? What can be done to improve the system? This report, by author and journalist Nell Bernstein, explores these questions and proposes some answers from young people who have experienced the system from the inside, and from practitioners who work with them.

PDF version (625KB) is available online.

Tradable Renewable Energy Credits and the California Renewable Portfolio Standard

Daniel Pollak (CRB-05-002, June, 2005)
Under current law, California's electric utilities and other electricity sellers must purchase 20 percent of their electricity from renewable energy generators by 2017. The state recently accelerated this goal to 2010. However, there are problems that make it challenging for non-utility sellers to meet the goal, including constraints on the transmission and delivery of electricity, and current policies requiring that renewable power be procured in long term power purchase contracts. Some of the state's utilities, as well as the state's non-utility retailers, are calling for more flexibility. Tradable Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) offer one way to provide this flexibility. A REC turns the "renewableness" of renewable energy into a tradable commodity that can be bought and sold separately from the associated electricity. REC trading can occur without regard to transmission constraints, provides an alternative to long-term power purchase contracts, and creates a new source of revenue for renewable generators. At the same time, REC trading also raises a number of difficult policy issues. For example, the REC market may not be sufficient to support the development of new renewable power plants and the currently available tracking system complicates efforts to guard against double counting. As a result, not all stakeholders agree the benefits are worth the risks. In addition to reviewing these policy issues, this report examines the experience of REC trading in other states, including case studies of Texas and Massachusetts.

PDF version (660KB) is available online.

The Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement: A California Perspective

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-05-001, February, 2005)
The Streamlined Sales Tax Project is a national effort to develop a standardized sales tax system. In November 2002, the Streamlined Sales and Use Tax Agreement (the "Agreement") was approved by 30 states and the District of Columbia. As of November 2004, 21 states enacted legislation to reform their sales tax system in accordance with the Agreement. California became an active voting participant in this effort in January 2004. The next step is for California to decide whether to conform its sales and use tax laws to those of the Agreement. Preliminary analysis by the California State Board of Equalization indicates that conforming to the Agreement would require a major overhaul of the state's sales and use tax system. Taxes collected on sales throughout the state would be affected, not just taxes on sales made over the Internet. This report analyzes the impacts of joining the Agreement on the California sales and use tax system. The report also analyzes state revenue losses due to the inability to enforce use tax collection on remote sales (mail catalog and electronic sales). Advocates for the streamlining process argue that use tax compliance would improve if all states were to comply with the SSUTA.

PDF version (3MB) is available online.

Timeline of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Seismic Retrofit: Milestones in Decision-Making, Financing, and Construction

Daniel Pollak (CRB-04-013, December, 2004)
The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 1989 revealed the seismic vulnerability of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. This annotated timeline of the Bay Bridge begins in 1929, but mainly focuses on the efforts to seismically retrofit the Bay Bridge after 1989, especially the project to rebuild its eastern span (the portion running from Oakland to Yerba Buena Island). This report was prepared at the request of Assemblymember Wilma Chan in her capacity as Chair of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Community Treatment and Supervision of Sex Offenders: How It's Done Across the Country and in California

Marcus Nieto (CRB-04-012, December, 2004)
Every year in California hundreds of juvenile and adult sex offenders are released from prison and placed back to our communities on parole. Currently, as many as 50,000 registered sex offenders are under some form of community supervision in California. This report examines the process by which most sex offenders are released back into our communities and how that process compares to other states. The report also provides a detailed analysis on how California compares to the rest of the country in terms of its organizational response to sex offender management.

PDF version (980KB) is available online.

Inventory of Mexico Related Projects Conducted by California State Agencies

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-04-011, November, 2004)
This report identifies California government activities related to issues of common interest and concern to California and Mexico. The survey describes over 100 programs operated by 15 California state departments and agencies, and 8 boards and commissions.

PDF version (651KB) is available online.

Faculty, Managers, and Administrators in the University of California, 1996 to 2002

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D., and Belinda Reyes, Ph.D. (CRB-04-009, July, 2004)
This report analyzes staffing patterns in the University of California system. There are six chapters, one for each of the following group of individuals: UC tenured and tenure track faculty (Full, Associate, and Assistant Professors), Full Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Lecturers (Permanent and Temporary), Managers and Academic Administrators. Each chapter examines the changes occurring for each of these occupational groups from 1996 to 2002. The analysis covers full-time or part-time status, the decade in which staff were hired, gender, ethnicity, academic discipline, campus, median monthly earnings, and the newly hired.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

For-Profit Postsecondary Educational Institutions: Overview of Accreditation and State and Federal Oversight

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA (CRB-04-010, July, 2004)
Postsecondary education in California is a diverse system that includes public community colleges and universities, private nonprofit colleges and universities, and private proprietary/for-profit career colleges. Private for-profit institutions – businesses that prepare graduates for jobs and career advancement – are growing and serving an increasing number of adult students. The for-profit sector ranges from small owner-operated schools to an increasing number of large higher education systems that are owned and operated by publicly traded for-profit corporations, many with multiple campuses in several states. This report describes the for-profit educational institutions in California. It presents an overview of the external quality review system – a complex system that includes a private non-governmental process (accreditation), a state oversight function, and a federal recognition process, all of which address quality and consumer protection. It also includes a historical perspective and a discussion of current trends, issues, and policy implications.

PDF version (827KB) is available online.

Profile of the Young Californian (Age Group 16 to 24): How Has it Changed Over the Last Three Decades?

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-04-008, May, 2004)
This report describes the distribution of young Californians (age 16 to 24) by race/ethnic groups and socio-economic conditions, and compares trends using census data from 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. We found that the proportion of out-of-school and out-of-the labor force young has increased somewhat between 1990 and 2000, particularly for young males 20 to 24. Most of the young neither attending school nor in the labor force are Hispanics, have lower levels of education, and are in the poorer income categories. In 2000, almost 16 percent of the four million young Californians were neither attending school nor in the labor force. In addition, four percent of them were unemployed.

PDF version (907KB) is available online.

Appliance Recycling and Materials Requiring Special Handling: Improving the Effectiveness of the Metallic Discards Act

Daniel Pollak (CRB-04-007, May, 2004)
Each year, Californians dispose of millions of large metallic appliances – refrigerators, freezers, washers, dryers, stoves, and similar items – most of which are recycled. The Metallic Discards Act of 1991 mandates that materials requiring special handling (MRSH) be removed and properly disposed of during recycling. MRSH include chlorfluorocarbons (CFCs), sodium azide canisters in unspent vehicle air bags, encapsulated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), used oil, and mercury found in switches and temperature control devices. Enforcement of the Act is uneven and there are likely widespread violations. Options to enhance compliance include recycling fees on the sale or manufacture of appliances, tightening the licensing of recyclers who handle MRSH, clarifying the language of the Metallic Discards Act, and increasing enforcement. Given the diffuse nature of the problem, heightened enforcement alone may not be sufficient without clarifying accountability and/or changing the economic incentives.

PDF version (565KB) is available online.

A Comparison of the Growth in Property and Sales Tax Bases For 218 Cities in California, 1980-1999

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-04-006, May, 2004)
Over the last 30 years, the loss of property tax revenues by local governments has resulted in an increasing dependence on sales tax revenues. Proponents of property/sales tax swaps argue that local governments on the whole would be better off with more property tax and less sales tax. One reason is to reduce the fiscalization of land use, which results in competition between cities for the sales tax revenue produced by big box retail stores. A second reason is that over the past 20 years, the property tax base in California (net assessed valuation) has been growing faster than its sales tax base (taxable sales). However, tax base growth rates for individual cities vary widely. This report includes graphs showing the growth in property and sales tax bases for 218 individual cities since 1980. Similar to statewide trends, net assessed value in most cities has grown much faster than taxable sales, and is also less volatile.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

The Manufacturing Sector and Job Training in California

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. and Alicia Bugarin (CRB-04-005, April, 2004)
The manufacturing sector is the second largest industry in California (after retail), employing over two million persons (including the self employed) and paying more than $86 billion in wages and salaries. At the request of Assemblymember Bob Pacheco, this report examines the changes occurring in the manufacturing sector in California. In particular, it attempts to provide answers to the following questions: Is the state's manufacturing sector on the decline? If so, are certain types of manufacturing or workers more affected? For those workers at risk, could the state provide more training opportunities as a means to increase productivity? Which state training programs target the manufacturing sector?

PDF version (518KB) is available online.

Educational Opportunities for Adults in California

Patricia de Cos (CRB-04-004, February, 2004)
California appropriated more than $805 million and provided educational opportunities to approximately two million adults in 2001-2002. This report provides a brief history of adult education in California and describes the instructional programs offered today by the two main providers: adult schools operated by school districts and county offices of education and noncredit programs operated by community college districts. The report provides background information regarding federal and state funding sources and their structure. The report includes recent information regarding enrollment and demographic characteristics of students, as well as outcome, assessment, and accountability data. The report describes several policy issues, including the assessment of need for adult continuing education, the differences between adult schools and noncredit programs resulting from the difference in their governance structure, the lack of counseling services, and funding challenges. Finally, the report summarizes the findings emanating from the analysis and provides some policy options in the areas of: governance, delineation of function agreements, the California high school exit examination, qualifications for instructors providing educational opportunities to adults, data collection and reporting and standards, fee-based programs, monitoring of state funded programs, an assessment of need, counseling support, and funding.

PDF version (3MB) is available online.

Preschool and Childcare Enrollment in California

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. and Patricia de Cos (CRB-04-003, January, 2004)
California currently has 1.17 million children, aged three to five, who are not yet in kindergarten. Close to half of the state's children in this age group are enrolled in preschool/childcare. This report examines the differences in enrollment rates by several variables including: the age of children, the number of parents in a household, the "linguistic isolation" of a family (which refers to the inability of persons aged 14 and older in a home to speak English "very well"), and family income. The last section of the report compares California's enrollment rates to the United States as a whole as well as to other states by ethnic group.

PDF version (444KB) is available online.

Fathers' Impact on Children's Nutrition

Lisa K. Foster, M.S.W., M.P. and Peg Gerould (CRB-04-002a, January, 2004)
Most child nutrition-related research and programs focus on mothers as the primary influence on children's eating habits in spite of the role changes brought about by recent trends in divorce, single-parenthood, and joint custody. The California Department of Health Services, Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section provided funds for a qualitative community research project on fathers' impact on their children's nutrition. The California Research Bureau convened a series of focus groups with fathers of young children. This report identifies the findings of the research to date and information gained through the focus groups.

PDF version (1262KB) is available online.

To Faithfully Execute the Law: California's Executive Branch Agencies 1959-2003

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-04-002, January, 2004)
This report began with a request from the Schwarzenegger Administration to chart the history of executive branch agencies and their role of the governor's cabinet, and to summarize evaluations of their performance. The story is gleaned from musty government documents, contemporary press accounts, and dated textbooks. It is an important story. Who has the power to make and administer policy, how decisions are made, and how access to the governor is structured, matters a lot. To paraphrase Robert Dahl, democracy is about who gets what, when and how. This is why the quest to reorganize government is a complex and politically charged activity.

PDF version (350KB) is available online.

The Composition of Staff in California's Community Colleges, 1994 to 2002

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-04-001, January, 2004)
This report analyzes staffing patterns in California's community colleges. Based on data from 1994 to 2002, it presents information on the composition of the staff by months worked, full-time and part-time status, gender, ethnicity, new hires, age, and annual salary, for each of the following employment classifications: Educational administrators, Tenured faculty, Tenure track faculty, Temporary faculty, and Classified staff. In addition, this report provides information on staffing patterns by types of courses taught and by community college districts.

PDF version (907KB) is available online.

California State Prisoners With Children: Findings From the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities

M. Anne Powell, M.S.W. and Clare Nolan, M.P.P. (CRB-03-014, November, 2003)
This report presents information on the characteristics of parents incarcerated in California state prisons and their children, based on previously unexamined data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities. The analysis investigates differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers, between incarcerated parents and other inmates, and between incarcerated parent and non-parent women and men in California and in state prisons elsewhere in the United States. These findings have important implications for state policies and programs.

PDF version (432KB) is available online.

California County Approaches to Domestic Violence

Alicia Bugarin and Marcus Nieto (CRB-03-013, November, 2003)
California counties respond to the serious problem of domestic violence by offering services for victims and implementing graduated sanctions for batterers. The effectiveness of county efforts varies considerably. At the request of the Evidence to Policy Committee formed by the California Attorney General Bill Lockyer and the Health and Human Services Secretary Grantland Johnson, the California Research Bureau (CRB) surveyed county policies that address domestic violence. This report contains detailed information about individual county policies and administrative structures. In general, findings from the CRB survey indicate that many counties provide an uncoordinated array of social services to domestic violence victims. In many counties there is no assessment of local needs nor a shared vision between domestic violence service providers on how to best address the diverse needs of victims. This results in a fragmented programmatic approach that is less effective than it could be. In contrast, in many counties reforms in the criminal justice system have resulted in better coordination and sharing of information between law enforcement agencies, district attorneys, and the court.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

The Distribution of Wealth in California, 2000

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D., and Rosa Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-03-010, November, 2003)
This report presents an analysis of the distribution of household wealth in California, with a focus on the following questions, among others: Do children and the elderly live in households with lower levels of wealth? Are there differences in household wealth between the major ethnic groups in California, and what are those differences? How important is owning a home or a business, and what difference does a higher level of educational attainment make?

PDF version (6MB) is available online.

Investment of California's Short-Term Funds

Rosa Moller, Ph.D (CRB-03-008, November, 2003)
This study responds to a mandate of the Legislature directing the California Research Bureau to study how California invests its surplus funds (money, such as tax collections, that is not yet needed to pay current expenses) and the degree to which these investments support California's economy (AB 2805, Assembly Member Papan, 2000). The study shows that since 1998 the Treasurer's Office has emphasized, to the extent that the law and the efficient management of the funds allow, investments that benefit California communities (such as time deposits, securitized business loans and mortgage-backed securities). The paper also discusses alternative policies that could be designed to direct these investments to California communities.

PDF version (895KB) is available online.

Adult Parole and Probation in California

Marcus Nieto (CRB-03-009, September, 2003)
The number of people under community parole and probation supervision in the USA reached 4.7 million in 2001. In California, this included about 121,000 offenders on parole and about 330,000 on probation. Parole revocation rates in the state are high compared to the rest of the country. For example, from 1990 to 2000 the revocation rate for California averaged 64 percent, compared to the national average rate of 40 percent. Why are the majority of parolees in California not succeeding while under supervision? Is it because of more stringent surveillance and supervision, or is it because of inadequate treatment and reentry services? This report examines the process by which offenders are released to probation and parole, reentry programs that transition offenders to parole, and program accountability measures to evaluate success. The report also provides a detailed analysis of recidivism rates among parolees, types of offenses and where they occurred.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Addressing Long-Term Homelessness: Permanent Supportive Housing

Lisa K. Foster, MSW, MPA and Patricia Snowdon, MSW Candidate (CRB-03-012, August, 2003)
Long-term homelessness in California is a significant, complex, and expensive social problem. In addition to extremely low incomes, individuals and families who are persistently homeless commonly have chronic health, mental health, substance abuse or other conditions that make it difficult to maintain housing. Many homeless advocates and service providers support the expansion of permanent supportive housing – a combination of affordable housing and support services – to effectively address the needs of individuals and families who have been homeless for extended periods of time. Both the federal government and the State include permanent supportive housing in their strategies to address homelessness. This report provides an overview of long-term homelessness and describes the permanent supportive housing model, including funding sources, supply versus need, evaluation findings, and barriers and challenges in expanding permanent supportive housing.

PDF version (2.750KB) is available online.

Children of Arrested Parents: Strategies to Improve Their Safety and Well-Being

Clare M. Nolan (CRB-03-011, July, 2003)
This report examines, from a practice and policy perspective, issues pertinent to the safety and well-being of children affected by the arrest of a custodial parents. As many as 13 percent of all adult felony arrests in California involve a custodial parent caring for minor-age children. Arresting officers are not mandated to report children at risk of being left without care or supervision to Child Protective Services (CPS). In some extreme cases, children may be left completely alone to care for themselves or may be placed with inappropriate and harmful caretakers. The report reviews promising practices and presents a framework for developing future policies and programs.

PDF version (765KB) is available online.

Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing in California

Nancy Berglas, M.H.S., Claire Brindis, Dr.P.H., and Joel Cohen (CRB-03-007, June, 2003)
Adolescent pregnancy and child-bearing are often associated with negative outcomes for teen parents, their children, and society as a whole. This report provides a comprehensive look at state and national trends in adolescent pregnancy, its causes, and its consequences. The report also includes descriptions of state programs that address this important issue and provides policy options for maintaining and improving upon the state's recent success in adolescent pregnancy prevention.

PDF version (928KB) is available online.

California State University Faculty: 1985 to 2001

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-03-006, April, 2003)
The California State University is one of the largest four-year university systems in the country with 23 campuses, over 300,000 students, and over 20,000 faculty members. The State Legislature asked the California Research Bureau to provide information on how the composition of faculty in the California State University (CSU) system is changing over time. Using data provided by CSU, this report presents a profile of the faculty for two points in time, 1985 and 2001. The report also provides year-by-year information on the recruitment and employment of "newly-hired " tenure track faculty (Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor), from 1986 to 2001.

PDF version (783KB) is available online.

California Public Policy Bibliography 2003

CRB Staff ()
At the request of the Robert M. Hertzberg CAPITOL Institute and the Assembly Rules Committee, in October 2002, CRB staff assembled an extensive bibliography of selected articles on public policy topics, organized by Assembly standing committees. Most of these materials are easily accessible from libraries and on-line sources.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

California Research Bureau 2002 Educational Tour Series

Various Authors ()
Policy Brief Number 1 (CRB-03-001), authored by Jerome Seliger, Ph.D., of California State University, Northridge provides an overview of and policy considerations relating to the Biomedicine Industry in California.
Policy Brief Number 2 (CRB-03-002), by Deborah Reidy Kelch, profiles California' long-term care users and services and outlines options for enhancing the system in the future. In Policy Brief Number 3 (CRB-03-003), Glenn Lopez, M.D., and Lacey Wyatt, M.D., M.P.H., of the UCLA Department of Family Medicine, discuss the prevalence and treatment of asthma and compile a set of policy options for addressing the disease within California's health care system, communities, and schools.
Policy Brief Number 4 (CRB-03-004) is authored by Michael Rodriguez, M.D., M.P.H., and Patrick T. Dowling, M.D., M.P.H., of the UCLA Department of Family Medicine and Jennifer Toller of the UCLA School of Public Health. The Brief describes the health of California's migrant agricultural workers and options for improving their access to health care and the conditions in which they work and live.
Funding for the Tour Series was provided by The California HealthCare Foundation and The California Endowment.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 4 (135KB), Part 2 of 4 (180KB), Part 3 of 4 (803KB), Part 4 of 4 (528KB) ] is available online.

California Law and the Children of Prisoners

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-03-003, February, 2003)
This report examines California law as it touches on the lives of prisoners and their children. Most prisoners are parents (79 percent of women and two-thirds of men in California prisons), making the state's criminal justice system an unwitting but important participant in the lives of their families. Law enforcement practices, criminal court procedures and sentencing laws, and correctional practices designed to catch, convict and punish prisoners have a major, but not generally well understood, impact on children. Yet state law provides very limited direction on how those authorities should interact with the families and children of prisoners. As a result, few agencies have clear policies.

PDF version (718KB) is available online.

Census 2000 Race and Latino Origin in California: Assembly, Senate, and Congressional Districts

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-v10-n01, February, 2003)
This CRB Note summarizes Census 2000 information about the racial and ethnic composition of California Senate, Assembly and Congressional districts. It reports the number of people falling into different racial and ethnic categories in each district, the percentage of people in each category, and includes tables ranking the districts by their racial and ethnic characteristics. Excel data files are available for downloading.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 4 (314KB), Part 2 of 4 (52KB), Part 3 of 4 (33KB), Part 4 of 4 (34KB) ] is available online.

Residential Care Facilities in the Neighborhood: Federal, State, and Local Requirements

Lisa K. Foster, M.S.W., M.P.A. (CRB-02-018, December, 2002)
Land use decisions are primarily a local government responsibility. However, federal and state fair housing and anti-discrimination laws provide protection for residential care facilities in neighborhoods so individuals with special needs such as physical, developmental, and mental disabilities can live and participate in the community instead of being isolated in institutional settings. Balancing the rights of individuals with special needs to live in the community and the rights of neighbors to preserve the integrity of their neighborhood result in a longstanding conflict between federal/state and local government requirements that impact land use regulation. The CRB report, Residential Care Facilities in the Neighborhood, looks at this public policy issue. It describes residential care facilities and residents; and identifies the relevant federal, state, and local laws that impact decisions about locating facilities.

PDF version (187KB) is available online.

High-Growth Industries and Highly-Educated Workers in California

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-02-017, November, 2002)
High-growth industries, the ones responsible for most of the economic growth in California, employ the largest share of the highly-educated workforce. However, in planning for the future, this report identifies two issues that policymakers may want to consider. One deals with the lack of adequate preparation of disadvantaged groups in California graduating from our high schools, an issue that has implications for the degree of employability in the high-growth industries. The other finding of this report is that employees (and their families) in small businesses, even those in high growth industries, seem to be at a disadvantage. Even highly-educated persons working in small businesses tend not to have access to health insurance and pension benefits at the same rate as large businesses.

PDF version (1020KB) is available online.

The Prevalence of Domestic Violence in California

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-02-016, November, 2002)
Domestic violence is a leading cause of serious injury to women. However, variations in the data sources and data collection methods make it very difficult to determine the magnitude and severity of the problem. In this report, the California Research Bureau presents data compiled from a survey of California's domestic violence shelters and programs, and identifies and analyzes data compiled by law enforcement, health care providers, and state surveys of women's health, in order to better understand domestic violence prevalence in California.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Models for a State Historic Preservation Program

Jennifer Ruffolo (CRB-v9-n02, October, 2002)
This Note describes different states' approaches to creating programs for preserving historic and cultural resources. The five states highlighted each have a regulatory program to comply with federal historic preservation law. Some have created unique institutions that use a mixture of public and/or private money to carry out other cultural resource preservation programs. The Note then describes three "trust" models for historic preservation, including the British National Trust, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the New Jersey Historic Trust. Last, the Note concludes with a brief description of California's Coastal Conservancy, an independent board whose structure might serve as a model for creating an historic trust in California.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

California's Bioscience Industries: Overview and Policy Issues

Daniel Pollak (CRB-02-015, October, 2002)
The bioscience industries could radically transform virtually every aspect of our lives, from medicine to human reproduction, from industrial manufacturing to the food we eat. The potential commercial applications are so extensive that state and local governments across the country are eagerly trying to cultivate these industries as engines of economic prosperity. At the same time, concerns and fears in some quarters about the biosciences have led to controversies and calls for caution. The goal of this report is to provide an overview of California's biosciences industries, and to outline the actual and potential role of state policy with respect to these industries.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (1MB), Part 2 of 2 (155KB) ] is available online.

Early California Laws and Policies related to California Indians

Kimberly Johnston-Dodds (CRB-02-014, September, 2002)
Did the State of California enact laws that prohibited California Indians from practicing their religion, speaking their languages or practicing traditional ceremonies and customs? This report contains information obtained from public records related to four examples of early State of California laws and policies that significantly impacted the California Indians' way of life. These early examples include: the 1850 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians; State of California militia laws and policies related to "Expeditions against the Indians" during 1851 to 1859; the California Legislature's involvement in influencing the U.S. Senate's ratification process of the 18 treaties negotiated with California Indians during 1851 to 1852; and laws enacted during the first fifteen years of statehood that accommodated Indian tribes' traditional fishing practices. California laws exist today that continue to protect fish and exempt California Indians from related prohibitions.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Legislative Oversight of the Executive Branch

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-02-013, August, 2002)
This CRB Report, which provides a general discussion of legislative oversight, was prepared at the request of Assemblymember Joe Canciamilla.

PDF version (111KB) is available online.

Common Interest Developments: Housing at Risk?

Julia Lave Johnston and Kimberly Johnston-Dodds (CRB-02-012, August, 2002)
Over 34,000 common interest developments (CIDs) provide housing for 8 million Californians. Several thousand new CIDs are built each year and they make up the majority of new housing being constructed in some counties. Despite their popularity, homeowners and professionals who provide services to CIDs have expressed ongoing concerns and criticisms. Some professional managers believe that many CIDs are financially unstable due to poor financial management, mostly due to board of director and homeowner lack of knowledge and expertise. We examined CID's financial management and other issues that could affect the financial stability of CIDs. Lack of reliable data on CID financial management practices and status makes it difficult to ascertain the extent of the problem. Nevertheless, despite all the existing laws, conflicts between homeowners, associations, and management companies regularly result in complaints to legislators for reform. This report identifies efforts by other state and local governments to address these issues.

PDF version (456KB) is available online.

A Summary of Recommendations for Reforms to the State Budget Process

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-v9-n01, August, 2002)
This CRB Note summarizes recommendations made by commissions and study groups over the last decade as to how to improve the state's budget process. The recommendations vary, but there is considerable consensus as to the major issues confronting the state. Some recommendations were introduced in bill form, as with the California Constitution Revision Commission, while others are conceptual; some may be unrealistic. This note was prepared at the request of Assemblymember Joe Canciamilla.

PDF version (126KB) is available online.

Minimum Wage: Who Gets it and What Difference Does it Make?

Alicia Bugarin and Rosa Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-02-011, August, 2002)
This report discusses the impact of the minimum wage, especially for workers who depend on these jobs for their living expenses. A majority of the 1.6 million workers (and their families) who earn less than $7.00 per hour work full time; hence, we assume that they depend on minimum-wage earnings to support themselves and their families. The total effect of the minimum-wage laws on the California economy is difficult to assess, but existing research suggests that the minimum wage is a relatively modest transfer program with relatively small economic effects overall. It may, however, be important to those individuals who benefit from minimum-wage laws.

PDF version (176KB) is available online.

Census 2000 for California: A Friendly Guide

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-02-007, July, 2002)
This report provides a comprehensive demographic picture of the population in California. It makes available to policymakers the latest information on the Census 2000. The first section of the report gives the traditional demographic profile of the total population. This section also includes a profile of children and of persons of retirement age. The second section of this report focuses on the two percent of the population that is in group quarters, i.e., correctional and juvenile facilities, nursing homes, and other institutions. The third section of the report provides information for housing units. It provides data on the total number of housing units in California and the reasons why some six percent of them are vacant. It also provides information by the characteristics of the head of the household. This information includes the percent of housing units occupied by members of the different ethnic groups. It also provides information on household and family size, living arrangements, and ownership rates.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

San Joaquin Valley: Selected Statistics on Population, Economy, and Environment

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-02-010, May, 2002)
This report is a statistical overview of the eight counties of the San Joaquin Valley, based on data published by sate and federal agencies. The report shows that the San Joaquin Valley is a region of rich and diverse agriculture and of a varied economy with a growing population in every county. The San Joaquin Valley counties, although diverse in many ways, tend to fall below state averages on measures of education, income, and health/medical care. The report includes many charts and tables summarizing selected data. It also cites published sources of current and historic data about California and the characteristics of its counties and their populations.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Benefits and Risks of Nuclear Power in California

Roger Dunstan (CRB-02-008, April, 2002)
As a result of California's electricity crisis during 2001, policy makers scrambled to examine all possible options for maintaining a reliable supply of energy at a reasonable cost. Existing nuclear power plants within the state were very helpful during the recent electricity crisis. Four operating reactors at two nuclear power plants produce approximately 18 percent of California's power. To help legislators and analysts explore nuclear power's future role in California, this report outlines the benefits and risks associated with nuclear power.

PDF version (692KB) is available online.

In Danger of Falling Through the Cracks: Children of Arrested Parents

Marcus Nieto (CRB-02-009, April, 2002)
In the fall of 2001, the California Legislative Women's Caucus requested that the California Research Bureau gather information about local law enforcement and child protective services policies and procedures relative to the children of arrested parents. We surveyed California local police and county sheriff's departments and county child protective services agencies. Our findings suggest that the children of arrested and incarcerated parents (mothers and fathers) in California are in danger of being left in unsafe situations. The results can be tragic, as with the recent murder of Megan Mendez, left at age three with abusive neighbors when her single parent mother was arrested in Modesto on drug charges. How can the children of arrested and incarcerated parents "fall through the cracks?" In general, it is because key questions about the children are not regularly asked when a parent is arrested or incarcerated-a de facto "don't ask and don't tell" policy. Neither law enforcement nor CPS have the information they need to make a clear assessment of the numbers or appropriate placement of the children of arrested parents.

PDF version (954KB) is available online.

Motion Picture Production in California

Martha Jones, Ph.D. (CRB-02-001, March, 2002)
The motion picture industry is an important part of California's economy. Concerns that California is losing film production to other states and countries have prompted calls for state action to retain the industry. This report reviews the causes of runaway production and describes the economic condition of California's film industry. Considerable evidence is at least consistent with the notion that production is increasingly taking place elsewhere. Attempts to quantify employment in the industry, its economic impact and the magnitude of runaway production, however, are hindered by a lack of reliable data and contradictory results.

PDF version (412KB) is available online.

Responding to Bioterrorism: Assessing California's Preparedness

Raymond A. Zilinskas, Ph.D. and Jason Pate, MPM, EMT-1 (CRB-02-004, March, 2002)
The events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent discovery of anthrax-laden letters in several states heightened national and state concerns about preparedness for terrorism response. This report focuses on the particular problem of bioterrorism. It sets forth assumptions on what constitutes a bioterrorist attack and lists bioterrorist scenarios. It provides an overview of California's preparedness for bioterrorism including the Standardized Emergency Management System and the California Terrorism Response Plan (CTRP) and describes the roles and responsibilities of the network of state, federal, and local agencies responders involved in CTRP implementation. Annexes to the report provide additional technical information including definitions of key terms and acronyms and descriptions of four known terrorist events.

PDF version (879KB) is available online.

Are "Certified Regulatory Programs" Functionally Equivalent to CEQA?: A Comparison of their Statutes and Regulations

Daniel Pollak (CRB-02-005, March, 2002)
The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) requires public agencies to prepare an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for any project that will have significant adverse effects on the environment. Under §21080.5 of CEQA, certain state regulatory programs are exempted from this requirement because they have been certified as meeting criteria designed to ensure that they meet the basic goals of CEQA. This paper compares the laws and regulations of several certified regulatory programs to CEQA's requirements. The comparison shows that the rules governing certified regulatory programs in some ways correspond closely to CEQA. But as often, they lack some of CEQA's basic requirements.

PDF version (894KB) is available online.

Public and Private Applications of Video Surveillance and Biometric Technologies

Marcus Nieto, Kimberly Johnston-Dodds, and Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-02-006, March, 2002)
Today, over a million video surveillance cameras are used in the United States. They are deployed by schools to monitor student movement and detect illegal activity; installed at street intersections to catch cars running red lights; and positioned in public transit system buses and BART stations. In light of heightened security concerns following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, there has been very little public debate about the rapid diffusion of both Close-Circuit Television (CCTV) and biometric security systems to monitor the public. This report reviews how and where CCTV surveillance and biometric security systems are used, their potential effect on our First Amendment freedoms of speech, petition and assembly, and Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable searches and seizures. The report also analyzes pertinent sections of the newly enacted federal Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tolls Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (the PATRIOT Act).

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

What Explains Crowding in California?

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D., Hans Johnson, Ph.D., and Michael Dardia, Ph.D. (CRB-02-002, February, 2002)
Crowding has been increasing in California. This study looked at the determinants of crowding in California by examining demographic factors and measures of housing availability. Contrary to the general belief that crowding is mostly determined by housing market conditions, we found that demographic variables, particularly nativity (whether or not a person is born in the United States), were the most significant factors explaining crowding. Policy makers may be concerned about the relatively low level of housing construction in this business cycle, but they should not expect the level of crowding to change dramatically, even if housing construction is substantially increased.

PDF version (947KB) is available online.

The U.S. Supreme Court Limits Federal Regulation of Wetlands: Implications of the SWANCC Decision

Jennifer Ruffolo (CRB-02-003, February, 2002)
In January, 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court limited federal authority to regulate isolated wetlands that serve as habitat for migratory birds or endangered species. The Court determined that the Clean Water Act's protection of wetlands only extends to navigable waters, their tributaries, and wetlands adjacent to each. Although we don't know the practical effect of the decision, it may produce a drastic reduction in federal regulation of vernal pools, desert springs, interior drainage streams, and other wetlands of importance in California. It may also mean the end of federal regulation of water pollution in these water bodies. The SWANCC decision presents California with the opportunity to assess the ecological and economic benefits of the state's remaining isolated wetlands, the costs of protecting them, and to determine whether the state should take the lead in their regulation. This paper reviews federal regulation of wetlands and the Supreme Court's decision. It attempts to identify the wetlands in California that now lie outside of federal regulation, and reviews existing state laws and regulatory programs that might cover the affected wetlands. It concludes with several policy options, ranging from minor fixes to plug the gap in federal-state regulation to creating a statewide wetlands conservancy.

PDF version (4MB) is available online.

Foster Care Fundamentals: An Overview of California's Foster Care System

Lisa K. Foster, M.S.W., M.P.A. (CRB-01-008, December, 2001)
The state has a unique obligation to children in foster care. When it removes children from their parents, it takes on the responsibility to provide for their safety and well-being. There are over 100,000 foster children in California. Federal, state and county government spends over $2 billion annually for their care, and for services to foster children and their families. Foster Care Fundamentals provides a "big picture" overview description of California's foster care system. It is intended to give policymakers and others a working understanding of foster care.

PDF version (630KB) is available online.

Veterans Home Care: A Look at State and Federal Service Delivery Models

Marcus Nieto (CRB-v8-n02, November, 2001)
The California State Veterans Home in Yountville was the first facility in the state to provide nursing care to eligible veterans and their spouses. In 1996, the California Legislature authorized the Department to construct and operate new Veterans Homes in Barstow and Chula Vista. However, the state has had difficulty in maintaining the Yountville home at authorized bed levels. The Barstow Home actually operates at lower occupancy levels than the Yountville Home. With more Veteran Homes planned for construction, should the Legislature consider other methods for delivering and providing care to state veterans? This Note examines the types of services provided to veterans by state and federal agencies, alternatives to the model of nursing care provided to California veterans, as well as how other state veteran departments provide nursing care.

PDF version (55KB) is available online.

California's Job Training, Employment, and Vocational Education Programs

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-01-014, November, 2001)
This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes for 39 of California's job training, employment and vocational education programs. The information may be particularly useful as the Legislature considers the Governor's proposal to reorganize key employment programs.

PDF version (1017KB) is available online.

Constructing California: A Review of Project Labor Agreements

Kimberly Johnston-Dodds (CRB-01-010, October, 2001)
Project labor agreements (PLAs) are arguably the most important change in labor-management relations in the construction industry in recent years. They have become a fairly common part of the organization of major construction projects in California. A PLA is a contractual agreement between a construction firm, sometimes the project's owner, and a consortium of labor unions. Each usually applies to only one construction project, usually a large one. Although PLAs have many complex and subtle features, the basic exchange is that the union agrees not to strike while the project is being built, and to use high-speed arbitration to resolve any workplace disputes that arise. The construction firm agrees to hire workers through a union hiring hall, with some qualifications, to pay union wages, and not to engage in "lock-outs" in the event of a dispute. This report recounts the history of PLAs in California, surveys the features found in California PLAs for both public and private projects, includes case studies of recent PLAs that are breaking new ground, and reviews the state of the President's PLA executive orders.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Evaluation of California's Enterprise Zones

Suzanne O'Keefe and Roger Dunstan (CRB-01-012, August, 2001)
Enterprise zones are California's second most important tool for attempting to resuscitate urban areas (after redevelopment). Businesses get generous tax benefits for locating and hiring in these areas. There are now 39 enterprise zones in the state, from Eureka to Calexico in North-South space, and from Central Los Angeles to Porterville, Delano, and Thermal in urban size hierarchy. The legislature regularly considers bills proposing to expand the number of zones. This experience costs the taxpayers over $70 million per year. So, do they work? A reasonable test would be whether there was more job growth than in comparable areas, and whether worker incomes went up. The results of our research show that during the 1990's, employment in enterprise zones grew on average twice the rate of the comparison areas, at least for a several year period when the tax incentives had their maximum effect.

PDF version (130KB) is available online.

Connecting Different Worlds: Mental Health, Alcohol and Drug, and Family Violence Services in CalWORKs

Lynn DeLapp (CRB-01-013, August, 2001)
It has been over three years since California started implementation of welfare reform, officially known as the California Work Opportunities and Responsibility for Kids Act. Since the enactment of the law in 1997, 42 percent of welfare recipients have found jobs, unemployment dropped to the lowest rates in decades, and the state's welfare rolls have dropped by 43 percent. However, questions remain about the "hard to serve" – clients with multiple barriers to employment - many of whom probably need multiple services to succeed in the workplace. This paper focuses on the hard-to-serve population - those whose mental health, alcohol and other drug, or family violence issues may act as barriers to employment. The paper examines prevalence data and barriers to service. It also discusses exemplary local programs and provides policy options for county service integration, funding and allocation issues.

PDF version (792KB) is available online.

The Future of Habitat Conservation? The NCCP Experience in Southern California

Daniel Pollak (CRB-01-009, June, 2001)
The second report in a series. The Natural Communities Conservation Planning (NCCP) program was initiated ten years ago in Southern California as a pilot program to reconcile conflicts between endangered species and development. It has been frequently cited as a state and national model for conserving habitat on a regional scale. This report examines the results of the NCCP process, focusing on the two major regional plans that have been approved so far, in San Diego and Orange Counties. The report evaluates the NCCP planning process according to three criteria: feasibility, scientific basis, and acceptance of key stakeholders. The report finds that while the NCCP program has achieved some promising results, serious challenges remain before the process can be judged a success in the two cases studied here. See also the first report of the series (CRB-01-002, March 2001).

PDF version (597KB) is available online.

Can You Save Money and Still Save Lives?: The Debate Over Fire Department Privatization

Julia Lave Johnston (CRB-01-011, June, 2001)
Nationwide local government has been increasing the number of services that they contract out since the recessions of the early 80s and 90s. By the 1990's researchers have estimated that the average U.S. city contracted out 27 percent of its municipal services for a savings of between 15 and 50 percent. The proponents of privatization argue that it will improve service and lower costs mainly by encouraging competition. Opponents claim that privatization reduces important public services to a commodity and as such, quality will suffer as private companies try to increase their profits. Those against privatization also argue that private firms will only serve those that are easiest to serve, undermining the democratic ideals and values of our society. Fire protection has proved difficult to privatize, both because of community and firefighter resistance. There are no communities in California with private fire protection service. The State has a strong history of municipal fire service and private companies usually try to avoid communities with established municipal fire departments.

PDF version (127KB) is available online.

Why is Korea Important to California?

MyungJong Hong (CRB-01-007, May, 2001)
This paper looks at relationships between California and Korea and considers how they might develop in the future. This exploration is of interest and importance because Korea is one of California's most important economic partners and because many Koreans live in California.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

History and Development of Kindergarten in California

Patricia L. de Cos (CRB-01-003, April, 2001)
This report reviews the history of kindergarten in California. It is an interesting story in its own right, one in which several women in California pioneered the kindergarten concept and contributed to a nationwide movement. The report puts current policy disputes over kindergarten into enlightening historical context. For example, kindergarten, inspired by precursor early childhood education concepts, included children from ages six and seven to as young as two and three. It sought to lead children gently "over the threshold of learning by the seductive charm of music, flowers, games, pictures, and curious objects." Later, kindergarten was integrated into the first to 12th grade system, gradually and subtly changing its focus to emphasize emergent literacy and early academic skills. An apparent consequence was that the minimum entry age was raised several times to its current level. This philosophical divergence is still not fully resolved.

PDF version (535KB) is available online.

Workload and Staffing Survey of Chaplains Employed in California State Government Facilities

Marcus Nieto and Kimberly Johnston-Dodds (CRB-01-005, April, 2001)
The 2000-01 California State Budget Act directs the California Research Bureau to undertake a study of staffing and workload issues related to the classification of state chaplains employed in 24-hour-a-day facilities. According to the State Personnel Board, there are 172 chaplains employed in state government. Currently, there are over 172,000 adult and juvenile inmates throughout the state eligible to receive religious services. Religious services are also offered to more than 13,000 residents in other state government department facilities, including the Department of Mental Health, Developmental Services, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to chaplain workload and staffing issues, this study also looks at the range of services provided by chaplains to state inmates and residents, their organizational relationship and reporting responsibilities, and working conditions.

PDF version (214KB) is available online.

The Public's View of Foreign Trade: Pragmatic Internationalism

Gus Koehler, Ph. D (CRB-01-006, April, 2001)
Neither trade isolation nor international activism have become dominant directions in American public opinion on foreign trade. What has emerged is adoption by the public of a position best characterized by the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations as "pragmatic internationalism." "Pragmatic internationalism" means that Americans are generally committed to an active trade and foreign relations role for the U.S. in the world. Despite polling limitations, the accumulated findings over the ten-year period reviewed by the California Research Bureau, support the view that the public is generally aware of both the positive and negative impact of foreign trade on their home life. They have also become more concerned about economic vulnerability.

PDF version (49KB) is available online.

California Public Policy Bibliography 2001

CRB Staff ()
At the request of the CAPITOL Institute, in October 2000 CRB staff assembled a bibliography of selected articles on public policy topics of interest to Assembly standing committees. Most of these materials are easily accessible from libraries and on-line sources.

PDF version (413KB) is available online.

Molds, Toxic Molds, and Indoor Air Quality

Pamela J. Davis (CRB-v8-n01, March, 2001)
Molds are essential components of our planets ecosystem providing decomposition of many organic substances necessary to plant, animal, and human life. However, it is also the case that excessive exposure to molds has been a health issue for humans for many, many years. The earliest known writings that appear to discuss mold infestation and remediation (cleaning up, removal) are found in the Old Testament. Molds have been implicated as the cause of a variety of health effects in humans ranging from minor allergic reactions and exacerbation of asthma, to brain damage. Molds have been found growing in private homes, office buildings, schools, automobiles, and other locations where organic matter and water are left unattended. This is not a new issue – just one which, until now, has received little attention by policy makers in the United States. This paper provides background information on molds, their potential health effects, and information regarding how they relate to indoor air quality.

PDF version (91KB) is available online.

Natural Community Conservation Planning (NCCP): The Origins of an Ambitious Experiment to Protect Ecosystems

Daniel Pollak (CRB-01-002, March, 2001)
The first report in a series. The Natural Community Conservation Planning (NCCP) Act of 1991 was supposed to foster a new approach to conservation, one focused on preserving intact ecosystems across an entire region. The NCCP program was intended to provide development interests with a more predictable, streamlined regulatory process, while providing species with a more effective, ecosystem-based conservation strategy. This report reviews the legislative history of the NCCP program and its formative years of implementation, and notes several questions about the program's nature and purpose that remain unresolved. See also the second part of the series (CRB-01-009, June 2001).

PDF version (885KB) is available online.

Effectiveness of Mentor Programs: Review of the Literature from 1995 to 2000

Lisa Foster, M.S.W., M.P.A. (CRB-01-004, March, 2001)
A mentor provides support and guidance for a child or youth in personal, academic, and other areas of life. As a public policy tool, mentoring is a positive youth intervention that reduces risky and negative behaviors. Mentoring has grown in popularity and is widely accepted as a valuable support for at-risk children and youth. This report examines the research literature evaluating the effectiveness of mentoring programs from 1995 to 2000. It explores the evaluation literature on traditional one-to-one, community-based friendship programs and on alternative models such as school-based programs. The report also identifies common themes in the literature: mentoring as one component of a more comprehensive youth development strategy; the impact of program infrastructure on effectiveness; and the need for additional evaluations.

PDF version (3MB) is available online.

California's Public Schools: What Experts Say About Their Mission and Functions

Patricia L. de Cos (CRB-01-001, January, 2001)
At the request of the Joint Legislative Committee to Develop a Master Plan for Education – Kindergarten Through University, the author interviewed many individuals who have participated in and contributed to California's public K-12 educational system over the past 40 years. For example, the interviewees range from former leading legislator Senator Leroy Greene, former State Superintendent of Public Instruction Bill Honig, Michael Kirst, a leading academic in educational issues, and three former Executive Directors of the State Board of Education, and others. The major findings of this scan of experts are the wide range of opinions and lack of clear consensus on the underlying intent of the purpose of public education in California.

PDF version (93KB) is available online.

Arbitration in Managed Health Care Systems

Marcus Nieto and Margaret Hosel (CRB-00-009, December, 2000)
Nearly 24 million Californians receive their medical care from a managed health care plan. These plans range from tightly structured health maintenance organizations (HMOs), such as Kaiser Permanente, to preferred provider organizations and physician group medical providers. Their goal of keeping health care costs low allows many families to afford the health care they need. Managed care has also inspired some controversy, particularly about health plan arbitration requirements. This report describes the landscape of health care plan arbitration in California.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (153KB), Part 2 of 2 (415KB) ] is available online.

Overweight Kids: Why Should We Care?

Joel Cohen (CRB-00-008, December, 2000)
Childhood obesity is rising to epidemic levels in California. This report summarizes the causes and effects of childhood obesity. In addition, it includes findings from focus groups of children and parents that looked at what keeps children from leading a healthy lifestyle.

PDF version (821KB) is available online.

World Class E-Commerce Strategies

MyungJong Hong (CRB-00-007, October, 2000)
This report examines worldwide government strategies and investments that promote and support e-commerce (Internet-based commerce) and e-government (Internet-based government operations). The author, a Visiting Overseas Scholar at the California State Library, is a Korean government official.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

The World War II Japanese American Incarceration: An Annotated Bibliography of the Materials Available in the California State Archives

Karen Origel and Anne Woo-Sam ()
This bibliography was created for the California State Library from June to September of 1999. It provides a starting point for locating the many materials avalable in the California State Archives that relate to the Japanese incarceration durnig World War II, the resettlement of Japanese Americans after the war, and the legislation affecting Japanese Americans during this time period.

PDF version (262KB) is available online.

Less-Educated Workers In California: A Statistical Abstract

Elias Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-00-006, June, 2000)
In 1999, nearly one of five adult workers in California lacked a high school degree. In this report, this group is characterized as Less-Educated Workers." Although comprising 2.5 million workers, very little has been written about this group. This report provides some basic information drawn from Census Bureau surveys.

PDF version (663KB) is available online.

Securities Regulations and Their Effects on Small Businesses

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-00-005, April, 2000)
This paper shows in detail the federal and state options open to small business to raise capital in the private and public markets. The process of selling securities is very complicated and can be costly, as a maze of federal and state regulations of mind-glazing complexity must be negotiated. Each state has its own securities laws and regulations based on two alternative approaches: "merit review" or "full disclosure." California is a merit review state. The paper discusses the benefits of merit review and suggests that there are a variety of regulatory aspects that can be improved in California to facilitate the process by which small businesses offer and sell stock.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (382KB), Part 2 of 2 (900KB) ] is available online.

A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California

[Edited by] Elias Lopez, Ph.D., Ginny Puddefoot, M.P.P., & Patricia Gándara, Ph.D. (CRB-00-003, March, 2000)
This is a follow-up to the first Latino report published in June 1999. This report begins to look at strategies for raising the educational attainment of Latinos in California. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a comprehensive treatise on a particular issue, but rather to get the reader to start thinking about linkages that can occur across the different sectors. We need to not only consider the K-12 and higher education systems, but we must also look to preschools, economic development agencies, the private sector, community based organizations, and any other organization that can work with the community. This paper has 11 different sections and 33 contributors. Some sections include options for further consideration.

PDF version (542KB) is available online.

Children of Incarcerated Parents

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-v7-n02, March, 2000)
Assemblymember Kerry Mazzoni requested that the California Research Bureau (CRB) conduct a broad research review to summarize what is known about the children of incarcerated parents. This CRB note estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature. Children whose parents have been arrested and incarcerated face unique difficulties. Many have experienced the trauma of sudden separation from their sole caregiver, and most are vulnerable to feelings of fear, anxiety, anger, sadness, depression and guilt. They may be moved from caretaker to caretaker. The behavioral consequences can be severe, absent positive intervention-emotional withdrawal, failure in school, delinquency and risk of intergenerational incarceration.

PDF version (281KB) is available online.

Have the U.S. Supreme Court's 5th Amendment Takings Decisions Changed Land Use Planning in California?

Daniel Pollak (CRB-00-004, March, 2000)
Beginning in 1987, the U.S. Supreme Court has issued a series of decisions that have tended to strengthen the ability of property owners to sue government for alleged "regulatory takings" of private property. Many observers have predicted that these rulings would have profound effects on the practice of land use planning and regulation by local governments. The purpose of this study is to investigate what effects have actually occurred in California's cities and counties. The report includes the results of a survey of California's city and county planners, as well as six detailed case studies.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (1MB), Part 2 of 2 (296KB) ] is available online.

Focus Groups: A Valuable Tool for Public Policy

Joel Cohen (CRB-v7-n01, February, 2000)
Focus groups are used widely in market and political campaign research (especially in initiative campaigns) and are thought to provide important insights. They have not been used broadly for policy research, however, and may offer a promising means for gaining useful information. This paper provides (1) a general overview of how focus groups are conducted, (2) a discussion of a recent series of focus groups of school children that explored safety issues, and (3) some policy issues that might benefit from focus group research.

PDF version (688KB) is available online.

Profile of California Computer and Internet Users

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-00-002, January, 2000)
There is a digital divide in California. The probability of having a computer and accessing the Internet at home is related to: family income, the education and race/ethnicity of the head of the family, the age of the user, and the geographic area where the user lives. Education and income are the statistically most significant factors explaining differences in computer ownership and Internet access. Race/ethnicity matters regardless of income, education, age, and geographic area. Since disparities in income and education are significant and growing, expect the digital divide to close slowly. However, the good news is that once people have the equipment and Internet access, they use it, regardless of their socioeconomic differences.

PDF version (292KB) is available online.

Breast Cancer Survival Rates and Health Plan Services

Joel Cohen (CRB-00-001, January, 2000)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in California among women regardless of age, race, and ethnicity, according to the California Cancer Registry. Over 99 percent of breast cancer patients are women. One of the most treatable types of cancer, particularly if detected early, breast cancer is still the second leading cause of women's death by cancer in California and the United States. This report presents the analytical framework needed for a five-year breast cancer patient survival study. Specifically, the report explains what information is needed, what information is collected, and what information still needs to be collected. Important to that discussion is a description of the Department of Health Services' Cancer Registry's organization and activities.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (425KB), Part 2 of 2 (1MB) ] is available online.

Construction Defect Litigation and the Condominium Market

Roger Dunstan & Jennifer Swenson (CRB-v6-n07, November, 1999)
Construction defect litigation has been blamed for destroying the condominium market. Part of the argument, most often made by builders, is that the board members of condominium homeowner associations are easily persuaded by attorneys to file construction defect actions. The resulting settlements and judgements have raised the cost of insurance and made building condominiums unprofitable. The counter argument, most often made by plaintiff's attorneys, is that there has been a lot of shoddy construction. Supporters of this argument attribute many of the problems to the boom conditions of the 1980s when experienced construction workers were hard to find and less skilled developers entered the market. This note examines those claims and provides information on development in the condominium market

PDF version (33KB) is available online.

Who is Least Likely to Attend Pre-School?

Elias Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-v6-n06, November, 1999)
This paper provides estimates on the number of children who are of pre-school age. In addition, it gives information on their ethnicity and family income. The following data show that minority children are far less likely to go to pre-school. This paper also shows that attending pre-school is a function of family income, since enrollment rates go up with family income. The analysis is based on the Census Bureau's 1997 October Current Population Survey on school enrollment. As with any survey, estimates are subject to sampling error.

PDF version (280KB) is available online.

California Trade Policy

Gus Koehler, Ph.D (CRB-99-013, November, 1999)
The California Trade Policy study describes California's trade activities in the global economy and presents a number of options that could improve its competitiveness. The study shows why trade is important to California's economy, examines why some companies engage in foreign trade, and describes California's state and local trade programs.

PDF version (715,669KB) is available online.

California Adolescents, Ages 11-18: A Fact Sheet

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D., Elias Lopez, Ph.D., Joel Cohen, Patricia L. de Cos, and Marcus Nieto (CRB-v6-n04, October, 1999)
This note was compiled for Assemblymember Susan Davis, Chair, Assembly Select Committee on Adolescence, and provides data snapshots on the status of California adolescents, ages 11-18, in areas such as: demographics, family economic status, health, education, public safety and youth violence, and criminal justice.

PDF version (134KB) is available online.

Major Demographic Shifts Occurring in California

Elias Lopez , Ph.D. (CRB-v6-n05, October, 1999)
This paper shows how California has changed demographically since 1940. This paper contends that there are four major demographic shifts occurring in California. These are:
1) Natural increase is becoming the most important source of population growth.
2) Both types of net migration (domestic or international) have been important to the population growth of California. Between 1940 and 1970, net migration from other states was more important than international migration. From 1970 to 1998, the roles were reversed and international migration was the most important of the two.
3) Diversity is increasing at a very fast pace in California and by the year 2000 no ethnic group will be in the majority, i.e., comprise more than 50 percent of the population.
4) The proportion of persons 65 years and over is growing both numerically and proportionately.

PDF version (267KB) is available online.

Security and Crime Prevention Strategies in California Public Schools

Marcus Nieto (CRB-99-012, October, 1999)
School districts in California generally respond to school violence in two distinct ways, according to a California Research Bureau survey. The most common approach is through violence prevention curricula whereby individual one-on-one violence and aggressive behavior is addressed through counseling, life skills building, peer mediation and conflict resolution. The other, but less common approach, is to make it physically difficult for terrorist acts to occur on school campuses by using a combination of highly visible security personnel along with detection technologies such as metal detectors and surveillance cameras, and more conventional security measures such as canine searches, locks, and metal bars. Few school districts are prepared to deal with a catastrophic event, such as taking of hostages or a tragedy such as that at Columbine. These and other findings from the survey raise important policy questions.

PDF version (418KB) is available online.

Voting by Mail: A Look at Modernizing the Electoral System

Rachel Harris, Executive Fellow (CRB-v6-n03, July, 1999)
With the steady decline in turnout at the polls over the last 30 years, state legislatures across the United States have been working to develop innovative ways to make it easier to vote. One such alternative is the vote-by-mail system) or all-mail-balloting, which essentially eliminates the use of the polling place, conducting entire elections by mail. This paper looks at vote-by-mail, and its advantages and disadvantages and some of the implications of using this system could have for California's electorate.

PDF version (266KB) is available online.

Educating California's Immigrant Children: An Overview of Bilingual Education

Patricia de Cos (CRB-99-009, July, 1999)
On June 2, 1998, the people of California passed Proposition 227, a voter imposed statutory amendment that substantially altered the manner by which non-English speaking children learn English in California's public schools. This paper examines Proposition 227 and the driving forces behind it. Beyond the initiative itself, this paper discusses California's diverse population, and the dynamics that public schools face each day as they struggle to educate an increasing number of English language learners. This paper also provides a history of language policy, discusses how over time instruction in English became dominant for new immigrants, and presents a summary of why initial bilingual education policies were enacted nationally and in California. Beyond this history, there exists a limited body of literature on instructional programs for English learners. This paper discusses that literature, along with an explanation of the relationship between brain development and second language acquisition and learning, as a possible way to shed light on effective teaching methodologies used for English language learners.

PDF version (1001KB) is available online.

Other States' Incentives To Attract or Encourage Aerospace Manufacturing

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-99-010, July, 1999)
This report provideems a brief overview of the incentives that other states offer to attract and retain aerospace manufacturing industries. There are two factors that have recently directed the attentio of policy makers to aerospace. First, the role of this industry in the state's economy has changed significantly during the last decade. This is a consequence of a series of structural transformations that this sector has carried out to respond to sharp reductions in defense spending and commercial aerospace purchases. Second, the growth potential of aerospace and defense-related markets is still good, particularly for commercial space activities and other new product applications such as global positioning systems.

PDF version (147KB) is available online.

A Double-Headed System: A History of K-12 Governance in California and Options for Restructuring

Murray J. Haberman (CRB-99-011, July, 1999)
This paper presents a history of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Board of Education, and the recently established Secretary of Education, by tracing the creation and development of these respective authorities – from the drafting of California's first Constitution through the present day. It discusses how current statutes do not clearly define their functional responsibilities, and how this lack of clarity has caused conflict. This paper also examines governance models used in other states. It concludes with a series of options that the Legislature and Governor may wish to consider for restructuring the governance and administration of K-12 education in California.

PDF version (890KB) is available online.

Building a Skilled State Information and Technology Workforce

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. and Alicia Bugarin (CRB-99-007, June, 1999)
California state government has experienced several major computer debacles over the last several years. It is plausible that part of the explanation lies in the state's personnel system. For this reason, the California Research Bureau was asked to examine the state's information technology (IT) staffing structure. CRB interviewed the top executives of six California companies in order to present a general model of corporate IT employment practices. Case studies describe corporate IT "job families" by function, and examine IT compensation, recruitment, retention and training practices. In the second section, the report describes state IT employment practices in these same areas. The result is a useful comparison of private and public sector practices.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (683KB), Part 2 of 2 (694KB) ] is available online.

Latinos and Economic Development in California

Elias Lopez, Ph.D., Enrique Ramirez, Ph.D., and Refugio I. Rochin, Ph.D (CRB-99-008, June, 1999)
At the request of Senator Richard Polanco, this paper looks at the educational attainment of Latinos, the largest minority group in California. This group, which comprises 28 percent of the labor force, is growing in numbers and is expected to be the largest group of workers by the year 2025. The earnings and the tax base that they represent therefore are vital to the state's economy. This report alerts policymakers to the fact that the wages of Latinos are not in parity with their numbers; therefore, neither are their tax contributions. Why do Latinos earn significantly less than other ethnic groups in California? Although there are several factors that determine the earnings of a person, the most important reason for Latinos earning relatively less is that they have lower levels of educational attainment. Some might argue that this is a problem of immigrants. This paper shows, however, that the low levels of educational attainment persist for even third generation Latinos. Relying on time alone to take care of the problem does not appear to be the best prescription. This paper looks at the benefits, in terms of earnings and the tax base, of increasing the educational attainment of Latinos, both in the long-term and in the short-term.

PDF version (433KB) is available online.

An Evaluation of the Academic Volunteer and Mentor Service Program

David C. Illig, Ph.D. (CRB-99-006, May, 1999)
This report is in response to a legislative request that the California Research Bureau (CRB) evaluate the performance of the California Academic Volunteer and Mentor Service Act administered by the Governor's Office of Child Development and Education (OCDE, now known as the Secretary of Education). Specifically, this report addresses an assessment of the impact of mentoring on student achievement, attendance, and behavior.

PDF version (264KB) is available online.

Thoughts on Implementing Proposition 10: The California Children and Families First Act

David C. Illig (CRB-v6-n01, April, 1999)
Proposition 10, the Children and Families First Act, increased tobacco excise taxes to provide funds for early childhood development programs. This paper examines the linkages between state and local commissions established under the Act; the definition and role of results-based accountability; and the role of the research and development account in ensuring the long-range success of the Act. The paper also identifies policy issues for the legislature and the state Children and Families First Commission.

PDF version (341KB) is available online.

Africanized Honeybees in California

Kenneth W. Umbach (CRB-v6-n02, April, 1999)
The Africanized Honeybee (AHB, sometimes called "killer bee") is a highly defensive and aggressive cross between the familiar European honeybee and an African variety imported into Brazil for experimental purposes. After a long trip northward, Africanized honeybees have become established in California. Entomologists and agricultural officials now consider AHB to be present, if not fully established, in Imperial, Kern, Orange, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. Although the agricultural impacts can be managed, at a cost, risks to people and animals will remain and will require ongoing education, preparation, and action.. This paper reviews the situation and outlines some policy options to help cope with the arrival of AHB in California.

PDF version (207KB) is available online.

TMDLs: The Revolution in Water Quality Regulation

Jennifer Ruffolo (CRB-99-005, April, 1999)
Total Maximum Daily Loads, or TMDLs, may prove to be the most important change in environmental law in California since the Endangered Species Act, and the most significant change in water quality control since the Clean Water Act itself. The federal Clean Water Act requires California to establish TMDLs, but exactly how this TMDL requirement is going to work is far from clear; almost everything about it is cloaked in controversy or at least ambiguity. However, the weight of court decisions from around the country and especially in California suggest that water quality regulation is in the process of changing in quite fundamental ways.

PDF version (362KB) is available online.

Options for Expanding the Healthy Families Program: Estimates

Elias Lopez, Ph.D., and Richard Figueroa, MBA (CRB-99-004, March, 1999)
In California, seven million persons are without health insurance. Of these seven million, close to 2 million are children under the age of 19. To reduce the size of the problem, the State of California began offering health insurance to uninsured children in families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. The coverage is provided through two programs, Medi-Cal and Healthy Families. This paper looks at options for extending the program. It provides estimates on the number of new persons who would qualify and it gives an approximation of how much it would cost the State of California to extend such coverage.

PDF version (317KB) is available online.

County Services: A Tale of Eight Counties

Jennifer Swenson (CRB-99-003, February, 1999)
To determine the consequences of the ERAF transfers for California Citizens, we conducted a survey of selected California counties . . . . We specifically asked how budget cuts affected services and how the public was impacted (if at all) by the changes. The conclusions are mixed. Counties are not all the same. Some had to make major adjustments. Revenues in other counties bounced back rather quickly

PDF version (590KB) is available online.

School Facility Financing: A History of the Role of the State Allocation Board and Options for the Distribution of Proposition 1A Funds

Joel Cohen (CRB-99-001, February, 1999)
The paper reviews the role of the Board, which is responsible for establishing policies for the distribution of school facility financing funds. It discusses how the Board, which was established in 1947, has evolved during the past five decades from one that set policy for various loan programs to one that today sets policy for grant programs . . . . Proposition 1A forges a partnership between the State and school districts for financing the construction and repair of their schools . . . . This paper provides details regarding these new programs and compares them to programs previously administered by the State Allocation Board.

PDF version (297KB) is available online.

Mentally Ill Offenders in California's Criminal Justice System

Marcus Nieto (CRB-99-002, February, 1999)
This report discusses what is known about the mentally ill in California county jails and state prisons, gives examples of what local correctional institutions are doing to identify and provide medical care to the mentally ill, and offers selected policy options.

PDF version (461KB) is available online.

Governance of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California: Options for Change

Dennis E. O'Connor (CRB-98-018, December, 1998)
This is the second in a series of reports exploring the governance of MWD. The first report was the Governance of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California: An Overview of the Issues. That report described MWD's current governance and explored the root sources of MWD's conflicts. This report identifies options for resolving MWD's governance problems. It begins by exploring why some people contemplate changing MWD's governance. It then explores the three questions posed in the previous report. This report concludes by examining six optional governance structures for MWD.

PDF version (341KB) is available online.

Linking Welfare Recipients to Jobs: The Role of Temporary Help Agencies

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-98-017, November, 1998)
Welfare reform makes connecting welfare recipients to jobs a high California priority. This report explores one approach to assisting recipients to find, qualify for, and hold on to jobs: temporary employment. The temporary help industry has long experience in linking new, often untrained people to jobs. It may offer an important mechanism to help welfare recipients gain work experience while being paid, and to develop "soft skills" such as a positive work attitude, getting to work on time, taking the initiative, and proper grooming.

PDF version (611KB) is available online.

Proposition 218 After Two Years

Dean Misczynski (CRB-98-016, October, 1998)
Proposition 218, the "Right to Vote on Taxes Act," was approved by California's voters in November 1996. The initiative measure reinforced existing restrictions and placed new restrictions on the levy of new taxes, special assessments, fees and charges. As with other controversial initiatives, this measure has inspired extensive litigation. This report summarizes over twenty court cases and Attorney General opinions intended to interpret Proposition 218.

PDF version (268KB) is available online.

Inventing Biological Organisms: A Reader of Selected Articles

Gus Koehler, Ph.D ()
The idea that biological organisms are not only discovered but also invented and protected by patent law permitting their exclusive manufacture and sale, is a new and controversial one. The content, form, and direction that this issue takes will have a profound effect on California's biotechnology industry. "Inventing Biological Organisms: A Reader of Selected Articles" pulls together 48 articles, papers, and excerpts from books to address three fundamental issues: the ethics of patenting human DNA, biological organisms, or their parts; how individual, community, multinational, and national ownership of human DNA and organisms affects the development of biotechnology; and the economic advantages and disadvantages of patenting. (Please see your local library for the referenced materials. The articles are copyrighted and the Bureau may not reproduce.)

PDF version (68KB) is available online.

Probation for Adult and Juvenile Offenders: Options for Improved Accountability

Marcus Nieto (CRB-98-014, September, 1998)
For decades, the county probation system has served as a "safety valve" to control the flow of convicted offenders into the county jail and state prison system. Today overcrowded jail conditions are placing enormous pressure on county probation departments to supervise and manage more juvenile and adult high-risk offenders than ever before, with declining resources. In addition, the general public is expressing concern that the low-risk juvenile and adult offenders who often remain free and unsupervised while on probation be held accountable for their crimes. At the request of the Office of Criminal Justice Planning (OCJP), the CRB developed this Probation Policy Paper in consultation with the California Council on Criminal Justice.

PDF version (245KB) is available online.

Indian Casinos In California

Roger Dunstan (CRB-98-015, September, 1998)
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act requires a state-tribal compact for certain types of games on Indian lands. Proposition 5 would establish such a compact in law. The Initiative statute directs the Governor as a ministerial act to sign a compact. The compact would allow gaming devices and other card games to be played in tribal casinos. The tribe would be the primary regulator of the casinos and the state can assume some regulatory duties. This briefing paper provides background on Indian gaming, a summary of the initiative's provisions, and an analysis of some of the major issues.

PDF version (239KB) is available online.

A Statistical Tour of California's Great Central Valley - 1998

Kenneth Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-98-011, August, 1998)
This report looks at the eighteen counties of California's Great Central Valley. The presentation combines capsule descriptions with graphs and charts encompassing a selection of statistics on land, population, and social and economic indicators. This is a revised and expanded edition of a paper published in 1997.

PDF version (1MB) is available online.

Qualified Teachers for All California Students: Current Issues in Recruitment, Retention, Preparation, and Professional Development

Chloe Bullard (CRB-98-012, August, 1998)
Education reform is currently one of the top public policy issues, both nationally and in California. Unlike past reform efforts, much of the current research is focusing on the qualifications of K - 12 public school teachers. Numerous recent reports indicate that the shortage of well-trained, fully qualified teachers is significantly affecting student achievement. Furthermore, these reports provide specific recommendations for how to improve teacher quality in four areas: recruitment, retention, preparation, and professional development. This paper describes the current issues in each of these areas, and the common recommendations of the various reports and studies. In addition, this paper lists legislative efforts from the 1997-98 session, and outlines further policy options for consideration.

PDF version (253KB) is available online.

The Governance of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California: an Overview of the Issues

Dennis E. O'Connor (CRB-98-013, August, 1998)
This report describes the governance of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD), and the governance problems MWD is facing. Adopting the framework of "form follows function," the report focuses on: (1) What MWD's job is and is not; (2) What is best suited to ensure MWD does this job properly; and (3) How those in charge should make decisions. The report finds that there is no consensus among MWD's member agencies of what is and is not MWD's proper role in providing water to Southern California. Furthermore, it is this lack of common purpose that has led to many of MWD's internal conflicts.

PDF version (511KB) is available online.

Should the Sun Set on State Agency Consultations Under the California Endangered Species Act?

Jennifer Ruffolo (CRB-v5-n02, July, 1998)
The sections of the California Endangered Species Act that require state agency consultations will sunset on January 1, 1999. The sunset could shift the primary responsibility for protecting threatened and endangered species to the private sector. This paper examines the state agency consultation process and the implications of its sunset.

PDF version (45KB) is available online.

Farmworkers in California

Alicia Bugarin and Elias Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-98-007, July, 1998)
California is the nation's largest agricultural state. It produces more than 250 different crops valued at nearly $25 billion. Large numbers of recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America and Asia, many with low educational skills, provide a ready labor force. Farmworkers play a significant role in one of the state's most important industries. Their working conditions are difficult; they have low earnings, poor or no health benefits, substandard housing, physically taxing and sometimes unsafe work conditions, and long hours.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (1MB), Part 2 of 2 (1MB) ] is available online.

Learning-Related Outcomes of Computer Technology in K-12 Education

Kenneth Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-98-010, July, 1998)
This paper summarizes ways in which computer technology and communications have been found to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms. The paper has been prepared at the request of Assembly Member Kerry Mazzoni, Chair of the Assembly Education Committee, to support the work of the Commission on Teacher Credentialing in developing computer technology training standards for teachers. Those standards will respond to requirements of Assembly Bill 1023 (Chapter 404, statutes of 1997).

PDF version (133KB) is available online.

Vehicle License Fee: A Comparison Among the Most Populous Cities of Each State

Elias Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-98-008, June, 1998)
In the months of December of 1997 and January of 1998, the California Research Bureau conducted a survey on the taxes other states impose on vehicles. The report provides the results of the survey itself for the following categories: Registration and Title Fees, Vehicle License Fees, Sales Tax, and Gasoline Tax. To make the information accessible, we calculate what a person would pay when the car is new, 5 years old, and 10 years old. We also calculate the total annual fees for three different cars, a Honda Civic (low priced vehicle), a Ford Explorer (medium priced vehicle), and a Cadillac Seville (high priced vehicle).

PDF version (200KB) is available online.

Health Care in California State Prisons

Marcus Nieto (CRB-98-009, June, 1998)
It is no news that California's prisons have become more numerous and more crowded, nor surprising that the inmate population will nearly double within this decade. The state's constellation of prisons has scrambled to accommodate this population boom, providing not just beds and bars, but also meals, laundry, and health care. California's prisons spend around $500 million each year on health care for inmates, up from $310 million in 1992. This rapid cost growth, together with a series of court decisions critical of health care provided, attention from news media, and legislative interest, have focused attention on correctional health care. This paper examines several aspects of California's prison health care experience.

PDF version (370KB) is available online.

Readings on No-Fault Divorce

Charlene W. Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-98-004, April, 1998)
This compilation of selected materials relative to no-fault divorce and its impact on children was gathered at the request of Assemblymember Martha Escutia, Chair of the Assembly Judiciary Committee. A brief introduction relates the history of state grounds for divorce and state divorce rates. Other topics include demographic information on divorce rates and family composition, the impact of children, current comparative state legislation, proposals to strengthen marriage and selected articles which present divergent opinions about research findings and reform proposals.

PDF version (2MB) is available online.

Business Capital Needs in California: Designing a Program

Gus Koehler, Ph.D. and Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D (CRB-98-005, April, 1998)
This two-part report estimates California's need for early-stage investment capital and reviews what other states have done to address similar problems. In the first section, Dr. Koehler estimates the early-stage capital need of rapidly growing companies (Gazelles) in California. This is followed by a look at how early-stage investment networks form. This section concludes with an overview of why state-sponsored early-stage investment programs succeed or fail, and some options for California. In the second section, Dr. Rosa Moller reviews the structure and experiences of early-stage investment in other states. All the programs cited involve an initial monetary contribution by the state for business capital investment purposes. The reviewed programs include publicly run venture capital programs and public/private funds that are for the most part privately managed. Dr. Moller provides charts summarizing alternatives for the design of a state-sponsored capital program and key aspects to be considered in the choice of program features.

PDF version (608KB) is available online.

Residential Common Interest Developments: An Overview

Helen E. Roland (CRB-98-006, April, 1998)
Common interest developments (CIDs) are residential communities - like condominiums, cooperatives and planned communities - where individuals own their unit and share part- ownership in common property. This paper provides a unified overview of the legal structure, historical trends, and governance of California's growing CID housing stock, and background on CID-related issues that might require legislative attention.

PDF version (212KB) is available online.

Local Government Ethics Ordinances in California

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D., Helen Roland, and Jennifer Kelly-DeWitt (CRB-98-002, March, 1998)
Relatively little research has been done about the ethics ordinances and regulations that have been adopted by California's local governments.  There is no repository that collects such ordinances (with the limited exception of campaign finance ordinances collected by the Fair Political Practices Commission).  Although the Political Reform Act establishes statewide conflict of interest standards, gift and honoraria limitations, and financial disclosure requirements, many other ethical issues arise at the local level.  For these reasons Senator Craven, who chairs the Senate Local Government and Ethics Committees, requested that the California Research Bureau undertake a survey of local ethics ordinances.  This report presents the results.

PDF version (298KB) is available online.

Computer Technology In California K-12 Schools: Uses, Best Practices, And Policy Implications

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-98-003, March, 1998)
Policy implications of computer technology in the schools are wide-ranging.  They include, among others, the importance of encouraging planning for computer technology, the role of funding for the long term, the importance of accounting for staffing needs (including technical support), and the need to fully address staff development.  This paper describes and gives examples of uses, "best practices," and policy implications in connection with computer technology (including the Internet) for K-12 schools.  Also included are some related statistics, a list of selected educational Web sites, a brief description of the important concept of "information literacy," and a list of sources and further reading.

PDF version (561KB) is available online.

Birth to Kindergarten: The Importance of the Early Years

David C. Illig, Ph.D. (CRB-98-001, February, 1998)
A key finding in this literature is that children growing up in more stressful environments are more likely to experience delays in cognitive and behavioral development.... Such delays, in turn, can affect long term outcomes for children including school completion, employment, teen pregnancy and childbearing, substance abuse, and criminal behavior.... The paper examines recent discussions of research into brain development, especially as it relates to cognitive and behavioral development before age five. These findings provide support for early childhood intervention programs.

PDF version (201KB) is available online.

Taxing the Internet: An Update on State Policies

Chloe Bullard (CRB-v5-n01, January, 1998)
The explosion in Internet activity in the last decade has led to new regulatory questions for government. Internet commerce, in particular, is a growing area of interest. One of the issues with which state governments must now contend is Internet-related taxation. This paper addresses current state tax policy trends in two areas: Internet access and sales of goods over the Internet.

PDF version (45KB) is available online.

Readiness for Kindergarten: What Does it Mean?

Patricia L. de Cos (CRB-97-014, December, 1997)
This review of the literature regarding the appropriate age for children to begin school found several studies that show that there are no differences in performance between older and younger children in kindergarten, while other studies show that older students tend to perform better than their younger counterparts. Over time, several studies suggest that the initial differences encountered in kindergarten diminish, while other studies found that on average older children will outperform their younger counterparts. The review of the literature describes several underlying factors for differences detected (i.e., a child's gender, socio-economic status, preschool attendance, how a teacher perceives a student, and teaching method employed by a teacher, as well as other contributing factors (i.e., changes in kindergarten curriculum, use of testing, and delayed entry into kindergarten).

PDF version (170KB) is available online.

Fraud and Abuse in the Health Care Market of California

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D. (CRB-97-013, November, 1997)
Fraud in health care is likely to continue because of California's very complex market structure. The more complex the market, the higher the likelihood that a segment of the market is overlooked; false statements and bribery are major categories of fraud; repeated underutilization or undertreatment is an emerging category of fraud; and fraud control efforts on the private-payor side are undersupported.

PDF version (99.2KB) is available online.

What is "Push Technology"?

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-v4-n06, October, 1997)
Push technology is a relatively new means for automating the delivery of news and information to computer "desktops" on the Internet and on internal organizational intranets. The push approach may have applications for State government as both user and provider of information. However, push methods also raise concerns about excessive bandwidth use and several other issues that may be important to government agencies considering the technology.

PDF version (172KB) is available online.

Academic Tutoring and Mentoring: A Literature Review

M. Anne Powell, M.S.W. (CRB-97-011, October, 1997)
This report reviews over fifty publications - books, journal articles and special reports encompassing a large and varied body of prominent theoretical works, research reports and program evaluations of tutoring, mentoring, and combined tutoring and mentoring programs and summarizes key elements from this literature.

PDF version (217KB) is available online.

Flattening Organizations: Practices and Standards

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-97-004, September, 1997)
This report examines public and private organizational structures, including management/rank and file ratios (span of control, the factors that underlie optimum standards, incentives that foster enhanced performance, and the success or failure of recent efforts to restructure operations.

PDF version (237KB) is available online.

Overview of Arbitration in California Managed Health Care Plans

Marcus Nieto (CRB-v4-n05, August, 1997)
This report discusses the significance of the recent California Supreme Court decision, Nida Engalla et al. vs. Permanente Medical Group, Inc. et al and the role of arbitration in California's health maintenance organizations (HMOs. The issues raised by this case are a concern to all consumers in managed care health plans which use binding arbitration to settle health care-related problems.

PDF version (56.4KB) is available online.

A Statistical Tour of California's Great Central Valley

Kenneth W. Umbach, PhD. (CRB-97-009, August, 1997)
This report looks at the eighteen counties of California's Great Central Valley. The presentation combines description and discussion with graphs and charts encompassing a selection of statistics on land, population, and social and economic indicators.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 2 (166KB), Part 2 of 2 (195KB) ] are available online.

Safety and Oversight of Amusement Rides in California

Dennis O'Connor & Jennifer Swenson (CRB-97-012, August, 1997)
Whenever a serious accident occurs at an amusement park, it is natural to ask "Who's in charge?" and "How safe are the rides?" This report investigates three issues: 1) the accident data for amusement rides, 2) the regulation of amusement ride safety in California, and 3) how other states regulate amusement ride safety.

PDF version (162KB) is available online.

Meeting the Needs of Small and Medium Sized Manufacturers in California

Gus Koehler, Ph.D. (CRB-v4-n04, June, 1997)
This report describes and examines the domestic and global competitiveness of California's small- and medium-sized manufacturers, including their performance during the 1990-1993 recession. California state government manufacturing improvement programs are described and evaluated. Options for a state strategy, for legislation, and administrative actions are offered that could increase the competitiveness of the state's small- and medium-sized manufacturers.

PDF version (65.1KB) is available online.

Public Video Surveillance: Is It An Effective Crime Prevention Tool?

Marcus Nieto (CRB-97-005, June, 1997)
This report examines the various uses of video surveillance and other visual technology by public and private entities to prevent and discourage crime, including law enforcement practices, the conditions which may warrant public video surveillance, the associated legal and constitutional implications, and whether the technology has been effective in preventing crime.

PDF version (152KB) is available online.

Hong Kong's Reversion to the People's Republic of China: Implications for California

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-97-010, June, 1997)
This paper provides information on the economic significance of Hong Kong for California. It includes a brief description of Hong Kong's political history, a brief profile of its economic policies, and discusses a variety of concerns regarding the potential economic consequences for the United States and California of Hong Kong's reversion to China. The report describes the U.S. and California export patterns since 1988, with particular emphasis on the description of California 1995 exports by industrial group, and the significance of California exports to Hong Kong for California's main economic regions.

PDF version (93.8KB) is available online.

Ferrets: a Selective Overview of Issues and Options

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-v4-n03, May, 1997)
This is a selected review of background and issues related to the legalization of ferrets in California. Sources include existing documents and articles, supplemented by interviews with state and federal personnel in several states.

PDF version (33.1KB) is available online.

Peer Tutoring and Mentoring Services for Disadvantaged Secondary School Students

M. Anne Powell, M.S.W. (CRB-v4-n02, May, 1997)
This report summarizes a national evaluation of school peer tutoring and mentoring programs created under the one-year federal Secondary Schools Basic Skills Demonstration Assistance Program. The evaluation report prepared upon the completion of this demonstration offers one of the most significant studies of school-based peer tutoring and mentoring in the nation.

PDF version (35.2KB) is available online.

State Military Base Retention Programs

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-v4-n01, May, 1997)
Assemblyman Joe Baca...requested that the California Research Bureau gather information on other state programs to retain active military bases. This CRB note summarizes the results of this inquiry.

California Statewide Initiative Process

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-97-006, May, 1997)
This report discusses California's statewide initiative process, its history, public attitudes toward the process, and current reform proposals.

PDF version (109KB) is available online.

Early Implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative

David Illig, Ph.D. (CRB-97-008, April, 1997)
The California Research Bureau surveyed school districts to determine the initial progress of implementation of the Class Size Reduction Initiative. The report found that: facilities and space issues persist in many school districts; CSR has caused collective bargaining problems for some districts; CSR teacher training is ad hoc.

PDF version (90.5KB) is available online.

The Internet: A California Policy Perspective

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-97-002, March, 1997)
This paper reviews the background and key terminology of the Internet, its current scope and use, and a selection of public policy issues. Policy issues encompass: commerce; government use of the Internet; libraries and education; privacy, freedom of speech, and Internet abuse; and accessibility. The paper also provides examples of the California State government and federal presences on the Internet and summarizes a selection of sites illustrating the myriad types of private-sector online services and information.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 4 (156KB), Part 2 of 4 (120KB), Part 3 of 4 (102KB), Part 4 of 4 (97.8KB) ] is available online.

The Many Faces of Mexico

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D., Alicia Bugarin, David Illig, Ph.D., Hans Johnson, Kirk Knutsen, Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D., Marcus Nieto, and Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-97-001, January, 1997)
The goal of this report is to provide California policymakers with a detailed and succinct background discussion of some of the key demographic, education, health, economic, and political factors that characterize modern Mexico. The report generally does not examine border issues, nor does it feature current events. Whenever possible, the analysis relies on state level data, providing a richer understanding of Mexico's complex and distinct regions. The reader should gain an appreciation of the challenges posed by Mexico's rapidly growing, diverse population, the country's depressed domestic economy and its troubled political environment.

PDF version (401KB) is available online.

Gambling in California

Roger Dunstan (CRB-97-003, January, 1997)
This report provides a summary of gambling activities in California. It focuses on cardclubs, lottery and Indian gaming. The report looks at regulatory issues and the socio-economic impacts of gaming.

PDF versions [ Part 1 of 3 (154KB), Part 2 of 3 (172KB), Part 3 of 3 (164KB) ] are available online.

Concealed Handgun Laws and Public Safety

Marcus Nieto (CRB-97-007, January, 1997)
This report examines concealed handgun laws in different states and discusses the concept of self-defense. It also reviews research about the effectiveness of laws regulating how and when individuals may carry concealed handguns in public. Some of the key findings of this study are: (1 States with the least restrictive concealed handgun laws generally have higher violent crime and murder rates than states with stricter handgun laws, but no causal links have been established; (2) According to polls, the public generally disapproves of laws making it easier to carry concealed handguns; (3) People living in rural California counties are more likely to be granted a concealed handgun license than people living in moderate- to large-size urban counties; and (4) States with the least restrictive concealed handgun laws generally have the highest rates of guns exported to other states which are used in a crime, according to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms statistics.

PDF version (91.7KB) is available online.

State Government Economic Development Programs

Gus A. Koehler, PhD. & Costolino Hogan (CRB-96-011, November, 1996)
This issue summary examines 42 state government programs in 18 agencies which directly address problems of business management, manufacturing improvement, workforce training and business retention, formation, and attraction. For each program information is provided outlining purpose, budget, funding source, number of person years (PYs), clients, service delivery method, program activity (if available), and a telephone number of a contact person.

HTML Version is available online.

California Competitor States' Economic Development Incentive Programs

Eve Eichwald (CRB-96-010, September, 1996)
The result of a request from the California Trade and Commerce Agency, this report provides a summary of economic development incentives offered by nine of California's competitor states.

Understanding and Preventing Family Violence

John f. Hough, Dr.P.H. ()
This background briefing report presents an overview of family violence in communities throughout California and the United States. Family violence broadly refers to various forms of violent behavior among family members or intimate partners, including child abuse or neglect, domestic assault or dating violence, elder abuse, and intentional and unintentional injuries involving firearms that are in the home or accessible to children or violent persons.

Reducing Class Size: A Review of the Literature and Options for Consideration

David C. Illig, Ph. D. ()
This paper summarizes project STAR – a Tennessee class size reduction demonstration project. In addition, it reviews the research literature on the relationship between class size and student performance. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of options that could improve the effectiveness of a class size reduction program.

HTML Version is available online.

What Disaster Response Management Can Learn From Chaos Theory Conference Proceedings May 18-19, 1995

Gus A. Koehler, PhD. [editor] (CRB-96-005, June, 1996)
The California Research Bureau, with funding from the California Emergency Medical Services Authority, convened an invitational conference on May 18-19,1995, to determine what management lessons chaos theory might offer disaster managers. This paper draws together the major points raised in the papers and important insights that emerged during the second day.

PDF Version (4.1Mb) is available online.

A Selected and Annotated Bilbliography on California's Central Valley by Geographic and Subject Theme

Patricia L. de Cos (CRB-96-009, June, 1996)
Pertinent bibliographic materials were selected for eight Central Valley counties: Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare....The geographic bibliography is organized by county name, and by the terms "Central Valley" and "San Joaquin Valley." The subject theme bibliography includes agriculture, archaeology, botany, environment, fact books, geology, history, history–cultural minorities, history–maps, history–military, history–Native Americans, history–photographs, history–railroads, history–"who's who," land, literature, oil, and wine.

The California Central Valley versus Other States

Elias S. Lopez, Ph.D ()
California is a state of 32 million people, by far the most populous state in the Union. California is divided into various economic regions. One such region is the Central Valley, more specifically the San Joaquin portion of it. This area is composed of eight counties: Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare. This is a region that holds a population of 3 million or 10 percent of California's population. This region seems small by California standards. The purpose of this exercise, however, is to show that the Central Valley ranks right up there with many states in terms of population, employment, and other socioeconomic variables.

HTML Version is available online.

California's Job Training Programs: Financial and Outcome Data

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-96-006, May, 1996)
This report presents information on services, funding, clientele and program outcomes fro each of California's job training programs. It shows overlapping clientele groups, duplicative services, and a paucity of program evaluation data.The information may be useful in re-thinking how public money is spent and services delivered in this critical area

Community Correction Punishments: An Alternative To Incarceration for Nonviolent Offenders

Marcus Nieto (CRB-96-008, May, 1996)
This paper presents a comparative review of community corrections programs in the United States and California. Community corrections programs provide alternative punishment sanctions for most nonviolent offenders.

HTML Version is available online.

The Changing Role of Probation in California's Criminal Justice System

Marcus Nieto (CRB-96-006, April, 1996)
The California Research Bureau gathered and analyzed information on the status of California's county adult probation system. Key findings included: 1.) Probation departments are increasingly placing sentenced offenders into large 'banked' caseloads (a new form of unsupervised probation) with a statewide average ratio of 629 offenders per probation officer. 2.) Probation departments generally do not have an automated offender information system which is integrated with other county level criminal justice agencies and courts.

PDF version (308KB) is available online.

Bioindustry: A Description of California's Bioindustry and Summary of the Public Issues Affecting Its Development

Gus A. Koehler, Ph.D (CRB-96-007, April, 1996)
Biotechnology, the application of engineering concepts to biological processes, is relatively new, rapidly growing, and profoundly important. The field is sprawling and complex. California, especially northern California, has been a world leader in biotechnology and bioindustry since modern biotechnology was "invented" in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1973.

PDF version (3.3Mb) is available online.

California Endangered Species Act: Overview of Issues in the Reform Debate

Helen E. Roland (CRB-96-003, March, 1996)
This paper provides information on the important CESA issues identified during the last two years. It has two parts. The first provides general background, and the second describes the major concerns of interested parties....The purpose is to provide a broad overview of the main themes of the ongoing CESA debate, rather than an analysis of the nuances of the various coalitions' positions.

Report on Small Business Credit Availability

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-96-001, February, 1996)
AB 2233 required the California Research Bureau to write a report providing an overview on sources of credit available to small business and identifying factors that could be constraining the flow of credit to small businesses. An evaluation of the effect of state and federal financial institution laws and regulations on small business loans was also requested.

Affirmative Action and the Courts

David Jung, Cyrus Wadia, and Murray Haberman(This paper was prepared in cooperation with the Public Law Research Institue, Hastings College of the Law) (CRB-96-001, February, 1996)
For some time, affirmative action has been debated in the political arena. Recent United States Supreme Court decisions, however, have prompted some commentators to suggest that the future of affirmative action will be determined by the courts, not the legislatures....The Supreme court has now made it clear that any government program...that creates a racial preference is unconstitutional, unless the particular preference "serves a compelling governmental interest, and is narrowly tailored to further that interst." On the other hand, Justice O'Connor, the author of the Court's most recent decision on affirmative action, took time in her opinion to reassure advocates for affirmative action that strict scrutiny is not intended to be "strict in theory but fatal in fact"... Yet a third perspective on the judiciary's role is credited to Lawrence J. Siskind, who argues that courts may actually by the biggest obstacle to ending affirmative action.

California Community College Library Acquisition Needs: 1995-2005 - A Study Prepared Pursuant to Supplemental Report Language, Item 6120-011-001, Budget Act of 1995-96

Kirk L. Knutsen (CRB-96-002, January, 1996)
In 1993-94, a total of $6.9 million was expended for community college library acquisitions at all campuses. This figure inclues books, periodicals, reference materials, audio/visual materials, microfiche, CD ROMs and other machine readable materials used for instructional support purposes. (That) works out to an average of less than $65,000 per college... (M)any institutions are in even worse shape than average figures imply.

Annotated Bibliography: Estimates of Expenditures on Children and Child Support Guidelines

Davis Illig, Ph.D. ()
This bibliography provides digests of key literature on child support and includes an unannotated extended bibliography.

Migration Between California and Other States: 1985-1994

Hans Johnson and Richard Lovelady(This paper was prepared jointly with the Department of Finance) (CRB-95-006, November, 1995)
In this paper, we seek to provide a comprehensive summary of domestic migration, providing answers to basic questions about how may people move domestically to and from California each year, as well as providing information on socioeconomic demographic characteristics of those domestic migrants.

Local Government Finances Since Proposition 13: An Historical Primer

Helen C. Paik (CRB-95-007, November, 1995)
California's arrangements for financing cities and counties are in turmoil again, as they have been each year since 1978 when Proposition 13 passed. These problems were highlighted recently by the bankruptcy of Orange County and the near bankruptcy of Los Angeles County. Since that decisive year, there have been major changes in where cities and counties get their funding and what they spend it on. This paper summarizes those changes, mostly through a set of charts....The aim is only to compile a modest introductory history.

Brief Overview of Recent Patterns of California Exports

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. ()
..(I)n 1994 the value of California exports was $81.2 billion....NAFTA countries (Canada and Mexico) together with Japan were the main buyers of California exports. South America represents a small market for California since only about 3 percent of California exports went to South America while almost 50 percent of California exports went to Asia.

Restructuring Workforce Preparation Policy

Alicia Bugarin (CRB-95-004, October, 1995)
This Issue Summary examines federal and state job training programs and governance structures....California's workforce preparation programs(which include vocational education,job training, and school-to-work) appear to be ripe for restructuring. The state has 22 employment and training programs administered by 13 separate agencies (excluding higher education). These programs provided a variety of employment and training services to 6.7 million persons at a cost of apporximately $6 billion in Fiscal Year(FY) 1994.

Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) on State Policies

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. (CRB-95-005, September, 1995)
The purpose of this report is to inform legislators and other policy makers of the implications of NAFTA on state laws and regulations. The paper also provides a brief overview of the most significan current NAFTA-related activities to solve problems in the areas of transportation and environmental issues near the U.S.-Mexican border.

County Contracting for State Hospital Beds

David Illig, Ph.D. (CRB-v3-n02, July, 1995)
County contracting for state hospital beds refers to a process begun in 1992 whereby counties must negotiate an annual contract with the State Department of Mental Health for any state mental hospital beds counties wish to use. This process was part of a larger initiative to "realign" state-county partnership programs, primarily in the social and health service areas.

Small Business Networks: Tools to Promote Economic Success

Gus A. Koehler, Ph.D. (CRB-95-002, June, 1995)
This Issue Summary discusses how the continuous formation of small business networks within an industrial cluster can improve small business performance int eh dynamic global marketplace. Business networks typically involve a group of three or more private sector firms(and perhaps a government agency) working cooperatively, often through a contract, joint agreement or other formal relationship, to enhance their mutual competitiveness.

The 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act Today

Marcus Nieto (CRB-95-001, April, 1995)
The 1994 federal Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act(VCCLEA) authorizes nearly $30 billion over six years for state and local law enforcement and drug treatment and crime prevention programs. This legislation presents an opportunity and a challenge to California to garner a fair share of funding and spend it effectively.

Boot Camps: An Alternative Punishment Option for the Criminal Justice System

Marcus Nieto (CRB-95-003, April, 1995)
This Issue Summary examines state and local boot camp programs, discusses differences in goals, operations, administration, and structure; and analyzes the significance of these distinctions. Key isues include: boot camps as an alternative to prison(particularly for first time offenders); the relative cost of boot camps; and inconclusive evaluation findings. Finally, other state models are discussed as possible options for California.

Overview of New York City's Fiscal Crisis

Roger Dunstan (CRB-v3-n01, March, 1995)
New York City faced a significant fiscal crisis and almost defaulted on its financial obligations in 1975. It was a true crisis because the nation's largest city had literally run out of money and could not pay for normal operating expenses. Timely state and federal action saved the city from defaulting on its obligations and possible bankruptcy.

PDF version (165KB) is available online.

Firearm-Related Violence in California: Incidence and Economic Costs

Marcus Nieto, Roger Dunstan and Gus A. Koehler, Ph.D. ()
Firearm-related violence in California cost $703 million in direct medical care in 1993. Over 80 percent of this cost was uncompensated and passed on to the public. Large numbers of firearms are being confiscated in California public schools despite the use of metal detectors and other security precautions. Firearm-related violence is also having serious economic consequences on California tourism.

Time-Limited Welfare Grants

David Illig (CRB-v2-n04, August, 1994)
The popular rationale for time limits is that they prevent long term dependency on aid and they create incentives for families to become self sufficient. These proposals reinforce the view that welfare is a temporary safety net.

Financing the State Water Project: Options for Change

Dennis O'Connor (CRB-94-005, August, 1994)
This paper expands on the previous "Financing the State Water Project" report. It presents twenty options for resolving some of the unintended consequences of the State Water Project's financing system. It inclues an appendix that describes criticisms of the current financing system.

Preliminary Annotated Bibliography Related to State Government Reform

Corey Cook (CRB-94-004, July, 1994)
Includes "Fiscal Reform;" "Budgetary Reform: Biennial and Performance-Based Budgets;" "Institutional Restructuring: Centralization/Decentralization;" "Re-Engineering Government;" "Representation Theories;" "District Size;" "Electoral Systems;" "Campaign Finance;" "Divided Government;" "Unicameral Legislatures;" "Initiative Reform;" "Political Party Reform;" "Legislative Reform;" "Constitutional Revision;" "General Political Reform;" "Split State Movements."

Campaign Finance Reform

Corey Cook (CRB-94-006, July, 1994)
This Issue Summary examines the financing of political campaigns in California over the past twenty years. The materials focus primarily upon state legislative elections which provide alarge sample size and allow for generalizations across election cycles. Data from initiative campaigns and statewide elections are used to illustrate key points.

Is it Time to Talk about Changing the State Water Project's Financing System?

Dennis O'Connor (CRB-v2-n03, June, 1994)
This paper reviews recent evidence that the financial arrangements for the state water project are causing considerable financial strain, especially in some agricultural water districts.

City and County Fiscal Trends

Joe Fitz ()
This paper summarizes the fiscal history of California's cities and counties, with emphasis on the changes that occurred in 1992-1993. It inclues a number of graphs that display the course of local government revenues and expenditures in the last 17 years.

Financing the State Water Project

Dennis O'Connor (CRB-94-004, June, 1994)
This paper describes and analyzes the arrangements for financing the state water project. It also begins an analysis of some of the unintended consequences of that financing system. It includes appendices that offer a physical description of the water project and that lay out its history.

Economic Assessment of Ocean-Dependent Activities

Rosa Maria Moller, Ph.D. and Joe Fitz ()
This paper was prepared for the California Resources Agency and was incorporated into "California's Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future," an Ocean Resources Management Plan that the Agency prepared. It surveys ocean-dependent industries, including fishing, mariculture, kelp and sea vegetable harvesting, offshore oil and gas production, mineral production, port activity, and tourism and recreation.

Agriculture, Water, and California's Drought of 1987-92: Background, Responses, Lessons

Kenneth W. Umbach. Ph.D. (CRB-94-003, April, 1994)
From 1987 to 1992, California suffered a severe drought. This paper reviews the methods that California's farmers used to cope with the shortage of surface water. It concludes that agriculture remained remarkably productive during te drought, but with serious impacts in a few areas of the state, that California is now especially vulneralbe to continued drought because of reduced ground water levels, hat ground water management is a growing concern, and that irrigation efficiency improvements alone will not solve water shortage problems.

New Challenges to California State Government's Economic Development Engine

Gus Koehler ()
This Occasional Paper briefly discusses California's current economic problems and identifies related conditions, particularly the demands of global competition, that are impacting it...The paper examines California economic development programs from a broad perspective, identifies general priorities based on estimated fiscal and personnel resources...This analysis leads to options including a state government strategy that, by helping business to become more globally competitive, may enhance regional economic development.

The Northridge Earthquake: Preliminary Damage Estimates - California Public Libraries

Liz Gibson – Library Development Services (CRB-v2-n02, February, 1994)
This California Research Bureau Note provides preliminary damage estimates on the status of the 45 public library jurisdictions in the earthquake area, the efforts of staff and volunteers to minimize the damage and some innovative ways they helped the community. It also includes preliminary damage estimates, and the financial implications of the earthquake damage.

The Northridge Earthquake: Preliminary Damage Estimtes on California's Public Colleges and Universities

Kirk L Knutsen (CRB-v2-n01, January, 1994)
This California Research Bureau Note provides preliminary damage estimates on CSU Northridge, 12 Commnity Colleges in the earthquake area and an overview of the financial implicaions of the damages.

California Political Reform: Selected Research

Corey Cook and Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-94-001, January, 1994)
This paper provides selected historical, theoretical, and statistical background information on topics related to political reform and the structure of California state government. The material focuses primarily on state government, although some local government examples are used to illustrate key points, such as the size of electoral districts, voter turnout and institutional complexity.

Mountain Lions and California State Parks

Kenneth W. Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-94-002, January, 1994)
Although encounters between people and mountain lions are rare, they have sometimes resulted in serious injury or death. This paper summarizes mountain lion numbers and habitat in California, data on mountain lion attacks, contrasts between bear and lion behavior and includes an annotated bibliography.

The Recent State Supreme Court Decision: "Smith v. Regents": Effects on the University of California Student Association and Other Student Organizations

Kirk L. Knutsen (CRB-v1-n03, December, 1993)
The first major isue decided in Smith centered ont eh ability of student governements to support political or ideological organizations with mandatory student activity fees....According to the court, mandatory student fee revenues can be used to support educational speech, but inividual students have the right to object to their fees being used to support political or ideological speech with which they disagree.

The North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA)

Joe Fitz ()
"This California Research Bureau Note provides an update on the status of the North American Free Trade Agreement and presents both sides of the arguments for the treaty's major issues. These major issues are job displacement, the impact on the overall economy, agriculture and the environment." Roger Dunstan, Assistant Director for Economics, California Research Bureau.

State Governemtn and California University Economic Development Programs

Gus Koehler, Ph.D. (CRB-93-008, September, 1993)
Economic development is a process that state and local governments and private organizations engage in to stimulate or maintain business activity and create good jobs. California state government currently operates 84 economic development programs located in 30 departments, In addition, the state's institutions of higher education have numerous programs...This issue summary develops eight functional categories to conceptually organize this large and varied group of state programs.

Immigrants in California: Findings from the 1990 Census

Hans Johnson (CRB-93-009, September, 1993)
"Immigrants Travel Diverse Paths in the U.S.: ...In California, where 22 percent of residents are foreign-born, statistics reflect those national trends, according to a the California Research Bureau, an arm of the California State Library. Notably, the state report shows that immigrants are working in a wide variety of jobs in key state industries, and are not all grouped as farm workers, janitors and other service workers. It also shows that welfare rates among immigrants are higher than for native-born residents - much higher, in fact, for those with no high school degree, yet lower than the state average for those with a high school degree." "Sacramento Bee(September 23, 1993)A3."

Hantavirus Infection in the United States and California

Marsha Devine (CRB-v1-n01, August, 1993)
Includes: "What is Hantavirus?," "What are the Characteristics of the Current Outbreak of Cases in the United States(including California)?," "What is the Virus's Mode of Transmission?," "What Are the Risk Factors?," "What is the Treatment for the Disease?," "How have California State Agencies Respopnded?," "What Other Illnesses Does Hantavirus Cause, and Where have They Been Reported?," "What Will Be Done in the Future About Hantavirus and Other Newly-Documented Viral Diseases?," and "For Additional Information."

Motor-Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance in California

Buzz Breedlove (CRB-93-007, August, 1993)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency argues that smoggy regions must switch from the present decentralized "Smog Check" program with 9,000 inspection stations to a centralized program...There are plausible arguments that the proposed centralized system may be less effective in cleaning the air...Thepaper is organized as follows: Section I: Summarizes Federal Law and Guidelines; Section II: Describes I/M Debate in California; (and) Section III: Summarizes Current Legislation.

Local Government Revenue & Expenditures Since Proposition 13: A Historical Primer.

Roger Dunstan (CRB-93-006, August, 1993)
California's arrangements for financing cities and counties are in turmoil again. They were last year, too, and each year since Proposition 13 was passed in 1978 (before, there was more, and increasing, taxpayer unhappiness, but less governmental chaos). Since that decisive year, there have been major changes in where cities and counties get their funding and what they spend it on. This paper summarizes those changes, mostly through a set of charts. The underlying data are fromt eh Controller's well-known reports...The aim of this paper is only to compile a modest introductory history in charts.

President Clinton's Proposed Fiscal Policy Changes: Impacts on California

Joseph Fitz (CRB-93-005, July, 1993)
This report concludes that the President's plan will hurt California relative to other states. California will bear more of the cost of the plan, primarily because of its large share of both U.S. defense spending and high-income taxpayers. The report also concludes that California will be impacted more by a gasoline tax than a BTU tax. A positive note is that the effects of lower interest rates will reduce the large mortgage payments made by Californians.

Welfare Reform: History, Legislation, Strategies, and Options for Reforming the State's Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program

David C. Illig, Ph.D. (CRB-93-004, June, 1993)
Major welfare reform is currently proposed by both parties in California, President Clinton is working on a proposal, and important welfare experiments are being conducted and studied in many states. This paper offers a reasonably concise survey of this perplexing issue. It: Summarizes California welfare history; Reviews the changing dominant theories of poverty and the resulting alterations in welfare programs; Describes the strategies for reforming welfare; Summarizes the approaches currently before the Legislature; Lays out what is known about President Clinton's proposal; (and) Lists the more important welfare reform experiments underway in other states.

Beyond Business As Usual: A Framework and Options for Improving Quality and Containing Costs in California Higher Education

Kirk L. Knutsen ()
"This Occasional Paper aims to provide a relatively comprehensive introduction to an important discussion taking place nationally on issues relating to both higher education finance and quality. The intent is to accurately articulate the issues raised in this national debate and, where possible, relate it to the experience in California." Preface. Sections include: "Introduction;" "History and Missions of California Public Higher Education;" "The Clear and Present Challenge: Growth, Diversity, and Deficits;" "Higher Education Made Simple;" "Are Higher Education's Costs Going Up?" "A Framework to Explain the Causes of cost Escalaiton;" "Options for Improving Quality and Containing costs;" "A Framework for Institutional Change and Promising Examples in Other States;" "Conclusions;" and "Bibliography."

California Military Base Closures

Charlene Simmons, Ph.D., Roger Dunstan, and Ken Umbach, Ph.D. (CRB-93-002, April, 1993)
This issue summary discusses the base closure process and the relative employment impacts on California from the current round of recommended closures...(and) provides information about federal and state programs designed to facilitate and fund military base reuse planning efforts and community infrastructure investments. A survey of the 17 military installations currently being closed in California provides information about the status of local planning and reuse efforts.

California Economic Update: April 1993

Joseph Fitz ()
[Note: The 'California Economic Update," was a monthly CRB publication from April 1993 - December 1994. It compiled economic statistics for both the U.S. and the state, and assessed the current condition of the California economy. The "Update" was easy to read and had a number of charts concisely summarizing recent economic developments.]

Defense Conversion Policy: The Defense Authorization and Appropriations Acts for Fiscal Year 1993

Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D. (CRB-93-001, January, 1993)
In October, 1992, congress appropriated $1.7 billion for programs, many wholly new, to help areas with economies damaged by military base closures and defense contract cutbacks. With it s currently maimed economy, California seems a likely candidate for a substantial portion of these funds...This report summarizes the impact of defense reductions on the California economy, outlines the newly enacted federal defense conversion programs, and offers state policy options.

Breast Cancer

Leah Cartabruno (CRB-92-004, July, 1992)
This report assesses breast cancer and its effect on: women; the medical research and practitioner communities; health care providers and insurers; and government. If for no other reason than MediCal being the primary health care provider for a large segment of California's population, state government leaders need to be aware of breast cancer issues.

State Employees' (ed.) Contracts

Richard Markeson (CRB-92-002, March, 1992)
Who has the authority to set pay and benefit levels for: (a) state employees who are members of, or covered by, collective bargaining agreements; and (b) state employees who are supervisors or managers and are thus not covered by collective bargaining agreements? Since the use of collective bargaining began in 1982, changes in the terms and conditions of state employment have been reflected in Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs). With impasse in negotiations and the expiration of these MOUs, the state reverts to existing law to set those terms and conditions.

Sentencing in California

Robert E. Holmes (CRB-92-001, February, 1992)
In 1976-77, California changed from the indeterminate sentence (ISL) under which an offender was sent to prison for a flexible term with a parole board determining when he or she was ready for parole, to a determinate sentence (DSL) under which a felon is sent to prison for a definite term for a specific crime. However, 21 of the most serious crimes are still under an ISL format, primarily those involving the taking of human life.

Child Care

Jack Hailey (CRB-92-003, February, 1992)
The Legislature and the Governor will need to decide the budget for child care licensing, carried out by the Department of social Services(DSS). Policy changes such as reducing the required number of licensing visits, exempting additional programs from licensure, or charging fees for licensure might well follow any substantial cut in State operations.

State General Obligation Bonds for the 1992 Ballots

Dean Misczynski (CRB-92-001, January, 1992)
Bills currrently before the Legislature propose authorizing $15 billion in new bonds in these two elections. The Legislature has never put more than $6.8 billion in general obligation bonds on the ballot in any election year. This summary includes a very brief outline of the framework under which general obligation bonds are authorized, gives deadlines for 1992 bond measures, tabulates bond bills currently before the legislature(including their amounts, purpose, and status), includes some history about bond proposals on prior ballots, and offers a bibliography for additional reading.

State General Obligation Bonds for the 1992 Ballots

Dean Misczynski (CRB-91-001, November, 1991)
Bills currently before the Legislature propose authorizing $15 billion in new bonds in these two elections. The Legislature has never put more than $6.8 billion in general obligation bonds on the ballot in any election year. This summary includes a very brief outline of the framework under which general obligation bonds are authorized, gives deadlines for 1992 bond measures, tabulates bond bills currently before the legislature(including their amounts, purpose, and status), includes some history about bond proposals on prior ballots, and offers a bibliography for additional reading.

Papers presented in association with the California Research Bureau

Managing Technology Efficiently in California K-12 Schools

Kyra Caspary, Tim Kusserow, Jake Lavin, Maziar Movassaghi (Richard & Ronda Goldman School of Public Policy, UC Berkeley-99-001, June, 1999)
California is determined to integrate technology into schools; however, simply placing computers in schools will not improve student achievement or learning. Implementing a technology program, one that incorporates technology into the curriculum, creates problems for schools because owning technology is expensive. The cost fo technology is not simply the purchasing price; it consists of a variety of costs that accumulate over the technology's "life." The total cost of ownership (TCO) for technology is the life cycle of costs for technology. These include: capital costs (hardware, software and facilities), administrative and operating costs (planning, upgrade, replacement, and technical support), and end user operation costs (staff development and user downtime). This paper assesses TCO for technology in K-12 schools.

PDF version (207KB) is available online.