Subject: Studies in the News 04-10 (February 13, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

February 1854 - "On February 13, 1854, the Los Angeles Rangers, were in attendance at the first judicial execution held in Los Angeles. The condemned man was a Mexican named Herrera, who had been convicted of murder. "  San Francisco Daily Herald (February 22, 1854) 2  

February 14 1854 - "I designated yesterday at 3 P.M. for this execution.... He had been a soldier in Mexico; a martial band of Mexicans accompanied him to the scaffold, at their own request, candles were burnt there last night, and to-day he was buried with martial music and religious rites. He had killed one of his own race, about a woman http://www.webroots.org/library/usahist/pndojbh3.html"  Diaries of Judge Hayes - Chapter III  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Death penalty in Illinois and California
   After-school programs to curb teen crime
   Crime in California
   Funding for victims' services
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Lawsuit seeking reparations dismissed
   Establishing laws for same-sex marriages
   Immigration fees insufficient
   Unique strengths among youth of color
ECONOMY
   Big-box retail and consumers
   Wal-Mart and job creation
   Strategy to address manufacturing in America
   Nobel winner evaluates NAFTA
   Trends in fraud and identity theft
   Telecommunications and airline deregulation
   Restoring prosperity to Bay Area
EDUCATION
   Declining graduation rates
   Investigating proficiency levels
   Race in U.S. schools
   Violent crime on campus drops
   Inflated cost of textbooks
   Call for more study abroad
   Energy efficient classrooms
   Student loan consolidation
EMPLOYMENT
   Drop in pay for mobilized National Guard
   Workers compensation program
ENERGY
   Blackouts and electricity restructuring
   Energy policy committed to creating jobs
   Increasing renewable energy production
   Revenue from wind projects
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Climate change and species extinction
   State protection sought for salamander
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Los Angeles Airport fund raising audit
   Developing a local agency ethics code
   Dialogue, policy making and action
   Electronic government collaboration
   Enterprise architecture
   Political contributions and lobbying laws
   Overview of state budget and mid-year proposals
   Security issues in electronic voting
HEALTH
   Rising cost of health care
   Using Medicaid for mental health
   Tobacco control settlement
   Uninsured and Medi-Cal populations
HOUSING
   California's affordable housing crisis
   Sacramento regional housing outlook
HUMAN SERVICES
   Former CalWORKS recipients
   Faith-based initiatives in social services
   State budgets and children's services
   Fragile families at risk
   Adoptions from foster care doubled
   Welfare mothers and family caps
   Child welfare and federal assistance
INSURANCE
   Life insurance regulation compact
INTERNATIONAL READER
   Impact of globalization on young people
TRANSPORTATION
   Cell phones and highway safety
   Federal funding stacked against transit
   DUI related deaths
   States' highway construction costs
STUDIES TO COME
   Misconduct by adolescents facing adversity
   Effect of exposure to violence
   Bullying in schools
   Hydrogen highways
   Enormous cost of obesity
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Comparison of the Illinois Commission Report on Capital Punishment with the Capital Punishment System in California. By Robert M. Sanger, Death Penalty Focus. (The Author, Santa Barbara, California) 2003. 94 p.

["A board member of Death Penalty Focus released a report that said California does not have in place most of the 85 reforms that an Illinois commission recommended.... 'California has basically deluded itself into believing that it is progressive, but we don't have the safeguards,' said Robert Sanger, a criminal defense lawyer." Los Angeles Times (January 23, 2003) 1.]

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CHILDREN & YOUTH

California's Next After-School Challenge: Keeping High School Teens off the Street and on the Right Track. By Fight Crime: Invest in Kids California. (Fight Crime, Oakland, California) January 2004. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/ca/highschool/CAHSAS.pdf

["While younger students can participate in after-school programs, a new study released says the state's at-risk teenagers do not have adequate after-school activities to keep them away from crime. The report says California dedicates enough funding to serve students at just 3 percent of state high schools. Without adequate funding, schools cannot take advantage of their own resources." Sacramento Bee (January 29, 2004) 1.]

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STATISTICS

Crime in 2003: January through September: Preliminary Report. By The Office of the California State Attorney General, California Department of Justice. (The Office, Sacramento, California) January 7, 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: ag.ca.gov/cjsc/publications/ninemorpt/js03/rpt.pdf

["Statewide, California officials reported a 2.3% rise in total crime during the first nine months of last year, but a 2.2% drop in violent crime, consisting of homicide, rape, robbery and aggravated assault.... Homicides in Orange County's largest cities dropped by almost one-third during the first nine months of 2003, but rapes rose slightly, according to the California Department of Justice." Los Angeles Times (January 14, 2004) Online.]

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VICTIMS

State Legislative Approaches to Funding for Victims' Services. By the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice. Legal Series Bulletin. No. 9. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2003. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/legalseries/bulletin9/ncj199477.pdf

["Although federal grant programs are key in the funding for crime victim assistance, state-level support can play an equal role. This bulletin gives an overview and describes the major state legislative approaches used in recent years to create sources of funding for crime victim assistance.... [It] highlights various circumstances in which relevant laws are applied, emphasizing their successful implementation."]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AFRICAN AMERICANS

Corporate Profits and Slave Reparations. By William J. Watkins, Independent Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) February 2, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.independent.org/tii/news/040202Watkins.html

["The slavery reparations movement was dealt a major blow when a U.S. district court judge dismissed a lawsuit seeking reparations from corporate America for its role in the perpetuation of slavery in the United States.... Watkins' analysis suggests that the federal courts still retain a degree of integrity absent in legislative bodies." The Lighthouse (February 3, 2004) 1.]

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GAYS & LESBIANS

[Answer to a Question Propounded to Them by the Senate.] By the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. SJC-09163. February 3, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/conlaw/maglmarriage20304.html

["The Massachusetts Supreme Court cleared the way for the nation's first same-sex marriages by ruling that anything less than full, equal marriage rights for gay couples is unconstitutional. The landmark decision comes as California lawmakers get ready to confront similar questions with legislation that would prohibit the state from denying marriage licenses to gay and lesbian couples.... The ruling affirmed the court's November decision granting seven same-sex couples the right to marry — and extending that privilege to all gay and lesbian couples in Massachusetts. The court gave the Legislature six months to establish a law for same-sex marriage." San Jose Mercury News (February 5, 2004) A1.]

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IMMIGRATION

Immigration Application Fees: Current Fees are Not Sufficient to Fund U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services' Operations. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-309R. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 5, 2004. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04309r.pdf

["We determined that fees were not sufficient to fully fund the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) operations. In part, this has resulted because the current fee schedule is based on an outdated fee study that did not include all costs of CIS's operations.... For the 3-year period from fiscal year 2001 through 2003, CIS's reported operating costs exceeded available fees by almost $460 million."]

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MINORITIES

Unique Strengths, Shared Strengths: Developmental Assets Among Youth of Color. By A. Sesma and E. C. Roehlkepartain, Search Institute. Insights & Evidence. Vol. 1, No. 2. (The Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota) November 2003. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.search-institute.org/research/Insights/InsightsEvidence-11-03.pdf

["Surveys of more than 217,000 sixth- to 12th-graders indicate that race and ethnicity have virtually no effect on how youth respond to the presence of developmental assets in their lives. Black, Hispanic, white and Asian youth share almost the exact same inverse relationship between the number of assets a youth reports and the number of high-risk behaviors he or she engages in. They also share a positive relationship between assets and 'thriving behaviors.'"]

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ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Supercenters and the Transformation of the Bay Area Grocery Industry: Issues, Trends, and Impacts. By the Bay Area Economic Forum. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) January 2004. 104 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/VVRBUN3P.pdf

["Big-box retail development -- led by Wal-Mart Supercenters -- will save Bay Area residents money on groceries but also could seriously eat into the region's sales-tax base, erode entry-level wages and worsen snarled traffic, the Bay Area Economic Forum said in a report.... Wal-Mart could save Bay Area grocery shoppers as a whole $382 million to $1.13 billion per year -- roughly 5 to 13 percent of their expected annual spending on groceries -- if the growth forecasts hold true, the report says. On the flip side, the average Bay Area grocery-store employee can expect to lose $21,000 from his or her current annual wage-and-benefits package of $42,552 per year, the report warns." San Francisco Chronicle (February 5, 2004) A1.]

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Wal-Mart Supercenters: What's in Store for Southern California? By Gregory Freeman, Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) January 2004. 42 p.

Full Text at: laedc.info/pdf/Wal-Mart_study.pdf

["Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.'s entry into the Southern California grocery business will produce a net increase in jobs, as benefits of its lower prices offset the downside of its lower wages, according to a report. Previous studies ... found an overall negative economic effect from Supercenters. Gregory Freeman, director of policy consulting for the LAEDC, said those studies failed to account for consumer savings on groceries." Los Angeles Times (January 28, 2004) 1A.]

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MANUFACTURING

Manufacturing In America: A Comprehensive Strategy to Address the Challenges to U.S. Manufacturers. By the U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Department, Washington, DC) January 2004. 90 p.

Full Text at: www.commerce.gov/DOC_MFG_Report_Complete.pdf

["Report Offers Fixes For Manufacturing: The report is the product of 'roundtables' the department convened with manufacturers over the past 10 months.... [It] includes a host of recommendations that include making recent capital investment tax breaks permanent, reducing firms' exposure to product liability lawsuits, strengthening skill-retraining for displaced factory workers and aiding financially battered industrial communities." Chicago Tribune (January 17, 2004) C1.]

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NAFTA

"The Broken Promise of NAFTA." By Joseph Stiglitz, Former Chief Economist, World Bank. IN: New York Times (January 6, 2004) A23.

["Growth in Mexico over the past 10 years has been a bleak 1 percent on a per capita basis -- better than in much of the rest of Latin America, but far poorer than earlier in the century.... Recent moves in California to prevent illegal immigrants from receiving driver's licenses and medical care have been a depressing sign that conditions for Mexican immigrants in this country are getting worse."]

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PRIVACY

National and State Trends in Fraud and Identity Theft: January - December 2003. By the Federal Trade Commission. (The Commission, Washington, DC) January 22, 2004. 73 p.

Full Text at: www.consumer.gov/sentinel/pubs/Top10Fraud2003.pdf

["Americans reported losses of $437 million last year to identity theft and fraud as scam artists made themselves at home on the Internet, according to federal statistics.... Identity theft ... topped the list with 215,000 complaints, up 33% from the previous year." Los Angeles Times (January 23, 2004) A20.]

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TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY

Lessons from Deregulation: Telecommunications and Airlines after the Crunch. By Alfred E. Kahn, The AEI-Brookings Joint Center For Regulatory Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2004. 99 p.

Full Text at: www.aei.org/docLib/20031215_lessonsDeregulationText.pdf

["Competition Is All: Mr. Kahn assaults the widely held view that deregulation of airlines and telecoms has been a terrible failure -- and the main cause of the financial disasters lately visited on those industries.... Deregulation of the airline industry has been, he says, 'nearly unqualified success, despite the industry's unusual vulnerability to recessions, acts of terrorism and war'.... The benefits to consumers have been estimated in excess of $20 billion a year, mainly in the form of lower fares." The Economist (December 6, 2003) [online].]

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URBAN AREAS

Downturn and Recovery: Restoring Prosperity. By Bay Area Council and Bay Area Economic Forum. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) January 2004. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/BAEP_January04.pdf

[“The Bay Area’s relative productivity position worsened because home prices, already the highest in the nation, soared 14 percent from 2000 to 2002, the period examined by the study. Energy, commuting, health care and insurance costs, to cite several examples, also rose, even during the recession.” San Francisco Chronicle (January 14, 2004) 1.]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

The Education Pipeline in the United States, 1970-2000. By Walt Haney and others, National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy, Boston College. (The Board, Boston, Massachusetts) January 2004. 75 p.

Full Text at: www.bc.edu/research/nbetpp/statements/nbr3.pdf

["There is a growing bulge of students in the 9th grade, significantly fewer students reaching 10th grade, and major declines in high school graduation rates, especially in some of the nation's largest states. The study analyzes educational statistics ... to identify key transition points through which students progress, or fail to progress from kindergarten through the grades to high school graduation." Public Education Network Newsletter (January 23, 2004) 3.]

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ACADEMIC STANDARDS

The State of State Standards: Research Investigating Proficiency Levels in Fourteen States. By G. Gage Kingsbury and others, Northwest Evaluation Association. (The Association, Portland, Oregon) 2003. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.young-roehr.com/nwea/NWEA_National_Report.pdf

["There are profound differences in what's expected of students across the country and how 'proficiency' is defined, so comparable students or schools are scored differently in different states, according to this study. The variation in standards within states, subjects or grade levels can be large enough that the students or schools most 'at risk' may be misidentified." Connect for Kids (January 20, 2004).]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

"In U.S. Schools, Race Still Counts." By Caroline Hendrie. And "Stuck in Time." By Alan Richard. IN: Education Week (January 21, 2004) Online.

Full Text at: www.edweek.org/sreports/special_reports_article.cfm?slug=brown.htm

["Fifty years after racially segregated schooling was pronounced unconstitutional, one-race public schools, and even virtually one-race districts, still exist. Despite a growing number of thoroughly integrated schools, many remain overwhelmingly white or minority. And schools with many black and Hispanic children, especially if most of those pupils live in poverty, often come up short on standard measures of educational health."]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Violent Victimization of College Students: National Crime Victim Survey, 1995-2000. By Timothy Hart, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Special Report. No. NCJ 196143. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) December 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/vvcs00.pdf

["Violent Crime Against Students Drops: Colleges' heavy investment in campus security may have contributed to 40% decline. Of the nation's 7.7 million college students, an average of 526,000 a year were victims of violent crimes, the report said. The vast majority of those crimes -- 492,000 -- were committed off-campus." San Francisco Chronicle (December 8, 2003) A8.]

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Ripoff 101: How the Current Practices of the Textbook Industry Drive Up the Cost of Textbooks. By Mariah Fairchild, California Public Interest Research Group. (The Group, Sacramento, California) January 2004. 26 p.

Full Text at: calpirg.org/reports/textbookripoff.pdf

["Textbook Publishers Blasted for 'Ripping off' Students; Public Interest Group Says the Industry Uses Gimmicks and Tricks to Inflate Prices: Gimmicks include introducing frequent new editions that include only cosmetic changes and 'bundling' needed texts with supplementary extras that are virtually unused.... The report recommended a variety of changes to help students." Oakland Tribune (January 31, 2004).]

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MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

Securing America's Future: Global Education for a Global Age: Report of the Strategic Task Force on Education Abroad. By NAFSA: Association of International Educators. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2003. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.nafsa.org/content/PublicPolicy/stf/STFEAreport.pdf

["America’s ignorance of the world is now a national liability. Americans in vastly greater numbers must devote a substantive portion of their education to gaining an understanding of other countries, regions, languages, and cultures, through direct personal experience.... College and university presidents must implement strategies to encourage study abroad on a school-wide basis. They must involve the faculty, ease curricular rigidities, counter financial disincentives, and create new study abroad models and diverse study abroad options that recognize the changed demographics of U.S. higher education today and make study abroad accessible to the broadest possible spectrum of students."]

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SCHOOL FACILITIES

Energy Simulations and Projected Statewide Energy Savings. By Woody Delp and others, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (The Laboratory, Berkeley, California) 2003.

["A recent field study showed that it is possible to simultaneously increase the indoor environmental quality and energy efficiency of these portable units. California schools have an estimated 85,000 relocatable classrooms, and that number is increasing at a rate of 4,000 to 10,000 per year." E-Newsire (January 7, 2004) online]

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STUDENT LOANS

As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should Be Examined. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-101. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2003. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04101.pdf

["Costs of Student Loan Consolidation Rising: A report found that the costs of the Education Department's loan consolidation program have increased in recent years and may have eclipsed the savings garnered from fewer defaults. The number of borrowers who have consolidated student loans has nearly doubled in the past three fiscal years, to almost 1 million, while the combined value of the loans consolidated has risen 150% to $31 billion." American Banker (December 3, 2003) 18.]

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EMPLOYMENT

WAGES

Military Pay: Army National Guard Soldiers Mobilized to Active Duty Experience Significant Pay Problems. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-413T. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 28, 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04413t.pdf

["According to the report, the existing processes and controls used to pay mobilized Army National Guard personnel are so cumbersome and complex that neither the Army, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service, nor most importantly, the soldiers, can be reasonably assured of receiving timely and accurate pay to mobilized soldiers." Capitol Hill Press Releases (January 26, 2004) 1.]

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WORKERS COMPENSATION

California's Workers' Compensation Program: Changes to the Medical Payment System Should Produce Savings although Uncertainty about New Regulations and Data Limitations Prevent a more Comprehensive Analysis. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. 2003-108.2. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) January 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-108.2.pdf

["The reforms passed by the Legislature could slash the average cost of treating workplace injuries at outpatient surgical centers 58%, the Bureau of State Audits said in the first independent evaluation since the workers' comp law went on the books Jan. 1. Prescription drug costs could drop about one-quarter. The audit doesn't include projections on the total savings the law might squeeze out of the $29-billion system.." Los Angeles Times (January 28, 2004) C1.]

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ENERGY

ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Electricity Restructuring: 2003 Blackout Identifies Crisis and Opportunity for the Electricity Sector. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) November 18, 2003. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04204.pdf

["Over the past several years, our work on the electricity sector has resulted in numerous findings, conclusions, observations, and recommendations.... We highlight three themes on electricity and security matters: Electricity markets are developing, but significant challenges remain; oversight of markets and reliability needs more attention; [and] security for critical infrastructure is of growing importance."]

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

The Ten-Point Plan for Good Jobs and Energy Independence. By the Apollo Alliance. (The Alliance, New York, New York) 2004. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.apolloalliance.org/strategy_center/a_bold_energy_and_jobs_policy/ten_point_plan.cfm

["A new study by an independent economist shows that a new U.S. energy policy could create 3.3 million new jobs in the nation and achieve energy independence in 10 years. The 'New Apollo Project' was announced by a coalition of labor, environmental, civil rights, business and political leaders called the Apollo Alliance, harkening back to President Kennedy's moon program which sparked a major national commitment to the aerospace industry.... The program includes retrofitting existing buildings to improve energy efficiency and incorporate renewable energy." e-News Wire (February 4, 2004) 2.]

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable Resources Development Report. By the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) November 2003. 266 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2003-11-24_500-03-080F.PDF

["California has the potential to increase its renewable energy production 10-fold, according to a report adopted by the California Energy Commission... The report is required as part of California's new Renewable Portfolio Standard, which required that 20 percent of retail electricity sales be met with renewable resources by 2017." Natomas Journal (January 2004) 25.]

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WIND POWER

Tax and Landowner Revenue from Wind Projects. By Leslie Kaas Pollock and Troy Gagliano, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 112, No. 5. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2004. 2 p.

["The wind power industry is growing tremendously. Many wind projects are generating tax revenue for counties, school districts and townships. Since the strongest winds are found mostly in rural areas, these often economically depressed locations are reaping the benefits. Local revenue takes many forms, from property and sales taxes to construction and maintenance jobs."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

"Extinction Risk from Climate Change." By Chris D. Thomas, University of Leeds, and others. IN: Nature, vol. 427, no. 6970 (January 8, 2004) pp. 145-148.

Full Text at: www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v427/n6970/full/nature02121_fs.html&content_filetype=pdf

["If greenhouse-gas emissions are not drastically reduced, climate change will soon rival habitat loss in dooming plants and animals to extinction, scientists warned. They estimated that 18 to 35 percent of species will vanish from six broad regions of the globe over the next half-century as a result of global warming that is already under way. If the same holds true across all the world's land areas, 1 million species could die out." San Jose Mercury News (January 8, 2004) A3.]

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ENDANGERED SPECIES

Petition to the State of California Fish and Game Commission: Supporting Information for the California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense). By the Center for Biological Diversity and others. (The Center, Idyllwild, California) January 2004.

["Nine environmental groups have asked the state to award special protection to a rare salamander found in the Central Valley.... The salamander historically was found throughout the Valley in seasonal wetlands known as vernal pools. An estimated 98 percent of the state's vernal pools have been destroyed, mostly by development.... Asking for state protection could be a backup plan for environmental groups if the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ultimately decides the salamander doesn't need federal protection." Stockton Record (January 30, 2004) 1.]

Press release. 1 p.:
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/swcbd/press/cts1-29-04.htm

Petition. 127 p.:
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/swcbd/species/ctigersal/cesapetition.pdf

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ETHICS

Review of Contracting Practices at the Los Angeles World Airports. By Sjoberg Evashenk Consulting, LLC. Prepared for the Office of the Los Angeles City Controller. (The Office, Los Angeles, California) December 15, 2003. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.ci.la.ca.us/ctr/audits/ctraudits18016040_12152003.pdf

["As criticism mounts about links between campaign contributions and contract awards at City Hall, a majority of the members of the Ethics Commission endorsed a ban on political fund raising by members of the City Commission.... The debate followed a scathing audit by City Controller Laura Chick on the involvement of airport commissioners." Los Angeles Daily News (January 13, 2004) 1.]

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Developing a Local Agency Ethics Code: A Process-Oriented Guide. By JoAnne Spears and others, Institute for Local Self Government, League of California Cities. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) 2003. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.ilsg.org/userfiles/godoc/7922%2EComplete%20Developing%20Local%20Agency%20Ethics%20Code%20Guide%2Epdf

["The guide describes steps local agencies can take to adopt or update an ethics code. Recognizing that different agencies will choose to emphasize different ethical values in their codes, the guide offers a 'menu' of possible code provisions as opposed to a one-size-fits-all sample policy. The guide also discusses the pros and cons of value-based, as opposed to rule-based, ethics codes."]

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GOVERNMENT PRODUCTIVITY

The Impact of Collaborative Planning on Governance Capacity. By Judith E. Innes, University of California, Berkeley, and David E. Booher, Center for Collaborative Policy, California State University, Sacramento. Prepared for the Institute of Urban and Regional Development. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) 2003. 32 p.

Full Text at: www-iurd.ced.berkeley.edu/pub/WP-2003-03.pdf

["This paper is concerned with governance and how some new forms of collaborative dialogue, policy making, and action are filling the gaps left as our formal institutions of government are failing to carry out their responsibilities or where no agency has jurisdiction."]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Electronic Government: Potential Exists for Enhancing Collaboration on Four Initiatives. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-6. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 10, 2003. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d046.pdf

["The Office of Management and Budget has sponsored initiatives to promote expansion of electronic government.... All four of the e-government initiatives (Geospatial One-Stop, Business Gateway, e-Payroll, and Integrated Acquisition Environment) have made progress in meeting the objectives ... but competing priorities have sometimes hindered full collaboration."]

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Information Technology: Leadership Remains Key to Agencies Making Progress on Enterprise Architecture Efforts. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-40. (The Office, Washington, DC) November 17, 2003. 427 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0440.pdf

["A well-defined enterprise architecture (EA) is a blueprint for institutional modernization and evolution that consists of models describing how an entity operates, and how it intends to operate in the future.... GAO surveyed federal agencies on their EA programs and compared the results with those of a similar survey conducted in 2001.... Progress toward effective EA management is limited."]

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LOBBYING

State Political Contributions and Lobbying Laws: 2003 Guidebook. By State and Federal Communications Inc. Fourth Edition. (State Communications Inc., Akron, Ohio) 2003. 261 p.

[Includes: "Executive's Handbook on Political Contributions;" "Contributing from a Federal PAC to Non-Federal State Candidates;" "State Lobbying Laws;" "State Legislative Sessions;" "Registration Requirements;" [and] "PAC Prohibited Period."]

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STATE BUDGET

Overview of the 2004-05 Budget Bill Senate Bill 1095: As Introduced. By the Senate Committee on Budget and Fiscal Review. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) February 5, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.senate.ca.gov/ftp/SEN/COMMITTEE/STANDING/BFR/_home/Over04.html

["The Governor's proposed budget for 2004-05 identifies an accumulative General Fund deficit of $16.2 billion. In eliminating the deficit, the Governor relies on the following primary strategies: $3 billion in Economic Recovery Bond revenue proceeds ...; Spending reductions of $5.9 billion (primarily in the areas of health and human services programs, higher education, and a property tax shift from local governments to schools); Proposed 're-basing' of Proposition 98; $1.3 billion in debt service savings resulting from the longer repayment period of the Economic Recovery Bond; $950 million from the proposed suspension of Proposition 42 (Transportation Congestion Improvement Act); $950 million from a 'pension reform' package ...; $1.2 billion in other transfers, fund shifts, loans, consolidations, and cost avoidance."]

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VOTERS & VOTING

Election Reform and Electronic Voting Systems (DREs): Analysis of Security Issues. By Eric Fischer, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. RL32139. (The Service, Washington D.C.) November 4, 2003. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.epic.org/privacy/voting/crsreport.pdf

["Several proposals have been made to improve the security of DREs [direct recording electronic] and other computer-assisted voting systems. They include: (1) ensuring that accepted security protocols are followed appropriately; (2) improving security standards and certification of voting systems; (3) use of open-source computer code; and (4) improvements in verifiability and transparency."]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE FINANCE

"Health Spending Rebound Continues in 2002." By Katharine Levit. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 23, no. 1 (January/February 2004) pp. 147-159.

[“The cost of health care has continued to rise faster than the economy, forcing Americans to pay more out of their own pockets for more expensive drugs and hospital stays, the federal government reported…. Noting a rapid increase in health care spending over the past two years, the report said that U.S. health costs climbed to $1.6 trillion in 2002, or $5,440 per person.” Sacramento Bee (January 9, 2004) D1.]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Using Medicaid to Support Young Children's Healthy Mental Development. By Kay Johnson and Neva Kaye. (The Commonwealth Fund and the National Academy, Washington, DC) January 2004. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/programs/child/johnson_medicaidmentalhealth_705.pdf

["Only half of children with social or emotional problems are identified by their primary care physicians and only a fraction receive appropriate care. Under ABCD II, five states—California, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Utah—will develop models of service delivery and financing that promote healthy mental development of young children under age 5. As described in this report, such preventive care aims to improve children's developmental outcomes and readiness to learn and to prevent the need for more intensive and expensive remedial care at a later age."]

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SMOKING

"Tobacco Control in the Wake of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement." By Steven A. Schroeder. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350 no. 3 (January 15, 2004) pp. 293-301.

["The once-powerful tobacco industry has been humbled by the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. As part of the settlement, tobacco companies agreed to pay more than $200 billion to 46 states over the next 25 years." NPR (January 11, 2004) 3.]

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UNINSURED POPULATION

California's Uninsured and Medi-Cal Populations: A Policy Guide to the Estimates. By Claudia L. Schur and others. Prepared for the California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) January 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/insurance/CPSDataGuide.pdf

["This guide offers practical recommendations to using recent estimates on the uninsured from the Current Population Survey and the California Health Care Interview Survey. With the variation in the quality of surveys, the data are subject to considerable uncertainty and estimates should be viewed as approximation. When two surveys support each other, analysts can feel most confident in the results."]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Locked Out 2004: California's Affordable Housing Crisis. By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) January 2004. 36 p.

["California continues to suffer from a lack of housing that is affordable for even middle-income families. Many renters pay far too large a share of their incomes for rent, and Californians face some of the nation's least affordable homeownership markets, making it difficult for young families to achieve the 'American Dream.' While the poorest households face the most severe housing problems, millions of California's middle-income households also face substantial difficulties in finding shelter they can afford. This report details the struggles of lower- and middle-income families to afford housing and examines the causes of the state’s housing crisis."]

Key Findings. 1 p.:
http://www.cbp.org/2004/keyfindings-lockedout.pdf

Fact Sheet: Inland Empire. 1 p.:
http://www.cbp.org/2004/fact-inland.pdf"

Fact Sheet: Orange County. 1 p.:
http://www.cbp.org/2004/fact-orange.pdf

Fact Sheet: San Diego. 1 p.:
http://www.cbp.org/2004/fact-sandiego.pdf

Full Report. 36 p.:
http://www.cbp.org/2004/lockedout2004.pdf

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HOUSING

December 2003 CSUS Forecast of the Sacramento Region: Housing Sector Outlook. By the California Institute for County Government, California State University, Sacramento. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) December 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cicg.org/forecast/dec03sh/

["Sales of new and existing homes will remain strong throughout 2004, but will decrease slightly compared to the record levels of 2003. Job losses in the Sacramento region and the prospect of increasing interest rates will act together to slow somewhat the pace of home sales in the six county region, including Sacramento, Placer, El Dorado, Yolo, Sutter, and Yuba Counties."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

Moving Beyond Welfare: What Do We Know about Former CalWORKS Recipients? By California Budget Project. Welfare Reform Update. (The Project, Sacramento, California) December 2003. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/0312leaversupdate.pdf

["California's welfare rolls have dropped by almost 40 percent since the state's welfare-to-work program began in 1998, and about half of the people who have left public assistance said they were employed.... The state's welfare-to-work program ... 'has been less successful moving people into jobs that can support a family,' said Scott Graves of the Budget Project, a group that advocates for poor and middle-income families." Sacramento Bee (January 6, 2004) A3.]

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CHARITIES

Faith-Based Initiatives in Social Services. By Courtney L. Harrison, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. No. 12, No. 6. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2004. 2 p.

["Although many states are reaching out to religious service providers as partners, the development of such relationships remains controversial. Concerns include the availability of secular alternatives, government oversight of faith-based service providers and the ability of religious organizations to discriminate in their hiring practices.... In contrast, tight state budgets are motivating some legislators to look to faith-based service providers to supplement existing government services."]

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CHILDREN

State Budget Gaps Still Squeezing Services For Children and Families. By Connect For Kids. (Connect For Kids, Washington, DC) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: 216.198.222.116/StateGap/slide1.htm

["State and local finances continue to face the most severe crisis in recent times. Despite some signs that the worst is over, children, families and communities are likely to feel the pain from state budget shortfalls for some time in health care, public school funding and public colleges."]

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FAMILIES

Who Are 'Fragile Families' and What Do We Know About Them? By Mary Parke, Center for Law and Social Policy. Policy Brief No. 4. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1073679033.53/Marriage_Brief4.pdf

["Nearly one-third of all births now occur to unmarried parents -- creating what have been called 'fragile families.' The term 'fragile families' emphasizes both that these unmarried couples and their children are, in fact, families and that they are at greater risk of poverty and of family dissolution than married families. This policy brief summarizes selected findings from two [earlier] studies." CLASP website (January 13, 2004) online.]

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FOSTER CARE

Nation's Child Welfare System Doubles Number of Adoptions from Foster Care. By the Children and Family Research Center, School of Social Work, University of Illinois. (The Center, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois) 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.foundationconsortium.org/pdf/fostercare.pdf

["The 1997 passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act offered states financial bonuses for each year they increased their adoption rates. Five years later, 33 states and the District of Columbia have doubled the number of children adopted from the states' foster care systems. The center analyzes each state's performance under the Act's incentive program." Youth Today (December/January 2004) 30.]

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SINGLE-MOTHERS

Lifting the Lid off the Family Cap: States Revisit Problematic Policy for Welfare Mothers. By Jodie Levin-Epstein, Center for Law and Social Policy. Childbearing and Reproductive Health Series. Brief No. 1. (The Center, Washington, DC) December 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1071852641.91/family_cap_brf.pdf

["Since 1992, 24 states have implemented some type of a family cap policy, usually to discourage welfare recipients from giving birth to children while receiving cash assistance.... This policy brief explains what family cap policies are, reviews some of the research on their effectiveness, explains how many families are affected by them, describes challenges that have been mounted against these policies, and recommends that states with family caps consider repealing these mistaken and potentially harmful policies." CLASP Mailing (December 19, 2003) 1.]

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WELFARE

Child Welfare: Improved Federal Oversight Could Assist States in Overcoming Key Challenges. By Cornelia M. Ashby, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues. GAO-04-418T. (U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC) January 28, 2004. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04418t.pdf

["States administer the child welfare services that protect abused and neglected children -- but they could use more help from the federal government, according to the General Accounting Office. A new report examines Title IV-B of the Social Security Act -- a relatively small piece of the overall child welfare pie that funds a variety of services to protect children -- and finds that the federal government could provide more in-depth oversight to help states address challenges and do a better job. Chief among challenges state face are: hiring, training, and retaining workforces; completing effective computer systems; ensuring that data is accurate and timely; and accurately assessing needs and tailoring services to best fit the needs." Connect for Kids Weekly (February 2, 2004) 1.]

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INSURANCE

INSURANCE INDUSTRY

The Life Insurance Regulation Compact. By Cheye Calvo, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 3. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2004. 2 p.

["The U.S. Senate is considering legislation that would completely federalize insurance regulation and eliminate the state system.... NCSL and insurance commissioners believe that the compact is the best way to preserve state insurance regulation while raising consumer protections, improving the quality of product review, and providing insurance companies the regulatory efficiency that they need to compete in the modern financial services marketplace."]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Highly Affected, Rarely Considered: Report on the Impacts of Globalisation on Young People. Edited by James Arvanitakis, International Youth Parliament Commission. (The Commission, Sydney, Australia) 2003. 169 p.

Full Text at: www.iyp.oxfam.org/campaign/documents/youth_commission_report/Highly_Affected_Rarely_Considered.pdf

["This report addresses 11 issues where, according to the Commission, the process of economic globalization has most significantly affected young people. Issues include access to education, trafficking of women, violence and water security." Youth Today (December/January 2004) 31.]

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TRANSPORTATION

AUTOMOBILE SAFETY

Cell Phones and Highway Safety: 2003 State Legislative Update. By Matt Sundeen, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) December 2003. 21 p.

["Although opinions differ over which distractions cause the most crashes, one activity has drawn the bulk of the attention from lawmakers.... Since 1999, every state has considered legislation related to driver use of wireless phones." Includes: "State Action;" "Federal Action;" "Local Action;" "International Action;" "Enforcement and Effectiveness;" "Driver Education;" and "Legal Liability."]

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FEDERAL POLICY

Highways and Transit: Leveling the Playing Field in Federal Transportation Policy. By Edward Beimborn and Robert Puentes, The Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) December 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/es/urban/publications/20031215_Beimborn.pdf

["Federal transportation policy is essentially an unfair competition between highways and transit. Despite a number of reforms in the past decade, federal rules remain stacked against transit, and funding highway projects is far easier. This brief compares how new transit and highway programs are treated differently by federal legislation and policy and how those differences lead to an unlevel playing field, distorting good local planning, management, and decision making."]

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HIGHWAY SAFETY

State Alcohol Related Fatality Rates 2002. By the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation. (National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Washington, DC) 2003. 119 p.

Full Text at: www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/Rpts/2003/809-673-color.pdf

["Alcohol-related traffic death rates increased or held steady in 19 states between 1998 and 2002." FindLaw (December 18, 2003)]

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HIGHWAYS

Comparison of States' Highway Construction Costs. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-04-113R. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2003. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04113r.pdf

["FHWA's [Federal Highway Administration] database allows for comparisons of individual states costs over time but does not allow for comparisons between states. In addition, FHWA has concerns about the quality of the data....In order to determine whether continued federal and state efforts to provide and analyze state construction cost data are warranted, we recommend that the Secretary of Transportation direct the Federal Highway Administrator to determine whether the bid price data collected by FHWA is useful to transportation stakeholders."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

JUVENILES

"Correlates of Reduced Misconduct among Adolescents Facing Adversity." By Jennifer A. Schmidt. IN: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 32, no. 6 (December 2003) pp. 439-452.

["This study examined the association between engagement in daily challenges and school misconduct in a sample of adolescents... The report indicates that opportunity, engagement, and success in challenges are associated with reduced misconduct, particularly among adolescents who face substantial adversities at home or in school." Children of Prisoners.cwla.org (December 5, 2003) 1.]

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VIOLENCE

"Exposure to Violence and Psychosocial Adjustment among Urban School-Aged Children." By O. Purugganan and others. IN: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 24, no. 6 (December 2003) pp. 424-430.

["Children who are victims of or observe violence exhibit more behavior problems than other children according to this study.... Those children who were direct victims of violence had the most behavioral problems, followed by those who were direct witnesses. Eighteen percent of the victims and 12 percent of the witnesses reached the clinical cut off point for psychological maladjustment, while none of the children exposed to violence via reports of others or through the media scored poorly enough to meet the same cut off standard." CDF Violence Prevention Listserv (January 16, 2003).]

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EDUCATION

CAMPUS DISCIPLINE

"Bullying in Schools Pervasive, Disruptive and Serious." By Jaana Juvonen, University of California, Los Angeles, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 112, no. 6 (December 2003) pp. 1231-1237.

["A recent study by the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion found that bullying is a very common and disturbing problem in schools. One in five 12-year-olds in the study committed acts of bullying, were victims of bullies, or both.... Children who act as bullies and are also victims of bullies have characteristics of a very high-risk group for problems in school."]

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ENERGY

ALTERNATIVE FUELS

The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. By Joseph J. Romm. (Island Press, Covelo, California) April 2004. 240 p.

["Joseph Romm, who oversaw energy efficiency programs in the U.S. Department of Energy during the Clinton administration, said he counts himself a proponent of new technologies. But Romm ... said the fuel (hydrogen) will not be used to run passenger cars in significant numbers before 2030. He said the most viable step away from gasoline-powered cars -- hybrid vehicles ... is already here." Los Angeles Times (January 20, 2004) online. NOTE: The Hype About Hydrogen ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

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HEALTH

OBESITY

"State-Level Estimates of Annual Medical Expenditures Attributable to Obesity." By Eric A. Finkelstein and others. IN: Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 1 (January 2004) pp. 18-24.

["The cost of obesity is enormous in California and around the country, a new study says. Taxpayers nationwide spent $75 billion in Medicaid and Medicare funds treating obesity-related illnesses in 2003, according to a federal report.... The amount of Medicare and Medicaid money spent on obesity-related illnesses is slightly less than that spent on smoking related illnesses. Smokers account for 6% to 8% of such medical expenditures and obesity about 6%; injuries account for 10% of that spending, he said." Los Angeles Times (January 22,2004) A1.]

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