Subject: Studies in the News 05-2 (January 7, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1855 - "The American Party, called the Know-Nothings, gained political power in 1855. The term 'Know-Nothing' is drawn from its secret ways. The Know-Nothings decided on their candidates in private and then, without publicly announcing them, came to the voting booths and wrote them in. The startled opposition was defeated by obscure Know-Nothings who were not even printed on the ballot. In 1855, the Know-Nothings added Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, Kentucky, New York and California to their list of solid Know-Nothing states. California Governor Bigler took his defeat good naturedly when the American, or "Know Nothing" party, swept the state."  The Protestant Crusade, p. 388  

1855 - "In 1855, a peculiar complication occurred between Governor Bigler and the Secretary of State, James W. Denver. Under the Constitution, as it then stood, the Secretary of State was the appointee of the Governor. Denver had been appointed by Bigler on February 19, 1853. Denver had been elected to Congress in 1854, and on October 5, 1855 he departed for Washington to attend his congressional duties, leaving his deputy in charge of the Secretary's office. On the 6th of October the Governor visited the office of the Secretary and handed to the deputy the commission of Charles H. Hempstead as the new Secretary of State, and directed the deputy to affix to it the seal, but the deputy refused to do so, on the ground that it was a constitutional office, and could not be vacated except by death, resignation, or impeachment. The deputy of Denver held possession of the office for a month, during which time his acts were not recognized as valid by the Governor. http://www.oldandsold.com/articles17/california-54.shtml"    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Policy considerations for DNA evidence
   Suing police officers for job-related actions
   Prisoner reentry programs
   Digital screening at the Mexican border
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Artists, musicians and the Internet
   Television's influence on sexual behavior
DEMOGRAPHY
   Asian population in the United States
   Population estimates by U.S. Census Bureau
   Latinos' inclusion in U.S. culture
ECONOMY
   Society's contribution to individual wealth
   Foreign-born researchers in the U.S.
   Rising ratio of retirees to taxpaying workers
   Small business economy
EDUCATION
   New literacy of technology
   Decline of schools
   International outcomes of math education
   Implementation of school choice programs
   Abstinence-only education pograms
   Abstinence education and sexual activity
   Federal special education program
   Teaching trends in California
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Inventory of greenhouse gases in the U.S.
   Global warming disrupts wildlife
   California water subsidies
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Federal preemption of state problem-solvers
   Federal assistance for earthquake recovery
   County government payrolls
   Legislators holding other government jobs
   City of Richmond financial decline
   Performance-based regulation
   Fiscal survey of the states
   Projected shortfalls in states' budgets
   States' budget outlook
   State of the State address
HEALTH
   African Americans and health care
   Reinbursement to pharmacies for prescription drugs
HOUSING
   LIHEAP emergency funds released
HUMAN SERVICES
   Food stamp participation changes
   Hunger and hardships of families in poverty
   Immigrant children at risk
   Cost of illegal immigration to California
   Federal policy for immigrant children
TRANSPORTATION
   Timeline of Oakland Bay Bridge seismic retrofit
   Audit of Bay Bridge retrofit project
STUDIES TO COME
   Education and civil society
   Air quality management
   Government contracting with outside partners
   Discussing legislative institutions
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DNA

DNA Evidence Policy Considerations for the Prosecutor. By Lisa R. Kreeger and Danielle M. Weiss, American Prosecutors Research Institute. (National District Attorneys Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2004. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.ndaa-apri.org/pdf/dna_evidence_policy_considerations_2004.pdf

["Developing specific policies for utilizing DNA evidence can help prosecutors and law enforcement officials establish priorities and avoid pitfalls. When policies are developed proactively, they enable localities to respond appropriately to the challenges presented by DNA evidence. Implementation of policies reduces the likelihood of wasted resources, unnecessary litigation and, most importantly, erosion of public confidence."]

[Request #S4700]

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POLICE OFFICERS

Brosseau v. Haugen. United States Supreme Court. No. 03-1261. December 13, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/13dec20041215/www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/04pdf/03-1261.pdf

["In a pair of victories for law enforcement, the Supreme Court made it harder to sue police for a questionable shooting of a fleeing suspect or for arresting a motorist on false charges. In both instances, the justices said the courts should give police officers the benefit of the doubt and not allow them to be sued for doing their jobs. [The] decisions reversed rulings of the San Francisco-based U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, which held that the police violated the rights of the suspects by subjecting them to an 'unreasonable seizure.'" Los Angeles Times (December 14, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4701]

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PRISONERS

The Front Line: Building Programs that Recognize Families' Role in Reentry. Mike Bobbit and Marta Nelson, Vera Institute of Justice. (The Institute, New York, New York) 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.vera.org/publication_pdf/249_476.pdf

["In this paper, [the authors] examine the trend towards providing family-focused reentry programming in prison and in the community, highlight ways that jurisdictions can structure such efforts, and address the challenges involved."]

[Request #S4702]

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TERRORISM

DHS Entry-Exit System Meets 2004 Goals Ahead of Schedule: Press Release. By the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (The Department, Washinbgton, DC) January 3, 2004. 1 p.

Full Text at: www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/press_release/press_release_0579.xml

["One year after launching a digital screening system to help identify suspicious foreigners arriving in the United States by air and sea, federal officials announced that they have extended the program to the 50 busiest U.S. land ports along the Canadian and Mexican borders — including six checkpoints in California.... The 372 cases in which authorities arrested or denied entry to foreign visitors included fugitives from federal prisons, convicted rapists, drug dealers and a convicted armed robber. They also included people who had violated immigration laws; some were attempting to enter with fraudulent visas." Los Angeles Times (January 4, 2004) A1.]

[Request #S4703]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

Artists, Musicians and the Internet. By Mary Madden. Pew Internet and American Life Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) December 5, 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Artists.Musicians_Report.pdf

["They have embraced the Internet as a tool that helps them create, promote, and sell their work. However, they are divided about the impact and importance of free file-sharing and other copyright issues."]

[Request #S4704]

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Does Watching Sex on Television Influence Teens’ Sexual Activity? By RAND Health, RAND Corporation. Research Brief. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9068/RB9068.pdf

[“Teens who watch a lot of television with sexual content are more likely to initiate intercourse in the following year. Television in which characters talk about sex affects teens just as much as television that actually shows sexual activity. Shows that portray the risk of sex can help educate teens.”]

[Request #S4705]

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DEMOGRAPHY

ASIAN AMERICANS

We the People: Asians in the United States. By Claudette E. Bennett and Terrence J. Reeves, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. Census 2000 Special Reports CESNR-17. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) December 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-17.pdf

["This report provides a portrait of the Asian population in the United States and discusses the eleven largest detailed Asian groups at the national level, for example: Asian Indian, Cambodian, and Japanese. It is part of the Census 2000 Special Reports series that presents several demographic, social, and economic characteristics collected from Census 2000."]

[Request #S4706]

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CENSUS

Population Data for 2004 - Impact on Bond Caps, SSBG Allocations. By Federal Funds Information for States. (FFIS, Washington, DC) December 28, 2004. 8 p.

["The U.S. Census Bureau released resident state population estimates for July 2004. The new data identify population shifts and affect certain grant-in-aid formulas. This issue brief summarizes the new Census population estimates and calculates their effect on 2005 tax-exempt private-activity bond limitations and Social Services Block Grant allocations."]

[Request #S4707]

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LATINOS

Shades of Belonging. By Sonya Tafoya, Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) December 2004. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/SomeOtherRace-Final%2012-04.pdf

["Latinos who view themselves as white are more likely to be better-educated, earn more, register to vote and vote Republican, according to a national study. In California, 42% of U.S.-born Mexican Americans identified themselves as white, compared with 63% of their ethnic counterparts in Texas.... Latinos are taking a broader view of race — one that extends beyond physical features and also encompasses degrees of achievement, belonging and inclusion." Los Angels Times (December 6, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4708]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

I Didn't Do It Alone: Society's Contribution to Individual Wealth and Success. By Chuck Collins, United for a Fair Economy, and others. (United for a Fair Economy, Boston, Massachusetts) 2004. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.responsiblewealth.org/press/2004/notalonereportfinal.pdf

["Admitting the role of luck, society’s investment and other advantages is the first step in having a realistic discussion about the true sources of success and opportunity in the U.S. economy. This new assessment is vital. Our collective understanding of the factors contributing to individual wealth creation will greatly affect the kind of society America becomes, and the extent to which we maintain the national ideal of equality of opportunity. It affects how we treat both the wealthy and the least fortunate among us."]

[Request #S4709]

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RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

The Contribution of Skilled Immigration and International Graduate Students to U.S. Innovation. By G. Chellaraj, the World Bank, and others. (The Bank, Washington, DC) 2004. 42 p.

Full Text at: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Topics/Services/chellaraj-maskus-mattoo_skilledworkerimpactonusa.pdf

["Post 9-11 restrictions that appear to have cut the numbers of foreign graduate students will also impact US innovation, says a new study... 10 percent increase in foreign graduate student numbers would produce a 3.3 percent increase in patent applications, a 6 percent boost in university patents and a 4 percent rise in non-university patents." ResearchResearch.Com (December 8, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4710]

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SAVINGS & PENSIONS

Long-term Analysis of the Diamond-Orszag Social Security Plan. By Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 22, 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/60xx/doc6044/12-22-Diamond-Orszag.pdf

["The approaching fiscal strains from the rising ratio of retirees to taxpaying workers have spurred proposals to change Social Security. This analysis considers the effect of a proposal ... that would both increase taxes and reduce benefits relative to those scheduled under current law."]

[Request #S4711]

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SMALL BUSINESS

The Small Business Economy. By Office of Advocacy, Small Business Administration. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2004. 226 p.

Full Text at: www.sba.gov/advo/stats/sb_econ2004.pdf

["The comprehensive study for the President examines the role small business plays in the economy. It focuses on economic trends and indicators, regulatory issues at the federal, state, and local levels, innovation and technology transfer, as well as federal government procurement and small business financing data."]

[Request #S4712]

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EDUCATION

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Tech Tonic: Towards a New Literacy of Technology. By Alliance for Childhood. (The Alliance, College Park, Maryland) 2004. 122 p.

Full Text at: www.allianceforchildhood.org/projects/computers/pdf_files/tech_tonic.pdf

["A new report challenges education standards and industry assertions that all teachers and children, from preschool up, should use computers in the classroom to develop technology literacy. The report strongly criticizes the extensive financial and political connections between education officials and school technology vendors. It urges citizens to wake up to the increasing influence of corporations in policymaking for public education." Public Education Weekly (December 10, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4713]

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K-12 EDUCATION

California's K-12 Public Schools: How are they Doing? By Stephen J. Carroll and others, RAND Education, RAND Corportion. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) January 2005. 258 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG186.pdf

["This study says California schools, once considered the country's best, now trail national averages in almost every indicator of school quality. Researchers point to a 1978 cap on property tax increases as the root of the state's educational problems, which include a ranking of 48 out of 50 states on national tests and the second-highest student-teacher ratio in the nation." ASCD SmartBrief (January 4, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S4714]

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MATHEMATICS

International Outcomes of Learning in Mathematics Literacy and Problem Solving: 2003 Results from the U.S. Perspective. By National Center for Education Statistics. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 133 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005003

["American high school students have a poorer mastery of basic math concepts than their counterparts in most other leading industrialized nations, according to a major international survey.... The study ranked the United States 24th out of 29 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development." Washington Post (December 7, 2004) A1.]

[Request #S4715]

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SCHOOL CHOICE

No Child Left Behind Act: Education Needs to Provide Additional Technical Assistance and Conduct Implementation Studies for School Choice Programs. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2004. 61 pages.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d057.pdf

["The school choice provision of NCLBA is intended to provide a unique opportunity for students in schools not meeting state goals to attend schools that have had greater success meeting these goals.... About 19,000 students transferred under the NCLBA choice option in the first year and an additional 31,000 in the second year, representing about 1 percent of those eligible..... District officials expressed concerns that parents may not always fully understand their options or have adequate time or information to make a fully informed decision."]

[Request #S4716]

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SEX EDUCATION

The Content of Federally Funded Abstinence-only Education Programs. By the Minority Staff Special Investigations Division, Committee on Government Reform, U. S. House of Representatives. Prepared for Rep. Henry A. Waxman. (The Division, Washington, DC) December 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.democrats.reform.house.gov/Documents/20041201102153-50247.pdf

["Representative Henry Waxman (D-CA) recently released a report reviewing federally funded abstinence-only sex education programs, which found that 11 of 13 most popular programs are teaching medically inaccurate information and harmful gender stereotypes to much of the country's youth between the ages of nine and 18." Moving Ideas (December 15, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4718]

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Waxman Report Is Riddled with Errors and Inaccuracies. By Melissa G. Pardue. (The Heritage Foundation, Washington DC) December 2, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Welfare/wm615.cfm

["A recent report by House staff attacks the effectiveness of school programs that encourage teens to abstain from sexual activity. But strong data support the abstinence approach. So far, ten evaluations show the effectiveness of abstinence education in reducing teen sexual activity." PolicyWire (December 10, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4719]

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SPECIAL EDUCATION

IDEA Reauthorization. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 04-57. (FFIS, Washington, DC) December 8, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2004/IB04-57.pdf

["During a lame-duck legislative session, conferees came to an agreement to reauthorize the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which governs the federal special education program. The House and Senate voted to approve this measure (H.R. 1350/H. Rpt. 108-779) and the bill was signed by the president. The bill authorizes significant new funding for IDEA, although actual spending decisions will ultimately be made by congressional appropriators."]

[Request #S4720]

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TEACHERS

Teaching and California's Future: California's Teaching Force 2004: Key Issues and Trends. By Camille E. Esch and others, SRI International. Prepared for the Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning and California State University, Office of the Chancellor. (The Center, Santa Cruz, California) 2004.

["A new study by an independent group of academics and public policy experts predicts California will have to replace more than 100,000 retiring teachers during the next decade. The group also found that since 1999, the number of uncredentialed teachers has dropped from about 14% to about 9% of the work force." ASCD SmartBrief (December 9, 2004).]

Full Report. 107 p.:
http://www.cftl.org/documents/2004/1204report/1204fullreport.pdf

Summary Report and Fact Sheets. 11 p.:
http://www.cftl.org/documents/2004/1204report/1204repoverview.pdf

Presenter's Kit. 18 p.:
http://www.cftl.org/documents/2004/1204report/1204repPresenters.pdf

[Request #S4721]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003. By the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. (The Administration, Washington, DC) December 2004.

["U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2003 were 13.4 percent higher than 1990 emissions -- an average annual increase of 1.0 percent over the period. Since 1990, U.S. emissions have increased more slowly than the average annual growth in population, primary energy consumption, electric power generation, or gross domestic product."]

The Report. 124 p.:
ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt/057303.pdf

[Request #S4722]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Global Climate Change and Wildlife in North America. By the Technical Review Committee on Global Climate Change and Wildlife. Submitted to The Wildlife Society. (National Wildlife Federation, Bethesda, Maryland) December 2004.

["In the first comprehensive assessment of global warming's likely consequences for North American wildlife from the nation's leading group of wildlife professionals, comes a warning of possible major shifts in the ranges and the restructuring of entire plant and animal communities, and the disappearance of some forest types in the United States." U.S. Newswire (December 15, 2004) 1.]

Report. 26 p.:
http://www.nwf.org/nwfwebadmin/binaryVault/Wildlife_Society_Report1.pdf

Press Release. 1 p.:
http://www.nwf.org/news/story.cfm?pageId=D7773037%2D65BF%2D09FE%2DB613D77CBBEAE686

[Request #S4723]

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WATER POLICY

California Water Subsidies: Large Agribusiness Operations - Not Small Family Farmers - Are Reaping a Windfall from Taxpayer-subsidized Cheap Water. By The Environmental Working Group. (The Group, Oakland, California) December 2004. 33 pages.

Full Text at: www.ewg.org/reports/watersubsidies/printerfriendly.php

["At a time when California water is scarce and expensive, taxpayers guarantee Central Valley farms a cheap and abundant supply worth up to $416 million a year, an investigation found. Just 10 percent of the farms get two-thirds of the water, and dozens get $1 million worth of water a year." New York Times (December 15, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4724]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

FEDERAL / STATE RELATIONS

Tying the Hands of States: The Impact of Federal Preemption on State Problem-solvers. By Alison Cassady, the National Association of State PIRGs. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2004. 26 p.

Full Text at: uspirg.org/reports/TyingtheHandsofStates.pdf

["The growing trend of federal preemption of state law threatens to limit the traditional role of states as the laboratories of innovative public policy. This report examines the trend and profiles five issue areas where preemption has affected states' ability to enact protections that are more stingent than federal law: consumer privacy, banking regulation, health care, global warming, and nuclear power."]

[Request #S4725]

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FEDERAL AID

Residential Recovery from the Northridge Earthquake: An Evaluation of Federal Assistance Programs. By Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris and Nabil M. Kamel, California Policy Research Center, University of California. CPRC Brief. vol. 16, no. 1. (The Center, Berkeley, California) 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/eq%20recoverybrf.pdf

["[The authors] examined and assessed the effectiveness of the six major federal residential recovery programs.... [They] investigated how recovery policies, implementation strategies, and existing institutional arrangements affected postdisaster recovery outcomes. Study findings have implications for improving the region's and the state's resilience in the event of another major disaster."]

[Request #S4726]

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GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES

An Analysis of Government Payroll and Employment for Counties in California. By The Center for Government Analysis. (The Center, Newport Beach, California) 2004. 149 p.

Full Text at: www.hjta.org/CGA.CA.County.Report.pdf

["This report analyzes payroll expenditures and employment levels of 57 of the 58 counties in California ... The total payroll expenditures and employment levels in each county for the years 1997 and 2002 are analyzed. In addition, payroll expenditures and employment levels in each county for specific categories in 1997 and 2002 are analyzed. The categories of employees are corrections, financial administration, judicial and legal, other government administration, health, parks and recreation, sworn police, non-sworn police, and welfare."]

[Request #S4727]

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LEGISLATURES

Who's the Boss? Legislators With Other Government Jobs. By David Dagan, the Center for Public Integrity. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.publicintegrity.org/oi/printer-friendly.aspx?aid=378

["In all, 10 percent of state legislators who reported their finances held separate jobs with one or more government agencies in 2001, the last year for which data was available. When spouses' salaries were included, that figure jumped to 19 percent.... The analysis included salaries paid for employment with federal, state, local or tribal governments, public schools and universities, and other public agencies in the 47 states in which financial disclosures are required."]

[Request #S4728]

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT

City of Richmond: Poor Spending Decisions and Weak Monitoring of Its Finances Caused Its Financial Decline and Hinder Its Ability to Recover. By California State Auditor, California Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) December 2004. 57 pages.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2004-117.pdf

[“This report concludes that the city [of Richmond] drained its financial assets and jeopardized its financial stability because it failed to control spending while its revenues decreased. Between 1998 and 2003, the city entered into agreements with its six employee unions that significantly increased salaries and improved retirement benefits. Unreasonable budget estimates in fiscal years 2002-03 and 2003-04, some of which were intentional, and ineffective budget monitoring masked Richmond’s overspending and the city did not take timely action to reduce its costs.”]

[Request #S4729]

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REGULATIONS

Performance-based Regulation: Prospects and Limitations in Health, Safety, and Environmental Regulation. By Cary Coglianese, Center for the Study of Law and Society Jurisprudence and Social Policy. (The Center, Berkeley, California) 2004. 26 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=csls

["[This report] builds on the experiences of different regulatory agencies that have used performance-based regulation and clarifies its advantages and disadvantages in addressing health, safety and environmental problems."]

[Request #S4730]

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STATE BUDGETS

The Fiscal Survey of States. By the National Governors Association and the National Association of State Budget Officers. (The National Governors Association, Washington, DC) December 2004. 59 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/FSS0412.pdf

["The survey presents aggregate and individual data on the states’ general fund receipts, expenditures and balances. Although not the totality of state spending, these funds are used to finance most broad-based state services and are the most important elements in determining the fiscal health of the states."]

[Request #S4731]

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State Fiscal Crisis Lingers: Cuts Still Loom. By Nicholas Johnson, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) December 8, 2004. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/12-8-04sfp.pdf

["When state legislatures convene in early 2005 to write their budgets for the 2005-06 fiscal year, many will consider cutting services or raising new revenues in order to bring their budgets into balance. At least 22 states now project shortfalls averaging roughly 6 percent to 7.5 percent of their general fund spending. The combined deficit is approximately $25 billion to $30 billion."]

[Request #S4732]

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State Budget Update: November 2004. By National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) December 2004. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/print/fiscal/sbu2005-0411.pdf

["The National Conference of State Legislatures released the results of a new 50-state survey of state legislative fiscal officers that shows more money is flowing into state coffers, but it's not expected to be enough to relieve health and education funding pressures for fiscal year 2006 in many states." NCSL News (December 9, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4733]

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STATE OF THE STATE

State of the State Address. By California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. (The Office of the Governor, Sacramento, California) January 5, 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/564ke

["Schwarzenegger said in his annual State of the State speech in the Assembly chamber that he would devote his second year in power to ambitious changes that would reverberate in California and beyond, from classrooms to Congress; drug companies to prisons." Los Angeles Times (January 6, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4717]

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HEALTH

AFRICAN AMERICANS

"The Contributions of Health Communication to Eliminating Health Disparities." By Vicki S. Freimuth and Sandra Crouse Quinn. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 12 (December 2004) pp. 2053-2055.

["More than 886,000 deaths could have been prevented from 1991 to 2000 if African Americans had received the same care as whites, according to [a study.]... The study estimates that technological improvements in medicine -- including better drugs, devices and procedures -- averted only 176,633 deaths during the same period. That means "five times as many lives can be saved by correcting the disparities [in care between whites and blacks] than in developing new treatment." Washington Post (December 21, 2004) F1.]

[Request #S4734]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Medicaid's Reinbursement of Pharmacies for Prescription Drugs. By Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/60xx/doc6038/12-16-Medicaid.pdf

["Between fiscal years 1997 and 2002, Medicaid's expenditures on prescription drugs in the fee-for-service part of the program increased from $10.2 billion to 23.4 billion. About one-quarter of those amounts went to wholesales and pharmacies to compensate for disributing and dispensing the drugs.... This paper examines recent trends in the 'markup' -- or the difference between the total amount that state Medicaid agencies paid to pharmacies and the the amount that pharmacies and wholesalers paid to purchase the drugs from manufacturers."]

[Request #S4735]

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HOUSING

LOW-INCOME HOUSING

LIHEAP Emergency Funds Released. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 04-60. (FFIS, Washington, DC) December 29, 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2004/IB04-60.pdf

["On December 23, 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released $100 million in fiscal year 2005 Low Income Home Emergency Assistance Program (LIHEAP) emergency funds. The emergency funds add to basic LIHEAP allotments in helping states to assist low-income households facing increases in heating fuel prices and colder-than-normal weather. States may use these funds for any purpose authorized under LIHEAP, including heating assistance, crisis assistance, weatherization and administrative costs."]

[Request #S4736]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOOD STAMPS

Recent Trends in Food Stamp Participation Among Poor Families with Children. By Sheila R. Zedlewski and Kelly Rader, The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311027_DP04-03.pdf

["This study examines whether new program rules and procedures increased participation rates for families with children. Our results show that families recently on welfare were substantially more likely to participate in the Food Stamp Program in 2002 than in 1997 or 1999.... In contrast, participation rates for families with no cash welfare experience, the largest share of poor families with children, remained quite low throughout the period."]

[Request #S4737]

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HUNGER

Hunger, Crowding, and Other Hardships Are Widepread Among Families in Poverty. By Arloc Sherman, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) December 20, 2004. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/12-20-04pov.pdf

["Hunger and problems affording adequate food affect millions of American households each year and, after declining in the late 1990s, have grown somewhat more common during recent years. [The Center found that] 3.2 million poor and near-poor households, with nearly 8 million children, experienced hunger, severe crowding, or phone or utility shutoffs."]

[Request #S4738]

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IMMIGRATION

Children of Recent Immigrants: National and Regional Trends. By Ayana Douglas-Hall and Heather Koball, National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) December 2004.

["This new report reveals that two-thirds of the children of recent immigrants live in low-income families -- many of them live in the South and West, with an increasing proportion moving to the South. For these children, the risks to academic, physical, emotional, and social development usually associated with economic insecurity are likely to be increased by language barriers, the process of migration and acculturation, and restrictions on access to safety net programs."]

Full Report. 11 p.:
http://nccp.org/media/cri04-text.pdf

Fact Sheet. 4 p.:
http://nccp.org/media/cli04-text.pdf

[Request #S4739]

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The Cost of Illegal Immigration to California. By Jack Martin, Federation for American Immigration Reform. (The Federation, Washington, DC) December 2004. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.fairus.org/Files/getFile.cfm?id=2571

["Analysis of the latest Census data indicates that California’s illegal immigrant population is costing the state’s taxpayers more than $10.5 billion per year for education, medical care and incarceration.... This analysis looks specifically at the costs to the state for education, health care and incarceration resulting from illegal immigration."]

[Request #S4740]

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Federal Policy for Immigrant Children: Room for Common Ground. By Ron Haskins, The Future of Children, and others. Policy Brief. vol. 14, no. 2. (The Future of Children, Washington, DC) Summer 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/Federal_Policy_for_Immigrant_Children.pdf

["This policy brief focuses on the 20 percent of America's children who live in immigrant households. Evidence shows that these children are more likely to live in poverty than native born children and are below average on many important measures of child development, including vocabulary and school achievement. These children will represent a significant part of our future workforce, and their achievement will impact our economy, as well as the viability of the nation's Social Security and Medicare programs. As a result, scholars and policymakers should pay more attention to these children's development. This brief discusses different approaches to policy change that could promote the development of immigrant children."]

[Request #S4741]

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TRANSPORTATION

INFRASTRUCTURE

Timeline of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Seismic Retrofit: Milestones in Decision-Making, Financing, and Construction. By Daniel Pollak, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB-04-013. (Sacramento, California) December 2004. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/04/13/04-013.pdf

["The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 1989 revealed the seismic vulnerability of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. This annotated timeline of the Bay Bridge begins in 1929, but mainly focuses on the efforts to seismically retrofit the Bay Bridge after 1989, especially the project to rebuild its eastern span (the portion running from Oakland to Yerba Buena Island)."]

[Request #S4742]

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Department of Transportation: Various Factors Increased Its Cost Estimates for Toll Bridge Retrofits, and Its Program Management Needs Improving. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) December 2004. 94 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2004-140.pdf

["The state Department of Transportation concealed cost overruns on the new Bay Bridge eastern span from the Legislature and public, mismanaged the project and consistently underestimated expenses, a state audit said.... Other factors, including Caltrans' failure to accurately estimate its own costs for overseeing bridge contractors and hiring consultants, and the need for bigger reserves to cover unforeseen construction problems, were also significant." San Francisco Chronicle (December 23, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4743]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

CIVICS

Making Good Citizens: Education and Civil Society. By Diane Ravitch and Joseph P. Viteritti. (Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut) 2004. 368 p.

["From the earliest days of our nation, educational theorists have contended that their ideas -— and only their ideas -— were best suited for future citizens in a democracy. In the throes of a debate about education, it is always best to scrutinize carefully the differing definitions of both education and democracy, and the likely fit between them. Of one thing we can be reliably sure: those who have a vision of schooling usually have a vision, too, of a particular kind of social order." Publisher's Announcement (2004) 1. NOTE: Making Good Citizens ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4744]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Air Quality Management in the United States. By the Committee on Air Quality Management in the U.S. National Research Council. (The National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2004. 401 p.

["Among its recommendations, the committee identified the following objectives to strengthen the air quality management system in the long-term: 1) Strive to identify and assess more clearly the most significant exposures, risks, and uncertainties; 2) Strive to take an integrated multipollutant approach to controlling emissions of pollutants posing the most significant risks; 3) Strive to take an airshed-based approach by assessing and controlling emissions of important pollutants arising from local, multistate, national, and international sources." NOTE: Air Quality ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4745]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT REFORM

Governing by Network: The New Shape of the Public Sector. By Stephen Goldsmith, William D. Eggers. (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC) 2004. 224 p.

["Uncle Sam now spends about $100 billion more annually for outside contracts than it does for employee salaries.... If the government has become ever more reliant on its network-based partnerships, then public officials need to figure out how best to make them work.... Traditional bureaucracy is not only expensive and confusing, but is not set up to work with outside organizations." Governing (December 2004) 1. NOTE: Governing by Network ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4746]

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LEGISLATURES

Heavy Hitting: The Job of the American Legislature. By Alan Rosenthal. (CQ Press, Wasington, DC) 2004. 250 p.

["Rosenthal's newest book is in large measure an effort to sum up his life work by answering the question 'What makes a good legislature?' He starts by citing a couple of criteria that, in his view, shouldn't be used to determine whether a legislature is good or not. One is the product. That's a matter of political values and personal taste.... Then there's structure.... The essence of a 'good' legislature lies somewhere else.... Legislative excellence is all about balance and harmony. There are three major functions of the modern legislature: representation, lawmaking and dealing with the executive branch." Governing (September 4, 2004) 4.]

[Request #S4747]

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