1 Irk Johnson, "More Casinos, More Players Who Lose it All," New York Times, 25 September 1995, p. A1.

2 "Guilt by Association," International Gaming and Wagering Business, 1 July 1995, p. 50.

3 The WEFA Group, Current Information on Problem and Underage Gambling (Bala Cynwyd, PA: The WEFA Group, 1994), p. 4.

4 William Thompson, Professor of Public Administration at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, "Gambling Boom," CQ Researcher, 8 March 1994, p. 250.

5 American Psychiatric Association, "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," Fourth Ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1992) p. 616.

6 Ibid., p. 618.

7 William R. Eadington, "Problem Gambling and Public Policy: Alternatives in Dealing with Problem Gamblers and Commercial Gambling," in Howard Shaffer, ed., Compulsive Gambling (Lexington, MA: Lexington Press, 1989), p. 177.

8 Emanuel Moran, "The Growing Presence of Pathological Gambling in Society: What We Know Now," in Eadington and Cornelius, eds., Gambling Behavior & Problem Gambling (Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, 1993), p. 136.

9 Rachel A. Volberg, "Prevalence Studies of Problem Gambling in the United States," Journal of Gambling Studies vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer 1996), p. 117.

10 Rachel A. Volberg, "The Prevalence and Demographics of Pathological Gamblers: Implications for Public Health," American Journal of Public Health vol. 84, no. 2 (February 1994), p. 239.

11 Ibid., p. 239.

12 Thompson, op.cit., p. 249.

13 Volberg, op.cit., pp. 237- 241.

14 Rachel A. Volberg, "Estimating the Prevalence of Pathological Gambling in the United States," in Eadington and Cornelius, eds., Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling, 1993, p. 368.

15 Mark Dickerson, "A Preliminary Exploration of a Two-Stage Methodology in the Assessment of the Extent and Degree of Gambling Related Problems in the Australian Population," in Eadington and Cornelius, eds., Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling (Reno NV: Institute for the study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, 1993), p. 347.

16 Moran, op.cit., p. 137.

17 Volberg, "Prevalence & Demographics," op.cit., p. 238.

18 William Thompson, Ricardo Gazel and Dan Rickman, The Social Costs of Gambling In Wisconsin, Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, July 1996, p. 7.

19 Rachel A. Volberg, personal comment.

20 Volberg, "Prevalence & Demographics," op.cit., 239.

21 This assertion is based on conversations with clinicians. Also noted in Volberg, Ibid., p. 239.

22 American Psychiatric Association, op.cit., p. 617.

23 Dr. Richard Rosenthal, personal comment, 8 July 1996.

24 Matt Connor, "Guilt by Association," International Gaming and Wagering Business, 1 July 1995, p. 50.

25 Ibid.

26 "Comments on John Kindt's 'The Economic Impacts of Legalized Gambling Activities,' " Harrah's Entertainment, Inc., 1995, p. 15.

27 "Response to Robert Goodman's 'Legalized Gambling as a Strategy for Economic Development' " Harrah's Entertainment Inc., 1995, p. 5.

28 Louisiana Compulsive Gambling Study Committee, Report to the Legislature of the State of Louisiana, 1996, p. 16.

29 International Gaming And Wagering Business, 1 July 1995, p. 50.

30 Thompson, Gazel and Rickman, op.cit., p. 9.

31 Gordon Moody, "The Roots, Significant, Value and Legislation of Gambling," Unpublished paper, p. 10.

32 Personal comments from a variety of clinicians.

33 Volberg, "Estimating the Prevalence of Pathological Gambling," op.cit., p. 366.

34 Henry Lesieur, "Compulsive Gambling--Crime and Drugs," Proceedings of the National Coalition Against Legalized Gambling, 25 October 1995, p.11.

35 I. Nelson Rose, "Gambling and the Law: Compulsive Gambling from Sin to Vice to Disease," Unpublished paper, 1995, p. 23.

36 Eadington, op.cit., p. 177.

37 Ibid., p. 181.

38 "Pathological Gambling," Harvard Mental Health Newsletter, January 1996, p. 2.

39 Henry R. Lesieur, "Compulsive Gambling," Society vol. 29, no. 4 (May/June 1992), p. 47.

40 William Thompson, Ricardo Gazel and Dan Rickman, Costs of Gambling in Wisconsin, Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, July 1996, p. 5.

41 John Kindt, "The Economic Costs of Legalized Gambling Activities," Drake Law Review vol. 43 (1994), p. 66.

42 Moran, op.cit., p. 141.

43 Jane Glenn Haas, "Games Seniors Play," Orange County Register, 19 May 1996, p.1.

44 Laurel Shaper Walters, "More Teens Play Games of Chance," Christian Science Monitor, 25 April 1990, p. 12.

45 WEFA Group, op.cit., p. 7.

46 Jennifer Perillo, "Betting Their Lives," Scholastic Choices, March 1994, p. 31.

47 "Response to Robert Goodman's 'Legalized Gambling as a Strategy for Economic Development' " Harrah's Entertainment Inc., 1995, p. 17.

48 Greg Garland, "Gaming Can Lead Teens to Crime, Suicide," Baton Rouge Advocate, 13 March 1994.

49 WEFA Group, op.cit., p. 7.

50 "Treatment: Focus on Teenage Gamblers," Behavior Today vol. 21, no. 11 (2 April 1990), p. 1.

51 Walters, op.cit., p. 12.

52 I. Nelson Rose, "The Rise and Fall of the Third Wave: Gambling will be Outlawed in Forty Years," in Eadington & Cornelius, eds., Gambling and Public Policy (Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, 1991), p. 72.

53 Louisiana Compulsive Gambling Study Committee, op.cit., p. 10.

54 Metropolitan Creditors Service of Sacramento v. Soheil Sadri1, 9 Cal. Rptr. 2d 646 1993.