Subject: Studies in the News 04-34 (May 19, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

May 1854 - "The Weaverville War of 1854 in California was between the people of Sze Yup and Heung Shan. There was also fighting at Chinese Camp (Trinity County) between the Hakkas and Sam Yup People..... Chinese immigration to California had peaked at 20,000 in 1853 with most individuals proceeding to mining regions. This number decreased to under 8,000 annually during the next two decades. Before 1853, 11,794 Chinese lived in California and only 7 were women."  memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/cubhtml/chron.html  

1854 - "In Weaverville, Trinity County the Chinese erected a place of Taoist worship at Chimney Point around 1853. Today 'The Temple of the Forest Beneath the Clouds' is the oldest continuously used Chinese temple in California. On display are art objects, pictures, mining tools, and weapons used in the 1854 Tong (Weaverville)War.... The original temple building and most of its furnishings, some of which had come from China, were destroyed by fire in 1873. A temple was built in 1874 as a replacement.... In its original form, Tao-'The Way' aimed at serenity through harmony with Nature, to be achieved by each individual's eliminating ambition and attaining purity and simplicity."  www.parks.ca.gov/default.asp?page_id=23105  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Central Valley survey
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s
   The Patriot Act and Muslim communities
   National youth gang survey highlights
   Gun violence among young offenders
DEMOGRAPHY
   Population boom in parts of California
ECONOMY
   Fees on out-of-state milk unconstitutional
   Restoring the Bay Area economy
   Artificial reefs
   Divergence of economic fortunes
   Upward mobility and children of poverty
   Manufactured goods trade deficit and job loss
   Universal broadband access
EDUCATION
   Exit exams and dropout rates
   Analysis of performance on state assessments
   Teacher quality and subject knowledge
   Analysis of race in schools
   Flaws in No Child Left Behind
   Racially isolated schools
   Separate but unequal schools
   Teacher quality and subject knowledge
EMPLOYMENT
   Manufacturing and job training
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Regulations on nonroad diesels
   Diesel emissions
   Health effects of greenhouse gases
   Bald eagle no longer endangered
   Plan to cut mercury in San Francisco Bay
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Federal competitive grants
   E-government and service delivery
   Performance based pay in the federal government
   Funding cuts in the counties
   Analyst sees future budget deficits
   May revision utilizes improved revenues
   State fiscal growth stronger
   Supermajority requirements for tax increases
   Tax structure and state-local fiscal stress
   State revenue cycles
   States respond to term limits
   Riverside County sues over electronic voting machines
HEALTH
   U.S. at risk for poor care
   Inadequate treatment increases deaths
   Millions of low-income workers uninsured
   Immigrants outlive U.S. born citizens
   Prescription drug purchases
HOUSING
   Unaffordable housing
   California's affordable housing crisis
HUMAN SERVICES
   Marriage on the public policy agenda
   Services after foster care
   Birth mom wins custody case
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Solving the achievement gap
   Necessity and failures of integration
   Ensuring linguistic access in health care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News (SITN) is a current compilation of policy-related items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau and State Information & Reference Center to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state employees and other interested individuals, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey of the Central Valley in Collaboration with the Great Valley Center. By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) April 2004. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/S_404MBS.pdf

["The findings were part of a survey ... that reflects the growing trends in communities stretching 400 miles from Bakersfield in the south to Redding in the north.... The survey reflects a cross-section of the community and provides a good indication of how residents perceive the region where they live." Fresno Bee (April 29, 2004) A1.]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME RATES

"Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not." By Steven D. Levitt. IN: The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 18, no.1 (Winter 2004) pp. 163 - 190.

["Crime fell sharply and unexpectedly in the United States in the 1990s. This paper examines the competing explanations as to why crime fell. I conclude that four factors collectively explain the entire drop in crime: increases in the number of police, increases in the size of the prison population, the waning of the crack epidemic, and the legalization of abortion in the 1970s."]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY

The Patriot Act: Other Post-9/11 Enforcement Powers and the Impact on California's Muslim Communities: From a California Perspective: An Analysis of the Fallout from Investigations, Interrogations, Arrests, Detentions, and Deportations. By Max Vanzi, Senate Office of Research (The Office, Sacramento, California) March 2004. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/sor/REPORTS/REPORTS_BY_SUBJ/GOVERNMENT/PATRIOT4-02.PDF

["The report, summarizes instances of cruel and illegal treatment of Muslims by federal authorities.... Relying largely on previous investigations and media reports, the study concluded that many Muslim, South Asians, and Arab immigrants in California have faced 'humiliation, embarrasment and intrusions of privacy.' The study blames the sometimes overzealous enforcement of the Patriot Act, including indefinite detentions, secret searches and surveillance and the monitoring of computer traffic." San Francisco Chronicle (May 13, 2004) A14.]

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GANGS

Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. By Arlen Egley and Aline K. Major, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency, U.S. Department of Justice (The Office, Washington, DC) 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200401.pdf

["The estimated number of gang members between 1996 and 2002 decreased 14 percent and the estimated number of jurisdictions experiencing gang problems decreased 32 percent. This difference is largely a result of the decline in reported gang problems by smaller cities and rural counties."]

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VIOLENCE

Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders. By Anthony A. Braga, Criminal Justice Policy and Management, Harvard University. Prepared for the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Problem Specific Guides. No. 23. (The Office, Washington, DC) April 2004. 74 p.

Full Text at: www.cops.usdoj.gov/mime/open.pdf?Item=1078

["The guide addresses youth gun violence, describing the problem and reviewing risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions that can help analyze local problems. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and lessons learned from evaluative research and police practice." NCJRS Justice Information (April 15, 2004) 1.]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CALIFORNIA

California's Annual Population Growth Exceeds Half a Million for Fifth Year: Press Release. California Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, California.) May 5, 2004. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/e-1press.doc

["Fontana amd Rancho Cucamonga are two of the fastest growing California cities with fewer than 300,000 residents, continuing a population boom that's been going on for the past few years throughout the Inland Valley, according to state data. Over the last year, Fontana's population grew from 146,500 to 154,800, a 5.7 percent increase. Rancho Cucomonga moved from 147,400 to 154,800, a 5 percent change in the past year, adding more than 27,000 new residents in the past 4 years." Inland Valley Daily Bulletin (May 5,2004) 1.]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

Hillside Dairy, Inc., et al. v. A. G. Kawamura, Secretary, California Department of Food and Agriculture, et al. And Ponderosa Dairy, et al. v. A. G.Kawamura, et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of California. CIV-S-97-1170, CIV-S-97-1185. May 7, 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: 207.41.18.73/caed/DOCUMENTS/Opinions/Burrell/97-1179.pdf

["Fees are added to the prices paid by processors for all raw milk sold in the state and are redistributed among dairy farmers in California. The fees were extended in 1997 to milk sold into California from out of state. State officials and California dairy farmers who supported the change said it eliminated unfair incentives to buy milk from other states.... The ruling said the fee system discriminates against interstate commerce because it 'requires out-of-state raw milk producers to pay for benefits received exclusively by California dairy businesses.'" San Francisco Chronicle (May 11, 2004) C3.]

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CALIFORNIA

Downturn and Recovery: Restoring Prosperity. By the Bay Area Council and others. (The Council, San Francisco, California) 2004. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.bayareacouncil.org/pubs/ecp/BAEP_January04.pdf

["The report addressed recommendations for implementing initiatives to curb potential downswings and create a more attractive region.... The challenges reported were expected from the area's vulnerability to volatile business cycles, high cost of living, high cost of doing business, and inadequate infrastructure. The impact on the technology industry led to the downward spiral of over 340,000 jobs lost and an outflow of 20,000 people." California Capitol Hill Bulletin (March 26, 2004) 4.]

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DEFENSE CUTS AND CONVERSIONS

Artificial Reefs: A Disposal Option for Navy and MARAD Ships. By Michael V. Hynes and others, Rand National Defense Research Institute. Prepared for the U.S. Navy. DB-391-NAVY. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) March 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/DB/DB391/DB391.pdf

["We examine the demand for ships as reefs and the impediments to such use. We suggest program goals and review possible business models for their potential to minimize risks and costs to the Navy."]

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

In California: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Getting Better, Worse, and Uglier. By Michael Bazdarich, UCLA Anderson Forecast. Update. Vol. 1, No. 1. (The University, Los Angeles, California) April 2004. 4 p.

["Job growth has now re-emerged in the national economy in the past nine months. As we have noted, there are early improvements apparent in various industries, including L.A. and San Jose. We expect these improvements to proliferate in the months to come. However, job growth will not rebound to buoyant rates (3% per year or better) in the near future."]

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INCOME DISTRIBUTION

Rags to Riches?: The American Dream is Less Common in the United States than Elsewhere. By Bernard Wasow, Century Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) 2004. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.tcf.org/Publications/EconomicsInequality/ragrichrc.pdf

["How many times have you heard 'you can be what you want to be if only you work for it.'? The American dream has brought millions to our shores, legally or surreptitiously, in search of upward economic mobility. And, over the decades, millions of children of immigrants or of working-class Americans have prospered and advanced in our competitive economy. But how easy is it for the children of poor parents to become prosperous? Recent evidence shows that there is much less mobility in the United States than most people assume."]

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MANUFACTURING

Shifting Blame for Manufacturing Job Loss; Effect of Rising Trade Deficit Shouldn't Be Ignored. By Josh Bivens, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/briefingpapers/149/bp149.pdf

["The manufacturing sector lost more than three million jobs between 1998 and 2003, with 2.7 million lost since the immediate pre-recession year of 2000. Roughly coinciding with this loss, the trade deficit in manufactured goods increased by over $230 billion. The synchronicity ... has led to a debate about whether international trade flows have contributed to the loss of manufacturing jobs."]

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY

Universal Broadband Access: Implementing President Bush's Vision: By Robert W. Crandall and others, Joint Center, AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies. Regulatory Analysis. 04-01. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2004. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.aei-brookings.org/admin/authorpdfs/page.php?id=941

["This paper examines the economic strengths and weaknesses of different policies for achieving 'universal, affordable access to broadband technology by the year 2007.' We argue that removing price and 'unbundling' regulations at the wholesale and retail levels would help increase the diffusion of broadband.... The study also examines state policies that could be used to enhance the rollout of broadband, including reducing the regulatory burden associated with right-of-way access and eliminating retail price regulation."]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT

Pushed Out or Pulled Up?: Exit Exams and Dropout Rates in Public High Schools. By Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Education Working Paper No. 5. (The Institute, New York, New York) May 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/ewp_05.pdf

["Adopting a high school exit exam has no effect on a state's graduation rate, a study from the Manhattan Institute finds. The analyses also show that neither reducing class sizes nor increasing education spending leads to higher graduation rates." ECS e-Connection (May 5, 2004) 1.]

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ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Beating the Odds: A City-by-city Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments: Results from the 2002 - 2003 School Year. By the Council of the Great City Schools. (The Council, Washington, DC) March 2004. 389 p.

Full Text at: www.cgcs.org/pdfs/BTO4.pdf

["The Council of the Great City Schools has prepared "Beating the Odds" to give the nation another look at how inner-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states for our children. This analysis examines student achievement in math and reading through spring 2003. It also measures achievement gaps between cities and states, African Americans and Whites, and Hispanics and Whites." Capitol Hill Bulletin (March 26, 2004) 4.]

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Individual Growth and School Success. By Martha S. McCall and Others, Northwest Evaluation Association. (The Association, Lake Oswego, Oregon) April 2004. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.young-roehr.com/nweastudy/NWEA_2004_Growth_Study_fina.pdf

["A new study suggests that the methods most states are using to judge schools' academic progress may produce an incomplete -- and possibly misleading -- picture of the jobs the schools are doing. Most states are using simple test-score averages, which might not reveal much about student academic growth over time. The study found that more than 20% of the schools that were rated high performing by their states fell into the bottom quarter when measured by the researchers' test-score-growth index." Education Week (April 21, 2004) 1.]

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DISCRIMINATION

Race In The Schools: Perpetuating White Dominance? By Judith R. Blau. (Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colorado) 2003. 237 p.

["Blau's study presents strong evidence that our schools, assumed by many to be an equalizing force in U.S. society, are in fact racial settings that reproduce white advantage — to the detriment of all students. The author explores the values, activities, and educational experiences of a sample of young people born a decade or so after the 1964 Civil Rights Act was signed into law. She focuses on topics that are both important in students' lives and central in schooling: attitudes toward integrity and cheating, 'getting into trouble,' interracial relations, learning, and going to college. Her remarkable findings challenge many assumptions long held by researchers and policymakers."]

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EDUCATION POLICY

Can Separate Be Equal? The Overlooked Flaw at the Center of No Child Left Behind. By Richard D. Kahlenberg, Century Foundation. Reality Check. (The Foundation, New York, New York) 2004. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.tcf.org/Publications/Education/kahlenberg_separaterc.pdf

["NCLB undoubtedly has certain strengths — it sets out important goals, and it sets high standards for all students — but it needs mending. The public school transfer provisions should be strengthened, especially to allow interdistrict choice to suburban schools. And NCLB should provide districts with incentives to integrate their schools economically through universal public school choice... Addressing school concentrations of poverty, however, is a politically difficult step. Expanding these programs to the more than 50 million students nationwide will require pressure from the federal government, which historically has played that role of behalf on disadvantaged and minority children."]

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EDUCATIONAL REFORM

"A New Approach to School Equality: Fifty Years after Brown Ruling, Parents and Officials Downplay Racial Balance in Favor of Better Education for California's Minorities." IN: Los Angeles Times (May 15, 2004) A1.

["Today, Latinos and African Americans make up 90% or more of the enrollments at 1,228 of the state's 9,000 public school campuses, up from 435 such schools in the early 1980s, according to a Los Angeles Times analysis of state data.... Racially isolated campuses blanket large stretches of Southern California, dominating systems in Compton, Lynwood, Inglewood, Santa Ana, Montebello, Paramount, Baldwin Park and Pomona.... The demographic pressures facing schools are evident in the Los Angeles Unified School District, where Latinos now make up 72% of the 746,000 students. More than half the schools — 370 campuses — are composed almost entirely of minority students, up from 206 such campuses in 1981."]

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Segregation by Income: Supreme Court Ruling in 1954 Aimed for Racial Desegregation of Students but Wealth has Created Separate and Unequal Schools in Bay Area and Elsewhere." By Nanette Asimov. IN: San Francisco Chronicle (May 16, 2004) A1+

["Today, 50 years after the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously outlawed school segregation in the landmark Brown vs Board of Education case, segregation thrives in schools across the Bay Area, state and nation. Even though no board of education has the power to exclude students based on ethnicity, the schools' racial barrier lives on in the segregated lives of the rich and the poor."]

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TEACHERS

Necessary and Insufficient: Resisting a Full Measure of Teacher Quality. By Christopher O. Tracy and Kate Walsh, National Council on Teacher Quality. NCTQ Reports. (The Council, Washington, DC) Spring 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/html/offsite.asp?document=http://www.nctq.org/nctq/images/nctq_report_spring2004.pdf

["States Receive Poor Marks for Teacher-quality Standards: A first-ever report card by the Council gives 13 out of 20 states a grade of C or lower for the quality of the standards they have set to assess whether teachers' have adequate knowledge of subjects they teach. The report sees this as one more sign that many states are reluctant to deal with the content part of the teacher quality equation. Some of the blame is put on No Child Left Behind, which thrust on states the politically charged task of designing ways to hold experienced teachers to the same content-knowledge standard as new ones." Education Week (April 21, 2004) 1.]

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EMPLOYMENT

JOB TRAINING

The Manufacturing Sector and Job Training in California. By Elias S. Lopez and Alicia Bugarin, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 04-005. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) April 2004. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/04/05/04-005.pdf

["This report examines the changes occurring in California's manufacturing sector.... The [report] explores the scope and size of declining manufacturing in the state; ... presents data on the workers receiving formal training; and examines state training programs that offer formal training to workers in the manufacturing sector."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Control of Emissions of Air Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel: Final Rule. By the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (The Agency, Washington, DC) May 2004.

["The Bush administration announced a regulation that within a decade would cut 90% of the harmful pollution from construction equipment, farm equipment and other off-road diesel engines and 99% of the sulfur from the fuel they use.... In California, where such diesel engines are among the biggest polluters and have been off limits to state regulators, the change should lead to cleaner air." Los Angeles Times (May 11, 2004) A14.]

Press Release. 2 p.:
press release

Final Regulatory Anaysis. 14 p.:
final regulatory analysis

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EPA Could Take Additional Steps to Help Maximize the Benefits from the 2007 Diesel Emission Standards. By the U.S. General Accouting Office. GAO-04-313. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2004. 84 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04313.pdf

["Diesel engine emissions pose health risks, but one major source -- heavy-duty diesel vehicles -- is critical for our economy.... GAO recommends that EPA consider ways to address concerns about technology costs, reliability, and availability to meet the 2007 standards -- such as better communicating with all stakeholders and using an independent panel to assess progress and consider industry initiatives."]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Inside the Greenhouse: The Impacts of CO2 and Climate Change on Public Health in the Inner City. By Paul R. Epstein and Christine Rogers, Center for Health and the Gobal Environment, Harvard Medical School. (The Center, Boston, Massachusetts) April 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.med.harvard.edu/chge/green.pdf

["Millions of poor and minority children in America's cities likely will suffer even higher rates of asthma as the result of a 'powerful one-two punch' of higher levels of pollen and changes in the types of molds spurred by global warming, along with unhealthy urban air masses caused by the burning of fossil fuel by cars, trucks and buses, according to a warning issued by researchers." PR Newswire (April 29, 2004) 1.]

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ENDANGERED SPECIES

The Eagle is Back: Endangered Species: Back from the Brink. By Environmental Defense. (Environmental Defense, New York, New York) May 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/3726_FINAL%20EAGLE%20REPORT.pdf

["Bald eagles, the national symbol careening toward extinction four decades ago, are now numerous enough to leave the list of wildlife protected under the Endangered Species Act, a leading environmental group said.... The request to remove the eagles from protective status came the same day Environmental Defense announced a nationwide initiative to encourage more cooperation among conservationists, landowners, and regulators to boost endangered species populations." Contra Costa Times (May 12, 2004) F4.]

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WATER POLLUTION

Mercury in San Francisco Bay: Total Maximum Daily Load: Proposed Basin Plan Amendment and Staff Report. By Bill Johnson and Richard Looker, California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region. (The Board, Oakland, California) April 30, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb2/TMDL/SFBayMercury/staff_report_043004.pdf

["After a decade of study, authorities are requiring cities and counties to cut mercury releases by 40 percent over the next 20 years to make the bay clean enough to produce fish that are safe to eat. The scientists believe that it will take 120 years for the bay's mercury levels to return to pre-Gold Rush days, before the mining of both mercury and gold sent tons of the poison into watersheds and the bay.... Tighter limits on mercury will come, in part, as a result of new conditions on permits that cities and counties must get to operate sewage treatment plants, release storm water runoff into the bay and clean up mine wastes. Much of the new mercury that enters the bay washes off city streets." San Francisco Chronicle (May 1, 2004) B4.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

FEDERAL BUDGET

FFIS Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 04-12. (FFIS, Washington, DC) Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/cg/2004/CG04-12.htm

[Includes: "FY 2004 Women Infants and Children Electronic Benefit Transfer Full Grant Competition," "EDA FY 2004 National Technical Assistance, Training, Research and Evaluation Notice," "Transition to Teaching Grant Program" and others.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"E-Government and the Transformation of Service Delivery and Citizen Attitudes." By Darrell M. West, Brown University. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 64, no. 1 (January/February 2004) pp. 15 - 27.

["This article assesses the consequences of e-government for service delivery, democratic responsiveness, and public attitudes over the last three years.... [It] examines the content of e-government to investigate whether it is taking advantage of the interactive features of the World Wide Web to improve service delivery.... In some respects, the e-government revolution has fallen short of its potential to transform service delivery and public trust in government."]

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PERFORMANCE MEASURES

Conversations on Public Service: Performance-Based Pay in the Federal Government; How Do We Get There? Summary Report. By the National Academy of Public Administration and the National Commission on the Public Service Implementation Initiative. (The Academy, Washington, DC) 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.napawash.org/Pubs/volcker.pdf

["Despite the recognition that implementing pay reform is difficult, forum panelists expressed optimism that extending performance-based pay across the federal government is possible and would add value.... Forum participants also identified elements that Congress should consider when adopting provisions in legislation to advance performance-based pay."]

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STATE BUDGET

Stretched Thin: State Budget Cuts Threaten California's Health and Human Services Programs. By Scott Graves and Barbara Baran, California Budget Project (The Project, Sacramento, California) May 2004. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2004/0405stretchedthin.pdf

["Staffing and funding for operating expenses have been reduced at both state and local levels. Yet the states' population and the costs of program operation continue to rise.... This report analyzes the impact of funding reductions on nine health and human services programs administered by California's counties under guidelines established by the state. The report finds services and staff have been reduced in response to the funding squeeze in the 11 counties that participated in the study."]

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Overview of the 2004-05 May Revision. By Brad Williams and others, Legislative Analyst Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) May 17, 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2004/may_revision/011704_may_revision.pdf

[“Analyst Sees Future Budget Deficits: (Legislative Analyst Elizabeth) Hill said the governor’s revised plan succeeds in balancing the state’s budget in the coming fiscal year, which begins July 1. She said it nearly balances the following year as long as he uses the remaining available money from the sale of $15 billion in deficit bonds approved by voters in March. After that, Hill said, the state is likely to face red ink for at least three more years.” Sacramento Bee (May 18, 2004) A1.]

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Economic Recovery: A Workout Plan that's Working: Governor's Budget 2004-2005: May Revision. By the California Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 13, 2004. 97 p.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/BUD_DOCS/May_Revision_04_www.pdf

[“The Schwarzenegger Budget: Betting on the Future: The Governor’s budget benefits from higher-than expected tax receipts and banks on an improved economy to help California through its budget problems…. The budget also includes almost $1 billion from the state’s reserves.” San Francisco Chronicle (May 14, 2004) A1.]

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STATE REVENUES

Growth Finally Stronger at the End of 2003. By Nicholas W. Jenny, Fiscal Studies Program, Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government. State Revenue Report. No. 55. (The Institute, Albany, New York) 2004. 15 p.

Full Text at: stateandlocalgateway.rockinst.org/fiscal_pub/state_rev/sr_reports/RR_55.pdf

["State tax revenue grew by 7.2 percent in the October-December quarter of 2003, compared to the same quarter the year before. Without the contribution of net enacted tax increases, this growth would have been only 4.9 percent.... Personal income tax revenue and sales tax revenue each grew by 6.6 percent. Corporate income tax revenue grew by 11.1 percent."]

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STATE TAXES

Supermajority Requirements for Tax Increases. By Mandy Rafool, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 19. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April/May 2004. 2 p.

["There is renewed interest to limit the ability of state legislatures to raise taxes.... Another wave of supermajority requirement initiatives surfaced in the early 1990s with measures approved in Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota and Washington. All except Missouri, Oregon and South Dakota were the result of citizen initiatives.... Sixteen states now have supermajority requirements."]

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"Institutions, Tax Structure and State-local Fiscal Stress." By Hesse Edgerton and others, Federal Reserve Bank of New York. IN: National Tax Journal, vol. 57, no. 1 (March 2004) pp 147 - 158.

["[The authors] discuss budgetary institutions and the evolution of tax systems in the state and local sector, drawing of evidence from New York City."]

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"State Revenue Cyclicality." By Richard F. Dye, Department of Economics and Business, Lake Forest College. IN: National Tax Journal, vol. 57, no. 1 (March 2004) pp 133 - 146.

["This paper examines issues in estimating and interpreting the short-run elasticity of taxes with respect to personal income."]

[Request #S2099]

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TERM LIMITS

States Respond to Term Limits. By Jennifer Drage Bowser, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 14. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 2004. 2 p.

["When adaptation does not do enough to stem the negative effects of term limits, some legislatures begin to think about changing them, or doing away with them entirely. Recently, a number of states have considered relaxing or repealing their limits. In most states, this would require a constitutional amendment, which must be approved by a majority of voters."]

[Request #S3000]

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VOTERS & VOTING

Riverside County, et al. v. Kevin Shelly. U.S. District Court, Central District of California. EDCV04-0525. Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief. May 6, 2004. 32 p.

["The Board of supervisors decided in closed session to go to court to stop Secretary of State Kevin Shelley's 'assault on the touch-screen voting system pioneered by Riverside County,' board chairman Roy Wilson said. The county was the first in the state to use the high-tech machines, starting countywide in 2000, and 29 accurate elections have taken place in the county since then, Wilson said." San Jose Mercury News (May 5, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3001]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE

The First National Report Card on Quality of Health Care in America. By RAND Health. Research Highlights. RB-9053. (RAND, Santa Monica) May 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9053/RB9053.pdf

["Report: U.S. at Risk for Poor Care: Americans Pay More, Get Right Treatment Only 60% of the Time: The new analysis found that cities with higher income levels, fewer uninsured residents or more world-renowned medical institutions fared no better than communities with fewer advantages." Sacramento Bee (May 5, 2004) A10.]

[Request #S3002]

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HOSPITALS

"Profiling the Quality of Care in Twelve Communities: Results from the CQI Study." By Eve A. Kerr and others. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 23, no. 3. (May/June 2004) pp. 247-256.

["Study Finds Widespread Problem of Inadequate Health Care: The inadequate treatment leads to thousands of needless deaths each year. The study's conclusions were based chiefly on a review of the medical records of nearly 7,000 people in 12 metropolitan areas." New York Times (May 5, 2004) A23.]

[Request #S3003]

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LOW INCOME

Working Without a Net: The Health Care Safety Net Still Leaves Millions of Low-Income Workers Uninsured. Special Report. By Families USA. (Families, Washington, DC) April 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.familiesusa.org/site/DocServer/Holes_2004_update.pdf?docID=3304

[“For millions of low-income Americans, the health care safety net is a myth – nearly 14 million low-income adults are uninsured and ineligible for public health insurance programs. This report provides national and state-by-state data on the numbers of low-income parents and adults without children who are falling through the holes in our nation’s health care safety net." Moving Ideas (May 4, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3004]

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MORTALITY

The Demographics of Mortality in California. By Hans P. Johnson and Joseph B. Hayes, Public Policy Institute of California. California Counts. Vol. 5, No. 4. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) May 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/CC_504HJCC.pdf

[“Immigrants Outlive U.S. born Citizens: Healthier Lifestyles Get Credit: Immigrants have a life expectancy of more than 81 years, on average, compared to 77 years for Californians born in the United States, according to the study…. Hans Johnson speculated that immigrants may be living longer because they have healthier diets and are less likely to smoke.” San Francisco Chronicle (May 12, 2004) B3.]

[Request #S3005]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Drug Purchase Developments. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 04-14. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 5, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2004/IB04-14.pdf

["Much prescription drug activity is taking place, both in Medicaid purchase and rebate structures and in the implementation of new discount drug cards and transitional assistance."]

[Request #S3006]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

"Is Housing Unaffordable? Why Isn't It More Affordable?" By John M. Quigley and Steven Raphael. IN: The Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 18, no.1 (Winter 2004) pp. 119 - 214.

["This paper reviews trends in housing affordability in the U.S. over the past four decades.... We explore the low-income rental market, analyzing the importance of changes in the income distribution and in housing quality in affecting rent burdens. We conclude that zoning and land use restrictions are more important factors driving up rents. We also sketch out some policies that might improve affordability."]

[Request #S3007]

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Locked Out 2004: California's Affordable Housing Crisis. By the California Budget Project (The Project, Sacramento, California) 2004. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2004/lockedout2004.pdf

["The California Budget Project ... reports the problems associated with the volatile renting and housing markets in California, along with stagnating household incomes that make acceptable renting and home ownership a diminishing dream." Capitol Hill Bulletin (April 16, 2004) 9.]

[Request #S3008]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FAMILIES

Marriage on the Public Policy Agenda: What Do Policy Makers Need to Know from Research. By Kristin S. Seefeldt and Pamela J. Smock, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan. Prepared for the National Poverty Center. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series. No. 04-2. (The Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan) 2004. 43 p.

Full Text at: www.npc.umich.edu/publications/workingpaper04/paper2/04-02.pdf

["Over the last several decades, the U.S. has experienced great changes in family behavior, with increases in divorce, non-marital childbearing, and cohabitation.... The authors highlight several areas of research that they believe would move family policy forward. Some of this research relates directly to evaluations of marriage promotion programs and some pertains to understanding dynamics among low-income families more broadly." Poverty Research Highlights (Winter 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3009]

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FOSTER CARE

Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Conditions of Youth Preparing to Leave State Care. By Mark E. Courtney and others, Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) 2004. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.chapinhall.org/PDFDownload_new.asp?tk=1060688&ar=1355&L2=61&L3=131

["These findings indicate that young adults who age out of foster care face a variety of challenges, and although many receive services to address mental health and education problems, relatively few receive specific independent living services." Children's Bureau Express (May 2004) 1.]

[Request #S3010]

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PARENTS

K.M v. E.G. California Court of Appeal, First Appellate District. A101754. May 10, 2004. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/A101754.PDF

["One partner donated her eggs, the other carried them to term, and both women raised the twin girls together. But a court weighing the competing claims to motherhood said the birth mother held the trump card: the couple's prenatal agreement that she would be the sole legal parent.... The ruling -- which suggested, but did not decide, that a child could have two legal mothers -- is the latest in a series of decisions by state courts struggling with changing family relationships and reproductive technology. California courts have generally sided with birth mothers in same-sex custody disputes and have been less willing than courts in some other states to grant legal co-parent status." San Francisco Chronicle (May 12, 2004) B1.]

[Request #S3014]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute For Federal Policy Research. Volume 11, Bulletin 15. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 6, 2004.

[Includes: "Measures to Treat And Prevent Wildfires in The West Considered;" "Future of Space Vehicle Examined;" "Report on Government-owned Land in U.S. Reveals Surprising Stats;" "International Space Exploration Issues Examined;" and others.]

[Request #S3016]

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California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By California Institute For Federal Policy Research. Volume 11, Bulletin 16. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 14, 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/b1116.pdf

[Includes: "House Approves Legislation for Stock Options;" "CSU Chancellor Testifies Regarding House Higher Education Bill;" "Senate Questions Fire Preparedness Efforts of Administration;" "House Subcommittee Reviews Firefighter Preparedness;" "California Democrats File Amicus Brief Seeking Energy Refunds;" and others.]

[Request #S3017]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Class and Schools Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black–White Achievement Gap. By Richard Rothstein. (Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC) 2004.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/content.cfm/books_class_and_schools

["Solving the achievement gap, (Richard) Rothstein argues, requires improving children's lives inside and outside the classroom simultaneously. Many widely promoted school improvement policies are valuable but cannot succeed on their own. Academic improvement also requires early childhood, after-school and summer programs to supply enrichment that could narrow the gap in lower and middle-class community and home experiences."]

[Request #S3015]

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SEGREGATION

The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class are Undermining the American Dream. By Sheryll Cashin. (Public Affairs, New York, New York) 2004. 391 p.

["[The author] looks at how segregation by race and class is ruining American democracy. Only a small minority of the affluent are truly living the American Dream, complete with attractive, job-rich suburbs, reasonably low taxes, good public schools, and little violent crime. Our public policy choices must be premised on an integrationist vision if we are to achieve our highest aspiration and pursue the dream that America says it embraces: full and equal opportunity for all." NOTE: The Failures of Integration ... will be available for 3-day loan.] ."]

[Request #S3013]

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HEALTH

IMMIGRATION & IMMIGRANTS

Ensuring Linguistic Access in Health Care Settings: Legal Rights and Responsibilities. By Jane Perkins and others, National Health Law Program. (The Program, Los Angeles, California) 2003.

["Over 46 million people (more than 17 percent of the United States population) speak a language other than English at home. It is critical that the growing numbers of limited English proficient (LEP) residents be able to communicate with their health care providers. Accurate communication ensures the correct exchange of information, allows patients to provide informed consent for treatment, and avoids breaches of patient-provider confidentiality."]

[Request #S3018]

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