Subject: Studies in the News 04-73 (November 9, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

November 1854 - "Charles Layton was killed in November 1854 as a member of a posse pursuing the bandit Anastacio García. He was the original keeper of Point Piños, the third lighthouse established on the West Coast. His widow, Charlotte A. Layton and her four children had been left entirely destitute. The local customs collector authorized her to continue at the post occupied by her late husband... She was paid $1000 per year, which was higher than the salary of East Coast keepers. "  www.rudyalicelighthouse.net/CalLts/PtPinos/PtPinos  

November 1854 - "The first two men convicted of murder in District Court of El Dorado County were executed November 3, 1854 by hanging in Coloma and it was witnessed by 6,000 people. "  www.historichwy49.com/placer/eldohist.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Crime rates decline in California
   Sentencing reform for nonviolent offenses
   Onsite domestic violence services
   Legal implications of Internet filtering
   Prison growth in the U.S.
ECONOMY
   Financial access for immigrants
   Current economic conditions
   Social accountabilty for companies
   Wealth of Hispanic households
   Small business survival index
EDUCATION
   Gifted students in K-12 education
   Resources needed for charter schools
   Early care and education in the states
   College costs lowest in nation
   Race-neutral admissions at colleges
   Use of student data for commercial activities
   New teachers ill-prepared for the classroom
EMPLOYMENT
   Trade sanctions and child labor
   Federal government workforce
   San Diego's pension reform committee
   Generational work attitudes
ENERGY
   Energy efficiency policies in California
   Integrated energy policy
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Air pollution may reduce California rainfall
   Brownfields and community revitalization
   Growth management in California
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Nonpartisan elections in Canada
   Bioterrorism and emergency preparedness
   Homeland security and immigration programs
   Open source software trials in government
   Local government and tax revenue
   State tax credits
   Survey of college-aged voter registrations
HEALTH
   Children with special health care needs
   Physical activity among children attending preschools
   Patients' perception of their hospital care
   Reinsurance subsidies
   Obesity policies failing in America
   U.S. prescription drug prices
   Prescription drug pools
HOUSING
   House prices and fundamental value
   Housing affordability
   Los Angeles revitalization zone
HUMAN SERVICES
   Grants flowing into Central Valley
   Indicators of social context
   Homeless shelter downsizing
   TANF and work activities
TRANSPORTATION
   Airport screeners training
STUDIES TO COME
   Future of genetically modified crops
   Companies respond to greenhouse gas emissions
   A generation promised generous retirement benefits
   Pharmaceutical research and development
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME RATES

Crime in 2004: January Through June. By the California Department of Justice. (The Department, Sacramento, California) November 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/cjsc/publications/preliminarys/jj04/jj04.pdf

["Reported violent crime in California dipped 3.8 percent during the first six months of the year, according to a state Department of Justice report, but numbers for homicides and rapes were up." Contra Costa Times (November 2, 2004) 1.]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM

Sentencing Reform for Nonviolent Offenses: Benefits and Estimated Savings for Illinois. By Lise Mckean and Susan K. Shapiro, Center for Impact Research. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) October 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.impactresearch.org/documents/sentencingreformreport.pdf

["This report examines alternatives to incarceration for nonviolent drug offenses, including the potential cost savings and the social benefits of sentencing nonviolent drug offenders to mandated substance abuse treatment and intensive community supervision instead of prison." Moving Ideas (October 7, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4344]

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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Self Sufficiency and Safety: The Case for Onsite Domestic Violence Services at Employment Services Agencies. By Lise Mckean, Center for Impact Research. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) October 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.impactresearch.org/documents/DVpolicyreport.pdf

["This report is intended to inform public policy debates about the need and benefits of offering domestic violence education and services onsite at employment services agencies. It highlights the challenges, service needs, and outcomes of low income domestic violence survivors as they struggle to keep themselves and their children safe, become and remain employed, and attain self sufficiency." Moving Ideas (October 7, 2004) 1.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

A Starting Point: Legal Implications of Internet Filtering. By OpenNet Initiative. (The Initiative, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2004. 17 p.

Full Text at: opennetinitiative.net/docs/Legal_Implications.pdf

["In this paper, the Open Net Initiative considers some of the legal implications of controlling access to Internet content through filtering.... [This] paper highlights the importance of transparency, accountability, and inclusiveness in order to maintain a reliable, efficient, and global medium for communication."]

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PRISONS

The New Landscape of Imprisonment: Mapping America's Prison Expansion. By Sarah Lawrence and Jeremy Travis, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410994_mapping_prisons.pdf

["With the explosion in the number of state and federal prisoners during the past two decades has come a significant expansion in the count and location of prison facilities. As a group, the 10 leading states -- [including] Texas, Florida, California -- operated more than three times as many prisons in 2000 as in 1979."]

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ECONOMY

BANKING

Financial Access for Immigrants: Learning from Diverse Perspectives. By Audrey Singer and Anna Paulson, The Brookings Institution. Policy Brief. Conference Report no. 19. (The Institution, Washington, DC) October 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/comm/conferencereport/cr19.pdf

["Policymakers and academics are now catching up to financial institutions in their desire to understand how and why immigrants use U.S. financial markets.... This Policy Brief highlights the research findings that were presented at the conference."]

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CALIFORNIA

State of the State Conference: 2004: Briefing Book. By Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) October 19, 2004. 121 p.

["This volume gives an overview of economic conditions in California through the use of charts, tables and maps, as well as bulleted highlights of each section. It includes chapters on International Trade, Business Climate, Technology, Industry profiles, Workforce Development and Energy."]

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CORPORATIONS

The Accountability Rating 2004: Encoding Accountability. By AccountAbility Institute for Social and Ethical Accountability and CSR Network. (The Institute, London, United Kingdom) 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.accountability.org.uk/uploadstore/cms/docs/AR_Execsumm.pdf

["The tool maps out the crucial realignment businesses must make if they are to create long-term economic value as well as playing their part in sustaining development. The tool provides new insight into the progress being made by the world's largest companies in being held to account for their long-term input on society and the environment."]

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INCOME INEQUITY

The Wealth of Hispanic Households: 1996 to 2002. By Rakesh Kochhar. Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 2004. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/The%20Wealth%20of%20Hispanic%20Households.pdf

["Latino households have an average of less than a 10th of the wealth that white households have, according to a new national study.... The study finds that blacks lag even further behind in the accumulation of wealth.... The stark difference in wealth means blacks and Latinos are more vulnerable to economic downturns and less likely to be able to save for retirement or to pass on to their children." New York Times (October 17, 2004) 1.]

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SMALL BUSINESS

Small Business Survival Index 2004: Ranking the Policy Environment for Entrepreneurship Across the Nation. By Raymond J. Keating, Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) October 2004. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.sbsc.org/Media/pdf/SBSI_2004.pdf

["The Small Business Survival Index ties together 23 major government-imposed or government-related costs impacting small business and entrepreneurs across a broad spectrum of industries and types of business."]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

A Nation Deceived: How Schools Hold Back America's Brightest Students. By Nicholas Colangelo and others. University of Iowa. (The University, Iowa City, Iowa) 2004.

["A new University of Iowa report seeks to debunk myths that accelerated learning for gifted students is unfair, expensive for schools and causes students to be social outcasts.... When children are grade-skipped or given acceleration, the results are very positive, not just cognitively, but socially.... Holding gifted students back can squander their learning and leadership potential." Register Iowa City Bureau (September 21, 2004) 1.]

Volume 1. 82 p.:
http://nationdeceived.org/NDv1.pdf

Volume 2. 190p.:
http://nationdeceived.org/NDv2.pdf

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CHARTER SCHOOLS

Built for Quality: The Capacity Needed to Oversee Charter Schools. By Nelson Smith and Paul Herdman, National Association of Charter School Authorizers. (The Associaiton, Washington, DC) 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.charterauthorizers.org/files/nacsa/BECSA/IssueBriefNo3.pdf

["Authorizing [charter schools] demands a range of capacities, some very new to the public-education arena. In this brief, [the authors] examine three capacity issues: the kinds of resources needed for effective authorizing; the challenges commonly encountered in securing these resources; and capacity-building strategies used by some leading authorizers to meet the demands of this work."]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

The Status of Early Care and Education in the States. By Erica Williams, Institute for Women's Policy Research, and Anne W. Mitchell, Early Childhood Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/R264.pdf

["This report outlines the need for quality care by working parents and by children in the early stages of development, discusses the benefits of such care for children, and provides an overview of the programs that currently exist. The report presents national and state-by-state data on the availability, quality, and cost of early care and education programs, and recommends steps for states and the federal government to expand and improve current early care and education programs, putting the United States on a path toward a system of high-quality, voluntary, universal early care and education."]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Measuring Up. By the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. Report no. 04-4. (The Center, San Jose, California.) 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: measuringup.highereducation.org/docs/statereports/CA04.pdf

["California has lost some ground in its prominence as a provider of cheap college degrees but remains the nation's leader in providing low-cost public higher education, according to a report.... California's lower score for affordability stems largely from steep fee increases enacted during the 2002-03 school year that hit students in all three segments of the state's public higher education system." Sacramento Bee (September 15, 2004) 1.]

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LATINOS

The Reality of Race-neutral Admissions at the University of California: Turning the Tide or Turning Them Away. By Stephanie M. Lamibao and others, Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) October 2004. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.trpi.org/PDFs/uc_admissions04.pdf

["A report by a think tank specializing in Latino issues has strongly criticized the University of California for the declining percentages of African American and Latino students admitted to its campuses this year, saying the university risks stratifying its campuses along racial lines. The report focused on the lower acceptance rates for African American and Latino applicants to UC since California voters banned the consideration of race in admissions decisions at public institutions in 1996." Los Angeles Times (October 27, 2004) 1.]

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STATE OVERSIGHT

Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-04-810. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2004. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04810.pdf

["To update information about commercial activities in schools, Congress asked [the GAO] to answer the following questions: 1) Since 2000, what statutes and regulations have states enacted and proposed to govern commercial activities in schools? 2) To what extent have districts developed policies implementing amended provisions of the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment in the No Child Left Behind Act on the use of student data for commercial purposes? 3) What guidance has the Department of Education disseminated?"]

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TEACHING STANDARDS

Public Education in Your State: Setting the Agenda and Staying the Course: A Symposium by Governors For Governors: Summary Report. By James B. Hunt, Jr. Institute. (The Institute, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.hunt-institute.org/Symposium2004.asp

["The James B. Hunt, Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy launched its inaugural event with the first annual Symposium for Governors by Governors. More than twenty governors from around the nation participated in the Symposium –- Public Education in Your State: Setting the Agenda and Staying the Course -- focusing on substantive education reform issues ranging from early childhood education to teacher quality to achievement, accountability and assessment."]

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EMPLOYMENT

CHILD LABOR

Saving the Children? Six Alternatives to Trade Sanctions in the Fight Against Child Labor. By Shamarukh Mohiuddin, Progressive Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ppionline.org/documents/SavingChildren_1020.pdf

["This report recommends approaches to curtail child labor: 1) stressing incentives for countries over the threat of punishment; 2) supporting the work of the International Labor Organization; 3) investing in education; 4) reinvesting in international family planning efforts; 5) enlisting local government cooperation; and 6) implementing 'best practices' that encourage good corporate behavior."]

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EMPLOYMENT SKILLS

Asking the Wrong Questions: A Look at How the Federal Government Assesses and Selects its Workforce. By Partnership for Public Service and Performance. (The Partnership, Washington, DC) October 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.ourpublicservice.org/usr_doc/PPS_ASSESSMENT_REPORT.pdf

["The primary method used by the federal government to assess new hires -- assigning points based on applicants’ self-reported training and experience -- is the least effective available predictor of job performance...Only 39 percent of federal employees agree that their work unit is hiring people with the right skills."]

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RETIREMENT

Memorandum. By the Office of Mayor Dick Murphy, City of San Diego (The Office, San Diego, California) 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: genesis.sannet.gov/infospc/templates/mayor/images/pdf/memo_pension_reform.pdf

["San Diego's Pension Reform Committee painted a bleak picture of the city's retirement system, suggesting in its final report that a gaping deficit, benefit hikes and unmet health-care costs will exact a staggering toll on taxpayers for years to come." San Diego Union Tribune (September 16, 2004) 1.]

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WOMEN

Generation and Gender in the Workplace: By the Families and Work Institute. (American Business Collaboration, Watertown, Massachusetts) 2004. 30 p.

Full Text at: familiesandwork.org/eproducts/genandgender.pdf

["A study commissioned by the American Business Collaboration and conducted by the Families and Work Institute with nationally representative samples of the U.S. workforce, found that younger workers are more likely to be 'family-centric' or 'dual-centric' and less 'work-centric' compared to members of the baby boomer generation." National Association for the Education of Young Children (October 26, 2004) 1.]

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ENERGY

ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Five Years In: An Examination of the First Half-decade of Public Benefits Energy Efficiency Policies. By Martin Kushler and Others, (The Council, Washington, DC) 2004. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.fypower.org/pdf/ACEEE_PGC_Study.pdf

["The purpose of this project is to provide policymakers, regulators, and other interested parties with information that will assist them in understanding and assessing the 'public benefits' energy efficiency approaches that have been tried to date, and in designing and implementing even more effective policies in the future."]

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ENERGY

2004 Integrated Energy Policy Report Update. By California Energy Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco, California) October 2004. 97 p.

Full Text at: www.fypower.org/pdf/CEC_Final_IEPR2004.pdf

["California Energy Commission (CEC) has issued the Final 2004 Integrated Energy Policy Report Update. The final report confirms CEC's draft findings that increasing demand response in California is of the highest importance. The report also includes a progress update on priorities and policies laid out in the 2003 Energy Policy Report. The CEC found that progress toward increasing both energy efficiency in existing buildings and participation in demand response through dynamic pricing tariffs and advanced metering 'needs improvement.'" eNewswire (October 28, 2004) 1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

The Effects of Aerosols on California and South Coast Climate. By Mark Z. Jacobson, Stanford University. Presented to the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) October 2004. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/pier/notices/2004-10-28_seminar/2004-10-28_JACOBSON.PDF

["[This is] the first study to use a new computer program to examine airborne pollutants' effect on a regional climate. Coupled with possible reduced precipitation from global warming, the effect could be a more limited supply of water for the state's growing population." Los Angeles Daily News (October 29, 2004) 1.]

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BROWNFIELDS

Unlocking Brownfields: Keys to Community Revitalization. By the National Association of Local Government Environmental Professionals. (The Association, Washington, DC) November 2004. 172 p.

Full Text at: www.nalgep.org/ewebeditpro/items/O93F4460.pdf

["This report represents the culmination of a decade of research and experience focused on brownfields reuse. The report includes more than 50 profiles of successful brownfields projects and programs, five critical brownfields messages which document the evolution of brownfields success in America, and the '10 Keys to Brownfields Revitalization.'" Smartgrowth Online (November 1, 2004) 1.]

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GROWTH MANAGEMENT

A Reporter’s Resource and Media Guide to Growth in California. By California Policy Forum and Others. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) November 2004. 139 pages.

Full Text at: www.calfutures.org/mediaguide.pdf

["Unprecedented population pressures throughout California are threatening the state’s natural values and pristine landscapes. The threat is largely the result of land use policies that favor low-density development over carefully planned growth within existing urban boundaries. [This guide] discusses numerous issues that affect planning and growth." Smart Growth Online (November 1, 2004) 1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ELECTIONS

Modernizing the Electoral Process: Recommendations from the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada Following the 37th General Election. By Elections Canada. (Elections Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) 2001. 181 p.

Full Text at: www.elections.ca/gen/rep/r37/recommandations_e.pdf

["Includes: "Providing a More Accessible and Efficient Electoral Process," "Greater Accessibility for Candidates and Political Parties," "The Use of Public Monies for Advance Access and Accountability," "Ensuring Fair Competition -- Broadcasting," "Transparency in Election Financing," "Effectively Enforcing the Electoral System' 'Managing the Electoral Process," "Extending the Application of the Canada Elections Act."]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Bioterrorism: America Still Unprepared. By Jim Turner, House Select Committee on Homeland Security. (The Committee, Washington, DC) October, 2004. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.house.gov/hsc/democrats/pdf/hsc_docs/finalreportwithcover.pdf

["Democratic Staff of the Select Committee on Homeland Security launched an investigation into the nation’s stockpiles of bioterror countermeasures and the capabilities of state and local agencies to deliver them to the public in time to save their lives... Based on surveys and interviews with over a 100 state and local public health officials, this investigation has concluded that our nation is not prepared to distribute federally supplied vaccines and medicines quickly enough to respond successfully to a bioterror threat or other public health emergency."]

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Homeland Security: Management Challenges Remain in Transforming Immigration Programs. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0581.pdf

["This report assesses the states of 1) communication and coordination of roles and responsibilities; 2) integration of immigration and customs investigation in Immigration and Customs Enforcement; and 3) administrative services and systems in Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement."]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLGY

Open Source Software Trials in Government: Final Report. By Office of Government Commerce. (The Office, Norwich, Norfolk, Great Britain) October 2004. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.ogc.gov.uk/embedded_object.asp?docid=1002367

["Open Source software is a viable and credible alternative to proprietary software for infrastructure implementations, and for meeting the requirements of the majority of desktop users... Costs and Benefits: Adoption of Open Source software can generate significant savings in hardware and software costs for infrastructure implementation, and reduce the licensing costs and hardware refreshment requirements for desktop implementation."]

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TAX REFORM

"Cuno v. DaimlerChrysler: A Critique." By Edward A. Zelinsky. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 34 no. 1 (October 4, 2004) pp. 37-41.

Full Text at: services.taxanalysts.com/taxbase/nav.nsf/STNFrame?Open&Login

["In this article, Edward Zelinsky criticizes the recent decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Cuno v. DaimlerChrysler Inc. In Cuno, the Sixth Circuit struck on dormant Commerce Clause grounds a state income tax credit granted to DaimlerChrysler for expanding its operations in Toledo, Ohio.... Zelinsky concludes that Cuno was decided incorrectly because there is no principled basis for distinguishing the investment tax credit struck by the Sixth Circuit from other routine tax and spending programs of state governments."]

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Federal Court Ruling May Hurt Tax Competition, State Tax Reform. By Chris Atkins. Tax Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) September 20, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.taxfoundation.org/pdf/TF-Fiscal-Fact_2004-9-20.pdf

["The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit recently ruled in Cuno v. DaimlerChrysler, that an Ohio investment tax credit designed to enhance business investment in the state violated the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution because it discriminated against interstate commerce. On the other hand, the court also upheld a local property tax abatement as consistent with the Constitution. The Cuno decision has far-reaching implications that threaten tax competition between the states and point toward court-imposed state tax uniformity."]

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VOTER REGISTRATION

Survey of College and University Voter Registration and Mobilization Efforts. Institute of Politics. Executive Summary. (Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.) September 13, 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.iop.harvard.edu/pdfs/chronicle_poll_2004_summary.pdf

["More than one-third of colleges and universities do not comply with a federal law that they help students register to vote, a study said. The 1998 Higher Education Act mandated that federally funded colleges and universities make at least a minimum effort to help students register to vote." Los Angeles Times (September 14, 2004) 1.]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

The National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs: Chartbook 2001. By the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Bureau, Rockville, Maryland) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: mchb.hrsa.gov/chscn/

["This study reports results of a survey on the prevalence of special health care needs (SHCNs) among children and adolescents ages 17 and younger. The survey represents the first source of both national- and state-level data on the size and characteristics of the population of children and adolescents with SHCNs. The chartbook includes information on prevalence, health and functional status, insurance coverage, health care needs and access to care, care coordination, family-centered care, and impact on families. The chartbook is intended for use by health professionals, program administrators, researchers, educators, and others in monitoring and improving systems of care for children and adolescents with SHCNs." Maternal and Child Health Alert (October 22, 2004) 1.]

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EXERCISE

"Physical Activity Among Children Attending Preschools." By Russell Pate and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 114, no.5 (November 2004) pp. 1258-1263.

["Children are supposed to play, run, jump and be active for at least two hours a day, but most aren't doing even half that much at preschool, says one of the first large studies to examine physical activity in children ages 3 to 5. This low activity level could be contributing to the increasing problem of excess weight in kids." USA TODAY (November 1, 2004) D6.]

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HOSPITALS

What Patients Think of California Hospitals. By California Institute for Health Systems and the California HealthCare Foundation. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) 2004. p. 20.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/calhospitals/guide/CAHospitalExpSurvey04Guide.pdf

[The results [of this report] are not a guide to 'good' or 'bad' hospitals.... Instead this [report] shows how patients felt about their overall care they received in these participating hospitals, including how well hospitals staff address patients fears about treatment and how well doctors and nurses explained what to expect after patients left the hospital."]

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INSURANCE

"The Role of Reinsurance in State Efforts to Expand Coverage." By Deborah Chollet. IN: State Coverage Initiatives Issue Brief, vol. 5 no. 4 (October 2004) pp. 1-5.

Full Text at: www.statecoverage.net/pdf/issuebrief1004.pdf

[Reinsurance programs must be designed carefully to succeed.... In states that use reinsurance to subsidize a primary insurance program, the reinsurance component can spread risk among participating insurers but it ultimately cannot compensate for significant adverse selection in the primary insurance program. Therefore, states considering such programs need to balance the program and market rules and design eligibility with the potential for adverse selection."]

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OBESITY

F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing in America. By Shelly A. Hearne and others, Trust for America's Health. (The Trust, Washington, DC) 2004. 92 p.

Full Text at: healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf

["Obesity has become an epidemic in America and is poised to become the nation's leading health problem and number one killer. Already the cause of 400,000 deaths a year - or 45 per hour - obesity will soon overtake tobacco use as the leading cause of preventable death, if current trends continue."]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

2003 U.S. Prescription Drug Prices 81 Percent Higher Than in Other Wealthy Nations. By Alan Soger and Deborah Socolar, Boston University School of Public Health. (The University, Boston, Massachusetts) October 28, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: dcc2.bumc.bu.edu/hs/US-foreignrxpricegap28Oct04.doc

["Americans on average paid 81 percent more for patented brand-name drugs last year than buyers in Canada and six western European countries, according to a report. That gap represents a significant increase from 2000, when the cost differential between the United States and the seven other countries was 60 percent." San Francisco Chronicle (October 29, 2004) 1.]

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State Purchasing Pools for Prescription Drugs: What's Happening and How Do They Work? By NGA Center for Best Practice. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/0408PRESCRIPTION.pdf

["States are using their market power to achieve cost reductions, reduce inefficiencies in the purchase of prescription drugs, and manage pharmaceutical benefits.... However, prescription drugs are also among the most rapidly growing health expenditures -- growing 15 percent in 2002. In response, states are forming purchasing pools that garner several benefits."]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

House Prices and Fundamental Value. By John Krainer and Chishen Wei, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Economic Letter no. 2004-27. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) October 1, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2004/el2004-27.pdf

["This Economic Letter describes one of the measures commonly used to gauge the fundamental value of housing - the price - rent ratio. We described the kinds of forces that cause the ratio to move over time and document which forces appear to be most important. We document the way that the housing market typically adjusts to changes in economic fundamentals."]

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Ten Steps to Housing Affordability in the East Bay and California. By John D. Landis and Work Force Housing Committee, Institute of Urban and Regional Development. Reprint 2004-02. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) 2004. 13 p.

Full Text at: www-iurd.ced.berkeley.edu//pub/RP-2004-02.pdf

["In order to keep pace with likely East Bay population growth, housing developers, homebuilders, nonprofits, contractors and community-based organizations will have to build nearly 12,000 new housing units every year for the next 20 years. Two-thirds of this need will be for market-rate housing; the other third will be for affordable housing."]

[Request #S4385]

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REDEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

"An Analysis of the Los Angeles Revitalization Zone: Are Place-based Investment Strategies Effective Under Moderate Economic Conditions?" IN: Economic Development Quarterly, vol. 18 no. 4 (2004) pp. 368-383.

["This article examines the economic effect of the Los Angeles Revitalization Zone (LARZ) on private sector investments. The LARZ program was established after the 1992 Los Angeles riots and designed to rebuild the neighborhoods most affected by them.... The study suggests that place-based infrastructure and development programs may not be effective at stimulating investment, even where economic and socioeconomic barriers are not severe."]

[Request #S4386]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHARITIES

Philanthropic Acitvity in California's Central Valley: 1996-2002. By James M. Ferris and Elizabeth Graddy, Central Valley Health Policy Institute. Prepared for the Center of Philanthropy and Public Policy, University of Southern California (The Center, Los Angeles, California) August 2004. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.usc.edu/schools/sppd/philanthropy/pdf/Central_Valley_Report_MD_083004.pdf

["The new study shows that in recent years, grants flowing into the Central Valley increased dramatically, outpacing the state as a whole.... Foundation dollars in non-profit organizations in the Central Valley increased from $29.1 million in 1996 to $105 million in 2002." Sacramento Bee (September 30, 2004) B4.]

[Request #S4387]

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CHILDREN

Indicators of Child, Family, and Community Connections. By Laura Lippman and others. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2004. 106 p.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/connections-charts04/chartbook.pdf

[The purpose [of this chartbook] is to present examples of indicators of the social context of families that can be developed from current available data, as well as to help identify critical groups where such data are meager or do not exist."]

[Request #S4388]

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PARENTS

Metropolitan Neighborhoods with Sheltered Homeless Populations: Evidence from the 1990 and 2000 Censuses. By Barrett Lee and Chad Farrell, The Brookings Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/metro/pubs/20041011_homeless.pdf

["Shelter downsizing, closure and relocation, as well as the creation of smaller facilities for specialized groups, appear to have spread sheltered homelessness to different locations throughout the metropolis over the 1990s. Still, critical mass homeless neighborhoods are found largely in struggling central city locales. The impact of current policies and economic conditions on the location and condition of these neighborhoods and their residents should motivate further research." The Institute (October 10, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4389]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

A Study of Work Participation and Full Engagement Strategies. By Jacqueline Kauff and others. Mathematica Policy Research, Incorporated. (Mathematica, Washington, DC) September 2004. 128 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/studyofwork.pdf

["Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. conducted the study ... to engage all or nearly all TANF recipients in work and work related activities. This report presents the study findings, which are especially timely, as the proposed reauthorization of the TANF legislation will likely require states to engage a greater percentage of their caseload in work activities."]

[Request #S4390]

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TRANSPORTATION

AIRLINE SAFETY

An Evaluation of the Transportation Security Administration’s Screener Training and Methods of Testing. By Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (The Department, Washington, DC) September 2004. 122 p.

Full Text at: www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/OIG_04-45.pdf

["Three years after the 2001 attacks on September 11th, the Homeland Security Department says airport screeners still aren't getting the training they need. The department's inspector general, Clark Ervin, says training and testing has improved, but the report says screeners still don't have enough practice equipment, aren't properly trained to handle weapons and aren't tested on passengers' rights." WISTV.com (October 28, 2004) 1.]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AGRICULTURE

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops: Lessons from the Green Revolution. By Felicia Wu and William P. Butz, RAND Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 84 p.

["Cautious voices warn that the health and environmental effects of genetically modified (GM) crops are uncertain and that their cultivation could have unintended adverse consequences. Alternatively, supporters of the technology assert that GM crops could revolutionize world agriculture, particularly in developing countries, in ways that would substanitially reduce malnutrition, improve food security, and increase rural income, and in some cases even reduce environmental pollutants." NOTE: The Future of Genetically Modified Crops ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4392]

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GLOBAL WARMING

A Climate of Innovation: Northeast Business Action to Reduce Greenhouse Gases. By Andrew Aulisi and others. (World Resources Institute, Washington, DC) October 2004. 39 p.

["In 2003 the World Resources Institute and a group of large companies based in the northeast United States began to chart a course for corporations to tackle climate change.... This report on the partnership’s activities is intended to help other companies learn from the experiences of the Climate Northeast partners and to help them begin to chart their own course for contributing to climate protection." NOTE: A Climate of Innovation ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4393]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

RETIREMENT SYSTEMS

The Coming Generational Storm. By Laurence J. Kotlikoff and Scott Burns. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massacusetts) 2004. 274 p.

["'The baby boomers and the Greatest Generation are delivering an economic disaster to their children,' says Laurence Kotlikoff, a Boston University economist and co-author of The Coming Generational Storm.... The heart of the problem is that the Greatest Generation and baby boomers have promised themselves retirement benefits so generous -- and have contributed so little to financing them -- that even the most prosperous economy in history cannot pay the bill." USA TODAY (October 4, 2004) A1. NOTE: The Coming Generational Storm ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4394]

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HEALTH

DRUG PRICES

The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It. By Marcia Angell. (Random House, New York, NY) 2004. 336 p.

["Drug companies play only a minor role in research and development. Most of the creative, challenging research is carried out by universities and government labs. Instead of being the engine of innovation, big pharma is a vast marketing machine, with direct-to-consumer advertising the fastest growing component. Publisher's Announcement (2004) 1. NOTE: The Truth About the Drug Companies ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4395]

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